Jamáíkà

Lát'ọwọ́ Wikipedia, ìwé ìmọ̀ ọ̀fẹ́
(Àtúnjúwe láti Jamaica)
Lọ sí: atọ́ka, àwárí
Jamáíkà
Àsìá
Motto"Out of Many, One People"
Orin-ìyìn orílẹ̀-èdè"Jamaica, Land We Love"
Orin-ìyìn ọba"God Save the Queen"
Olúìlú
(àti ìlú títóbijùlọ)
Kingston
17°59′N 76°48′W / 17.983°N 76.8°W / 17.983; -76.8
Èdè oníbiṣẹ́ English
National language Jamaican Patois
Àwọn ẹ̀yà ènìyàn  91.2% black, 6.2% mixed, 2.6% other[1]
Orúkọ aráàlú Ará Jamaica
Ìjọba Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy
 -  Obailu Elizabeth II
 -  Gomina-Agba Patrick Allen
 -  Alakoso Agba Portia Simpson-Miller
Ilominira
 -  latodo United Kingdom 6 August 1962 
Ààlà
 -  Àpapọ̀ iye ààlà 11,100 km2 (166th)
4,444 ) sq mi 
 -  Omi (%) 1.5
Alábùgbé
 -  Ìdíye July 2009 2,825,928[1] (133rd)
 -  Ìṣúpọ̀ olùgbé 252/km2 (49th)
656/sq mi
GIO (PPP) ìdíye 2009
 -  Iye lápapọ̀ $23.797 billion[2] 
 -  Ti ẹnikọ̀ọ̀kan $8,777[2] 
GIO (onípípè) Ìdíye 2009
 -  Àpapọ̀ iye $11.903 billion[2] 
 -  Ti ẹnikọ̀ọ̀kan $4,390[2] 
Gini (2000) 37.9 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.766[3] (medium) (100th)
Owóníná Jamaican dollar (JMD)
Àkókò ilẹ̀àmùrè (UTC-5)
Ìwakọ̀ ní ọwọ́ osi
Àmìọ̀rọ̀ Internet .jm
Àmìọ̀rọ̀o tẹlifóònù +1-876

Jamáíkà (pípè /dʒəˈmeɪkə/) je orile-ede erekusu ni Antilles Gbangba, to je 234 kilometres (145 miles) ni gigun ati bi 80 kilometres (50 miles) ni fife, ti isodipupo won je 11,100 km2. O budo sinu Okun Karibeani, bi 145 kilometres (90 miles) guusu Kuba, ati 190 kilometres (120 miles) iwoorun Hispaniola, erekusu to je ile fun awon orileabinibi-ileijoba Haiti ati Orile-ede Olominira Dominiki. Awon elede Arawak abinibi eya Taíno ti won gbe nibe pe oruko erekusu ohun ni Xaymaca, to tumosi "Ile Igi ati Omi", tabi "Ile Isun Omi".[4]

Nigba kan bi ini Spein ti won si pe ibe ni Santiago, ni 1655 o di ibiamusin Ilegeesi, ati leyin eyi o di ti Britani, toruko re n je "Jamaica". Pelu awon eniyan ti won to egbegberun 2.8, o je orile-ede keta eledegeesi to ni awon eniyan pipojulo ni orile Amerika, leyin awon orile-ede Iparapo awon Ipinle ati Kanada. O wa ninu ile Ajoni pelu Queen Elizabeth II bi Olori Orile-ede. Kingston ni ilu titobijulo ati oluilu re.

Itan[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Awon eya abinibi Arawak ati Taino ti won gbera lati Guusu Amerika budo sori erekusu na larin odun 4000 ati 1000 kJ.[5] Nigbati Christopher Columbus de be ni 1494 o ba awon abule to ju 200 lo nibe ti won ni awon olori abule nibe. Ebado guusu Jamaika je ibi ti awon eniyan posijulo nigbana, agaga layika agbegbe ti a mo loni bi Old Harbour.[5] Awon Tainos si je onibugbe Jamaika nigbati awon Geesi gba idari ibe.[5] Jamaican National Heritage Trust nsise lati wari, ki won o si sakosile eri yiowu toba le wa nipa awon Taino/Arawaks.[6] Christopher Columbus gba Jamaica fun Spein leyin to bale sibe ni 1494. O se e se ko je pe ibi ti Columbus bale si ni Dry Harbour, loni to n je Discovery Bay. Maili kan ni iwoorun St. Ann's Bay ni ibi ibudo akoko awon ara Spein lori erekusu na, Sevilla, ti won pati ni 1554 nitori opo awon olosa ti won ja be.

