Ṣalanga oniho

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Yiya ṣalanga oniho ti o rorun pẹlu bibẹrẹ ati ile lori.[1]

Ṣalanga oniho tabi ile igbọnsẹ oniho jẹ irufẹ ile igbọnsẹ ti o n gba igbọnsẹ eniyan sinu iho ilẹ. Wọn le malo omi tabi ki wọn fomi fọ lẹhin ti ẹni mẹta gbọnsẹ sinu ile igbọnsẹ oniho.[2] Bi wọn ba kọ daradara ti wọn ṣetọju rẹ daradara wọn le din ajakalẹ arun ku nipa didinku iye igbọnsẹ eniyan ni awujo lati igbọnsẹ sita gbangba.[3][4] Eyi din atankalẹ ti awọn kokoro atan arun laarin igbẹ ati ounjẹ nipasẹ awọn kokoro.[3] Awọn awọn kokoro atan arun ni okunfa gan ti akoran igbe gbuuru ati aisan aran inu.[4] Akoran igbe gbuuru ṣokunfa iku 0.7 miliọnu awọn ọmọde labẹ ọdun marun ni 2011 ati 250 miliọnu padanu lilọ ile ẹkọ.[4][5] Ṣalanga oniho jẹ ọna ti owo rẹ ko han lati ya igbẹ sọtọ kuro lọdọ awọn eniyan.[3]

Ṣalanga oniho lapapọ ni ipa mẹta Pataki: iho ninu ilẹ, okuta pẹlẹbẹ tabi ilẹ ti o ni iho diẹ, ati ile lori.[2] Iho yii jẹ o kere ni pataki 3 mita (10 iwọn ẹsẹ) jijin ati 1 m (3.2 iwọn ẹsẹ) nibu.[2] Ajọ Ilera Agbaye bọwọlu ki wọn kọ ni iwọn ti o jinna diẹ sile ti yoo funni ni irorun ibẹwo ati oorun.[3] Jijina lati omi ilẹ ati omi orile gbọdọ tobi to eyi ti yoo din ewo eeri ku . Iho inu okuta ko gbọdọ tobi ju 25 sẹntimita (9.8 inṣi) lati majẹ ki awọn ọmọde ṣubu sinu rẹ. Ina ko gbọdọ wọnu rẹ lati din awọn kokoro ku ni wiwọ inu rẹ. Eyi le nilo lilo ohun kan lati bo ori iho ori ilẹ nigba ti wọn ko balo.[3] Nigba ti ṣalanga ba kun de 0.05 mita (1.6 iwọn ẹsẹ) lori, a gbọdọ ko tabi ki a kọ omiran ki a gbe ile rẹ kuro tabi tunkọ si ibi titun.[6] Ibojuto yiyọ ohun ibori lori ṣalanga lera. Ewu awujọ ati ilera wa bi a kobaṣe daradara.

Ọna oriṣi ni a le gba ṣabojuto ṣalanga oniho kekere. Ọkan ni fifi irin paipu alatẹgun lati inu ṣalanga jade sita rẹ. Eyi mu atẹgun rọrun lati fẹ jade ati didin oorun ni ile igbọnsẹ naa. O tun le din awọn kokoro ku nigba ti a ba bo ori paipu naa pẹlu apapo (eyi ti a saba maa n fi gilaasi faiba ṣe). Nirufẹ awọn ile igbọnsẹ yii a ko gbọdọ fi ọmọri bo iho ti ori ilẹ.[6] Ọna ti o dara miiran ni ile ti a ṣe ki awọn omi le maa gba si inu iho ati mimule apa oke ṣalanga pẹlu biriki tabi sọmẹnti lati mu duro gbigi.[2][6]

Ni 2013 ṣalanga oniho jẹ eyi ti 1.77 biliọnu awọn eniyan nlo.[7] Eyi wọpọ ninu agbaye ti o n dagba ati pẹlu agbegbe igberiko ati aginju. Ni 2011 awọn eniyan bi 2.5 biliọnu ni koni anfaani si ojulowo ile igbọnsẹ ati biliọnu kan jasi igbọnsẹ sita ni awọn ayika.[8] Guusu Asia ati Iha Aṣalẹ Afirika ni o ni anfaani ti o buruju si ile igbọnsẹ.[8] Ni awọn orilẹ-ede ti o n dagba iye owo ṣalanga igbọnsẹ kekere wa laarin 25 ati 60 USD.[9] Iye owo abojuto lọwọlọwo wa laarin 1.5 ati 4 USD lori ẹnikọọkan lọdun eyi ti a kii kasi.[10] Ni awọn apakan igberiko India ipolongo "Kosi Ile igbọnsẹ, Kosi Iyawo" ni a tin lo lati ṣemularugẹ awọn ile igbọnsẹ nipa gbigba awọn obinrin niyanju lati kọ lati fẹ ọkunrin ti koni ile igbọnsẹ.[11][12]

Awọn Itọkasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. WEDC. Okuta pẹlẹbẹ ori ṣalanga: ilana onimọ ẹrọ, WEDC Guide 005. pp. 22. ISBN 978 1 84380 143 6. http://wedc.lboro.ac.uk/resources/booklets/G005-Latrine-slabs-on-line.pdf. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Tilley, E., Ulrich, L., Lüthi, C., Reymond, Ph. and Zurbrügg, C. (2014). Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (2 ed.). Dübendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). ISBN 9783906484570. http://www.sandec.ch/compendium. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "Ṣalanga oniho to rọrun (iwe ijẹri 3.4)". who.int. 1996. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Call to action on sanitation" (pdf). United Nations. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  5. Walker, CL; Rudan, I; Liu, L; Nair, H; Theodoratou, E; Bhutta, ZA; O'Brien, KL; Campbell, H et al. (Apr 20, 2013). Lancet 381 (9875): 1405–16. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60222-6. PMID 23582727. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 François Brikké. Linking technology choice with operation and maintenance in the context of community water supply and sanitation Siso aayo tẹkinọloji pẹlu ilo ati itọju ni akoonu ti ipese omi ilu ati imọtoto. Ajọ Ilera Agbaye. p. 108. ISBN 9241562153. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2003/9241562153.pdf. 
  7. Graham, JP; Polizzotto, ML. Awọn iwo ilera agbegbe 121 (5): 521–30. doi:10.1289/ehp.1206028. PMID 23518813. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 (pdf) Iṣagbekalẹ ilọsiwaju lori imọtoto ati omi-mimu - 2014.. WHO. pp. 16–20. ISBN 9789241507240. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/JMP_report_2014_webEng.pdf. 
  9. Selendy, Janine M. H.. Awọn arun ajọmọ omi ati imọtoto ati idojukọ awujọ, awọn idasi, ati awọn ọna idẹkun. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 25. ISBN 9781118148600. http://books.google.ca/books?id=nZlS4ZfUOZUC&pg=PA25. 
  10. . Intl Water Assn. 2013. p. 161. ISBN 9781780405414. http://books.google.ca/books?id=_CkDAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA161. 
  11. Awọn Iṣoro Agbaye, Awọn Ọna abayọ To ja fafa: Awọn iye Owo ati Awọn Anfaani. Cambridge University Press. p. 623. ISBN 9781107435247. http://books.google.ca/books?id=g9tRAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA623. 
  12. Stopnitzky, Yaniv. "Awọn obinrin Haryan scarce sọ fun awọn ojulowo ọkọ afẹsọna: "Kosi ile igbọnsẹ, kosi mogba"". Development Impact. Ile Ifowopamọsi Agbaye. Retrieved 17 November 2014.  Unknown parameter |deeti= ignored (help)