Kòlómbìà

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Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìnira ilẹ̀ Kòlómbìà
Republic of Colombia
República de Colombia  (Híspánì)
Àsìá Àmì ọ̀pá àṣẹ
Motto"Libertad y Orden"  (Híspánì)
"Liberty and Order"
Orin-ìyìn orílẹ̀-èdè¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible!  (Híspánì)
O unfading glory!

Olúìlú
(àti ìlú títóbijùlọ)
Bogotá
4°39′N 74°3′W / 4.65°N 74.05°W / 4.65; -74.05
Èdè oníbiṣẹ́ Spanish1
Àwọn èdè dídámọ̀ níbẹ̀ The languages and dialects of ethnic groups are also official in their territories.[1]
Àwọn ẹ̀yà ènìyàn  58% Mestizo
21% Afro Colombian
20% White
1% Amerindian[2]
Orúkọ aráàlú Ará Kòlómbìà
Ìjọba Unitary presidential republic
 -  President Juan Manuel Santos
 -  Vice President Angelino Garzón
Independence From Spain 
 -  Declared July 20, 1810 
 -  Recognized August 7, 1819 
 -  Current constitution 1991 
Ààlà
 -  Àpapọ̀ iye ààlà 1,138,910 km2 (26th)
439,736 sq mi 
 -  Omi (%) 8.8
Alábùgbé
 -  Ìdíye March 2010 45,393,050[3] (29th)
 -  2005 census 42,888,592[3] 
 -  Ìṣúpọ̀ olùgbé 40/km2 (168th)
104/sq mi
GIO (PPP) ìdíye 2009
 -  Iye lápapọ̀ $401.966 billion[4] 
 -  Ti ẹnikọ̀ọ̀kan $9,200[4] 
GIO (onípípè) Ìdíye 2009
 -  Àpapọ̀ iye $228.836 billion[4] 
 -  Ti ẹnikọ̀ọ̀kan $5,087[4] 
Gini (2006) 52 (high
HDI (2007) 0.807 (high) (77th)
Owóníná Peso (COP)
Àkókò ilẹ̀àmùrè (UTC-52)
Ìdá ọjọ́ọdún dd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Ìwakọ̀ ní ọwọ́ otun
Àmìọ̀rọ̀ Internet .co
Àmìọ̀rọ̀o tẹlifóònù +57
1 Although the Colombian Constitution does not specify the Spanish as official language in all its territory, the native languages (approximately 75 dialects) are also official in their own territories.
2 The official Colombian time, (horalegal.sic.gov.co) is controlled and coordinated by the state agency "Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio".[5]

Kòlómbìà (pípè /kəˈlʌmbiə/), fun onibis bi Orile-ede Olominira ile Kolombia (Spánì: República de Colombia, pronounced [reˈpuβlika ðe koˈlombja]  ( listen)), je orile-ede olominira onilana-ibagbepo ni ariwaapaiwoorun Guusu Amerika. Kolombia ni bode ni ilaorun pelu Venezuela[6] ati Brazil;[7] ni guusu pelu Ecuador ati Peru;[8] ni ariwa pelu Okun Karibeani; ni ariwailaorun pelu Panama; ati ni iwoorun pelu Okun Pasifiki. Bakanna Kolombia tun pin bode odo pelu Venezuela, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominiki Olominira, Honduras, Nicaragua ati Costa Rica.[9][10] Pelu iye awon eniyan to to egbegberun 45, Kolombia ni iye eniyan 29th titobijulo lagbaye ati ikeji titobijulo ni Guusu Amerika, leyin Brazil.