Won ko oluilu ibe lo si Spanish Town, loni to budo si parish of St. Catherine, lati odun 1534. Leyin eyi won pe ni "Villa de la Vega". Spanish Town ni o ni Ile isin to pejulo larin awon ibiamusin Britani. Awon ara Ilegeesi fi tipatipa le awon ara Spein kuro ni Ocho Rios ni St. Ann. Sugbon, o di odun 1655, ni Tower Isle, ki awon ara Ilegeesi o to gba ogba ologun awon ara Spein to gbeyin ni Jamaica. Omo Spein to n je Don Cortez Arnoldo de Yassi da abo bo Tower Hill (ibi ti Tower Isle wa) lowo awon ara Ilegeesi fun odun marun, ki o to salo si Kuba. Ibi to gba salo ni won n pe ni "Runaway Bay", eyi na wa ni St. Ann. Oruko Montego Bay, to je oluilu parish St. James, wa lati oruko lede Spein manteca bahía (tabi Bay of Lard) fun opo iye pupo boar ti won n lo fun lard-making industry.[7]

Caribbean pirate]] and privateer who had arrived in the West Indies as an indentured servant, like many of the early settlers.[8]

Ara Ilegeesi Admiral William Penn (baba William Penn ti Pennsylvania) ati Ogagun Robert Venables gba erekusu yi ni 1655. Ni 1660, iye awon eniyan ni Jamaika je 4,500 awon alawo funfun ati bi 1,500 melo awon alawo dudu.[9] Lati bi awon odun 1670, awon eniyan alawo dudu ni won je ogunlogo iye awon eniyan nibe.[10]

Nigba ti awon ara Ilegeesi gba Jamaika ni 1655 olumusin ara Spein sa kuro nibe won si fi opolopo awon omo eru won lati Afrika seyin. Ki awon ara Ilegeesi o mo baa tun mu won leru, won salo si agbegbe oke alapata ni ori erekusu yi, nibi ti won ti darapo mo awon miran ti awon na ti sa kuro lowo awon ara Spein tele lati lo gbe pelu awon Taínos. Awon eru ti won ti salo wonyi je mimo bi Jamaican Maroons, koja lu awon ara Britani ni orundun 18th. Awon iran won si n je oruko yi titi doni. Nigba oko eru awon Maroon sedasile agbajo alominira larin inu oke ile Jamaica niran deran. Nigba awon odun 200 akoko ijoba Britani, Jamaika di ikan ninu awon orile-ede to siwaju lagbaye to n ta suga ati to n lo eru, nipa sise iye to ju toonu 77,000 suga lo lododun larin 1820 ati 1824. Leyin ipare owo eru (eyi yato si oko eru gan ti won ko pare) ni 1807,[11] awon ara Britani mu awon ara India ati ara Saina wa bi awon oniwofa lati sise. Awon omo-omo awo awon oniwofa lti Asia yi si wa ni Jamaika titi doni.

Nigba to fi di ibere orundun 19th, nitoripe Jamaica gbokan le oko eru eyi ki awon eniyan alawodudu (awon ara Afrika) o poju awon eniyan alawofunfun (awon ara Europe) lo ni ipin 20 si 1. Botilejepe awon Ilegeesi ti fi ofinde owo eru, ifayawo won si awon ibiamusin si tun sele nigbana. Ijoba Britani se ofin to lana ipare oko eru, sugbon won tun lana lati se imudara igbe awon eru ibe. Ninu awon ilanna yi ni ifofinde lilo egba ninu oko, ifofinde nina awon obinrin, ikede pe awon eru gbodo je gbigba laye lati gba ilana esin, ipondandan pe awon eru gbodo ni ojo kan ninu ose lati ta awon ogbin oko won, bakanna won si tun fofinde awon oja ojo Aiku.

Map of Jamaica

Sugbon ni Jamaika, awon ilana yi je lilodi di latowo Ile-igbimo Asofin. Ileigbimo yi so pe awon eru nitelorun ara won, won si lodi si itowobo Ileasofin si oro to n lo ni erekusu ohun, botilejepe opo awon to ni eru n beru pe ijidide awon eru le se.

Leyin opolopo aigboran ati iyipada iwuwa ni Britani Olokiki, won fofinde oko eru ni 1834, pelu ifisile patapata lowo idekun eru ni 1838. Iye awon eniyan ibe ni 1834 je 371,070 ninu awon ti 15,000 je alawofunfun, 5,000 je eniyan alawodudu alominira, 40,000 eya adalu, ati 311,070 eru.[9]

Ni awon odun 1800, Britani sedasile iye awon ogba eweko. Ikan ninu won ni Castleton Garden, to je didakale ni 1862 lati dipo Bath Garden (to je dida ni 1779) ti agbara omi baje. Bath Garden ni ibi ogbin breadfruit ti won je mimuwa si Jamaica lati Pacific latowo Captain William Bligh. Awon ogba miran tun ni Cinchona Plantation ti won dasile ni 1868 ati Hope Garden ti won dasile ni 1874. Ni 1872, Kingston di oluilu erekusu na.

Ni 1945, Sir Horace Hector Hearne di Onidajo Agba ati Olutoju Akosile ni Jamaika. O solori Ile-Ejo Gigajulo, Kingston larin 1945 ati 1950/1951. Ibe lo gba lo si Kenya nibi ti won ti yan bi Onidajo Agba.

Jamaican Prime Minister Michael Manley and his wife with US president Jimmy Carter in 1977.

Diedie Jamaika gba ilominira lopo lowo Iparapo Ileoba be sini ni 1958, o di igberiko ninu Federation of the West Indies, ile apapo kan ni larin awon British West Indies. Jamaika gba iominira patapata nigba to fi ile apapo yi sile ni 1962.

Okowo to n posi daada bi 6% lodoodun, lo sele ni odun mewa akoko leyin ilominira labe ijoba ti awon Alakoso AgbaAlexander Bustamante, Donald Sangster ati Hugh Shearer solo ri sirere. Ohun to fa iposi yi ni inawolori daada si bauxite/alumina, isebewo, ile-ise elero ati, ni bi die apa ise agbe.



Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named WorldFactbook
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Jamaica". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2007&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=343&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=108&pr.y=11. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  3. "Human Development Report 2009: Jamaica". The United Nations. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/country_fact_sheets/cty_fs_JAM.html. Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  4. {{cite web|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20071016055722/http://www.uctp.org/VocesIndigena.html |title= Taíno Dictionary |illistrator= The United Confederation of Taíno People |accessdate=2007- 10-18|language=Spanish}}
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 [http://www.jamaicans.com/articles/primearticles/taino.shtml "The Taino of Jamaica (Jamaica)"]. Jamaicans.com. 2001-04-01. http://www.jamaicans.com/articles/primearticles/taino.shtml. Retrieved 2009-07-04. 
  6. [http://web.archive.org/web/20070928013715/http://www.jnht.com/archaeology/barbican_rescue.php Jamaican National Heritage Trust]
  7. {{cite web|url=http://www.mobay.com/town4.htm |title=Town of Montego Bay info |publisher=Mobay.com |date=2007-05-07 |accessdate=2009-07-04}}
  8. [http://www.historynet.com/henry-morgan-the- pirate-who-invaded-panama-in-1671.htm Henry Morgan: The Pirate Who Invaded Panama in 1671]. Historynet.com.
  9. 9.0 9.1 [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08270a.htm Donovan, J. (1910). Jamaica. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company].
  10. [http://archive.is/20120711193645/findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2005/is_n1_v28/ai_16106981/pg_2 A failed settler society: marriage and demographic failure in early Jamaica], Journal of Social History, Fall, 1994, by Trevor Burnard
  11. The Sugar Revolutions and Slavery, U.S. Library of Congress