Agbegbe ti a n pe ni Kolombia loni koko je ibugbe awon ara abibibi bi Muisca, Quimbaya, ati Tairona. Awon ara Spein debe ni 1499 won si bere isegun ati iseamusinibe, won fikupa tabi se ikoleru bi 90% awon eniyan ibe, nigbana ni won sedasile Ibasorun ile Grenada Tuntun (to ni ile odeoni Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, ariwaiwoorun agbegbe ile Brazil ati Panama) pelu oluilu re ni Bogotá.[11] Ilominira latowo Spain waye ni 1819, sugbon ni 1830 "Gran Colombia" daru eyi fa ki Venezuela ati Ecuador o pinya soto. Awon ti a mo loni bi Kolombia ati Panama di Orile-ede Olominira ile Grenada Tuntun. Orile-ede tuntun yi sedanwo ijoba isealapapo gege bi Ijosepapo Grenada (1858), ati leyin re bi Iparapo awon Ipinle Kolombia (1863), ki o to dipe won kede Orile-ede Olominira ile Kolombia nigbeyin ni 1886.[2] Panama pinya ni 1903 labe ifitipatipa sanwo fun ijoba orile-ede Amerika lati ko Ìladò Panamá.

Orisun itumo oruko[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Oro to n je Kolombia wa lati oruko Christopher Columbus (Spani: Cristóbal Colón). Francisco de Miranda lo koko lo lati fi tokasi gbogbo ile Agbaye Tuntun. Ni 1819 Gran Kolombia gba bi oruko re nigba to je didasile latinu awon agegbe Viceroyalty of New Granada tele (Kolombia, Panama, Venezuela ati Ekuador loni).[12]

Jeografi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]


Shaded relief map of Colombia

Kolombia ni bode ni ilaorun mo Venezuela ati Brazil; ni guusu mo Ecuador ati Peru; ni ariwa mo Panama ati Omi-okun Karibeani; besini ni iwoorun mo Ekuador ati Okun Pasifiki.

Kolombia wa ni ibi ti an pe ni Oruka Ina Pasifiki, ibi ileaye to ni opo iminle ati okeileru, o tun ni awon oke Andes.

Itan[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Igba Isaaju-Kolombia[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Nibi odun 10,000 kJ, awon awujo ode ati akoeran wa nitosi ii ti Bogotá wa loni (ni "El Abra" ati "Tequendama") ti won sowo pelu ara won ati awon awujo miran ni Afonifoji Odo Magdalena Valley.[13] Bere ni egberundun akoko kJ, awon adipo awon omo Amerindia sedagbasoke sistemu oloselu to n je "cacicazgo" pelu opo agba bi piramidi, eyun latoke wa sisale ti awon olori re unje "cacique". Ninu Kolombia awon asa meji pelu sistemu cacicazgo lilojujulo ni awon Tayrona ni Agbegbe Karibeani, ati awon Muiska nibi awon ileoke layika Bogotá, awon mejeji ti won je ti ebi ede Chibcha. Awon Muiska ni won je gbigba bi awon ti won ni sistemu oloselu adagbasoke julo ni Guuusu Amerika leyin awon Inka.[14]

Iwari, ibori ati imunisin latowo awon ara Spein[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Awon oluwakiri ara Spein gunle si etiodo guusu Karibeani ni 1499 pelu Rodrigo de Bastidas bi olori won. Christopher Columbus gan na wa oko oju omi koja legbe Karibeani ni 1502. Ni 1508, Vasco Nuñez de Balboa bere sini se ijabori awon agbegbe Urabá. Ni 1513, ohun ni ara Europe akoko to de Okun Pasifiki, eyi to pe ni Mar del Sur ("Omi-okun Guusu"), nipa bayi o si ona fun awon ara Spein yioku lati lo si Peru ati Tsile. Gbogbo agbegbe yi ni awon eya bi awon Chibchan ati awon Carib, awon yi ti awon ara Spein bori diedie boya pelu ijagun tabi nipa ibarepo, Nigbakana, awon arun ti awon ara Europe mu wa pelu won, bi sopanna, ati ija ibori ati ipalemo eya eniyan to n sele, fa diedie ki awon olugbe abinibi ibe o idin pupo.[15] Ni orundun 16th awon ara Europe bere si ni mu awon eru wa lati Afrika.

Igbominira lowo Spein[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Leyin ibori Kolombia lowo awon ara Spein ati igba pipe imunisin lowo won, opo egbe arinkankan lodide lati gba idawa tabi ilominira patapata agbegbe orile-ede. Opo ni awon wonyi ni awon ara Spein fi jagidijagan ko nile, be sini awon miran ninu won ko ni agbara to lati mu iyipada wa. Egbe arinkankan fun ilominira to gbeyin bere arin 1810, leyin igba ti Saint Domingue (Haiti loni) gba ilominira ni 1804. Eyi fu itileyin gidi fun awon to solori ijidide ni Kolombia, eyun Simón Bolívar ati Francisco de Paula Santander. Bolívar di Aare akoko orile-ede Kolombia alominira leyin ijabori ni ijaogun Boyacá, leyin ti Bolívar fipo yi sile, Santander to je igbakeji re di Aare ikeji orile-ede Kolombia. Ijidide yi pari layorisirere ni 1819, nigbati Ibasorun ile Grenada Tuntun bo si owo Orile-ede Olominira Kolombia ti a sese dasile ngbana bi isokan Ekuador, Kolombia ati Venezuela. Panama nigbana je apa ile Kolombia.

Ijoba[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Awon ipin amojuto[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]


Kolombia je pipin si awon 32 ipinpa 32 ati agbegbe oluilu kan, ti won mu bi ipinpa kan (Bogotá na tun je oluilu fun ipinpa Cundinamarca). Awon ipinpa na tun je pinpinlabe si awon munisipal, ikokan won to ni ibujoko munisipal, bakanna awon munisipal tun je pipinsabe si corregimientos. Ipinpa kokan ni ijoba ibile pelu gomina ati ile-igbimo asofin ti won n je didiboyan tara si igba odun merin. Munispal kookan ni baale ati igbimo, be sini corregimiento kookan ni corregidor, tabi olori ibile.

Lapapo mo oluilu, awon ilu miran na tun wa ti pe ni agbegbe, nitori ini pataki ti won ni. Awon wonyi ni Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta, Cúcuta, Popayán, Bucaramanga, Tunja, Turbo, Buenaventura ati Tumaco. Awon apaipin ni ipinabe ibile amojuto, nibi ti awon ilu ni awon olugbe to tobi ti won si wa nitosi ara won (fun apere ni Antioquia ati Cundinamarca). Nibi to ba je pe aon olugbe kere sugbon won ni isoro abo (fun apere Amazonas, Vaupés ati Vichada), ipin amojuto pataki je lilo, bi "apaipin corregimientos", to je adapo ilu ati corregimiento.


E te klik sori apaipin kan lori maapu lati losi ayoka re.

La Guajira Department Magdalena Department Atlántico Department Cesar Department Bolívar Department Norte de Santander Department Sucre Department Córdoba Department Santander Department Antioquia Department Boyacá Department Arauca Department Chocó Department Caldas Department Cundinamarca Department Casanare Department Vichada Department Valle del Cauca Department Tolima Department Meta Department Huila Department Guainía Department Guaviare Department Cauca Department Vaupés Department Nariño Department Caquetá Department Putumayo Department Amazonas Department Risaralda Department Risaralda Department Quindío Department Quindío Department Bogotá Bogotá Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa CatalinaDepartments of colombia.svg
Nípa àwòrán yìí
 Department Capital city
1 Flag of the Department of Amazonas Amazonas Leticia
2 Flag of the Department of Antioquia Antioquia Medellín
3 Flag of the Department of Arauca Arauca Arauca
4 Flag of the Department of Atlántico Atlántico Barranquilla
5 Flag of the Department of Bolívar Bolívar Cartagena
6 Flag of the Department of Boyacá Boyacá Tunja
7 Flag of the Department of Caldas Caldas Manizales
8 Flag of the Department of Caquetá Caquetá Florencia
9 Flag of the Department of Casanare Casanare   Yopal
10 Flag of the Department of Cauca Cauca Popayán
11 Flag of the Department of Cesar Cesar Valledupar      
12 Flag of the Department of Chocó Chocó Quibdó
13 Flag of the Department of Córdoba Córdoba Montería
14 Flag of the Department of Cundinamarca Cundinamarca Bogotá
15 Flag of the Department of Guainía Guainía Inírida
16 Flag of the Department of Guaviare Guaviare San José del Guaviare
17 Flag of the Department of Huila Huila Neiva
 Department Capital city
18 Flag of Nueva Esparta La Guajira   Riohacha
19 Flag of the Department of Magdalena Magdalena Santa Marta
20 Flag of the Department of Meta Meta Villavicencio
21 Flag of the Department of Nariño Nariño Pasto
22 Flag of the Department of Norte de Santander Norte de Santander Cúcuta
23 Flag of the Department of Putumayo Putumayo Mocoa
24 Flag of the Department of Quindío Quindío Armenia
25 Flag of the Department of Risaralda Risaralda Pereira
26 Flag of the Department of San Andres, Providencia and Santa Catalina San Andrés, Providencia
and Santa Catalina
San Andrés
27 Flag of the Department of Santander Santander Bucaramanga
28 Flag of the Department of Sucre Sucre Sincelejo
29 Flag of the Department of Tolima Tolima Ibagué
30 Flag of the Department of Valle del Cauca Valle del Cauca Cali
31 Flag of the Department of Vichada Vaupés Mitú
32 Flag of the Department of Vichada Vichada Puerto Carreño
33 Flag of Bogotá Capital District Bogotá

Oro okere[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]


Awon oro okere ile Kolombia je latowo Aare ile Kolombia won si unje kikoso latowo Alakoso Oro Okere. Colombia ni awon iranlose diplomati ni gbogbo orile-ede be sini o je sisoju ninu awon agbajo alakopapupo ni awon ibudo yi:

Kolombia je omo egbe Agbajo awon Orile-ede Andes ati Isokan awon Orile-ede Guusu Amerika.

Awon ara Kolombia gbodo gba visa olubewo fun awon orile-ede 180 lati lo si be[16] and do not need tourist visa for 15 countries.[17]

Abo[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Iselu[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Okowo[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Dimografiki[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Eko[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Asa[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. Constitution of Colombia, 1991 (Article 10) (Híspánì)
  2. 2.0 2.1 CIA world fact book (2009-05-14). "Colombia". CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/co.html. Retrieved 2009-05-24. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística". Dane.gov.co. http://www.dane.gov.co/reloj/reloj_animado.php. Retrieved 2010-05-16. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Colombia". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2007&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=233&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=41&pr.y=8. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  5. "Decreto 2153 de 1992". Presidencia de la República de Colombia. http://www.presidencia.gov.co/prensa_new/decretoslinea/1992/diciembre/30/dec2153301992.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  6. Gerhar Sandner, Beate Ratter, Wolf Dietrich Sahr and Karsten Horsx (1993). "Conflictos Territoriales en el Mar Caribe: El conflicto fronterizo en el Golfo de Venezuela" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango. http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/geografia/ctemc/ctemc03.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-05. 
  7. The Geographer Office of the Geographer Bureau of Intelligence and Research (1985-04-15). "Brazil-Colombia boundary" (PDF). International Boundary Study. http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/LimitsinSeas/IBS174.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-05. 
  8. CIA (2007-12-13). "Ecuador". World Fact Book. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ec.html. Retrieved 2008-01-05. 
  9. (Híspánì) Tratados Internacionales limítrofes de Colombia
  10. (Híspánì) Colombia – Limites territoriales
  11. Nicolás del Castillo Mathieu (March 1992). "La primera vision de las costas Colombianas, Repaso de Historia" (in Spanish). Revista Credencial. http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/revistas/credencial/marzo1992/marzo3.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  12. Carlos Restrepo Piedrahita (February 1992). "El nombre "Colombia", El único país que lleva el nombre del Descubrimiento" (in Spanish). Revista Credencial. http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/revistas/credencial/febrero1992/febrero2.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  13. Van der Hammen, T. and Correal, G. 1978: "Prehistoric man on the Sabana de Bogotá: data for an ecological prehistory"; Paleography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 25:179–190
  14. Broadbent, Sylvia 1965: Los Chibchas: organización socio-política. Série Latinoamericana 5. Bogotá: Facultad de Sociología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
  15. "The Story Of... Smallpox — and other Deadly Eurasian Germs". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/smallpox.html. Retrieved 2010-05-16. 
  16. Gobiernoenlinea.gov.co
  17. Gobiernoenlinea.gov.co 72