Nelson Mandela

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Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela on his 90th birthday in 2008.
Mandela in 2008
Ààrẹ ilẹ̀ Gúúsù Áfríkà
Lórí àga
10 May 1994 – 14 June 1999
Deputy Thabo Mbeki
Frederik Willem de Klerk
Asíwájú Frederik Willem de Klerk
As State President of South Africa
Arọ́pò Thabo Mbeki
Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement
Lórí àga
3 September 1998 – 14 June 1999
Asíwájú Andrés Pastrana Arango
Arọ́pò Thabo Mbeki
Ẹ̀kúnrẹ́rẹ́
Ìbí Rolihlahla Mandela
18 Oṣù Keje, 1918(1918-07-18)
Mvezo, Union of South Africa
Aláìsí 5 Oṣù Kejìlá, 2013 (ọmọ ọdún 95)
Johannesburg, Gúúsù Áfríkà
Ọmọorílẹ̀-èdè Gúúsù Áfríkà
Ẹgbẹ́ olóṣèlú African National Congress
Tọkọtaya pẹ̀lú Evelyn Ntoko Mase (1944–1957)
Winnie Madikizela (1957–1996)
Graça Machel (1998–present)
Ibùgbé Houghton Estate, Gúúsù Áfríkà
Alma mater University of Fort Hare
University of London External System
University of South Africa
University of the Witwatersrand
Ẹ̀sìn Methodism[1][2]
Ìtọwọ́bọ̀wé Signature of Nelson Mandela
Website Mandela Foundation

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (IPA: [xoˈliɬaɬa manˈdeːla]; Ojó Kejidinlogun Oṣù Keje Odún 1918 - Ojó Karun Oṣù Kejìlá Odún 2013)[3][4]Aare Guusu Afrika láti odún 1994 tìtì di odún 1999, béèsìni òhun ni Àare Gúusù Afrika àkoko tó jé didiboyan ninu idiboyan toseluarailu asoju yanyan. Ki oto di aare, Mandela je alakitiyan olodi-apartheid, ati olori Umkhonto we Sizwe, apa adigun Kongresi Omoorile-ede Afrika (ANC). Ni 1962 o je fifofinmu o si je didalebi ika ote ati awon esun miran, o si je riran si ewon fun lailai. Mandela lo odun 27 ni ewon, o lo opo odun yi ni Robben Island. Leyin ijowo re kuro logba ewon ni ojo 11 Osu Keji 1990, Mandela lewaju egbe oloselu re ninu awon iforojomitorooro to fa oseluarailu gbogbo eya waye ni 1994. Gege bi aare lati 1994 de 1999, o sise fun ifowosowopo.

Ni Guusu Afrika, Mandela tun je mimo bi Madiba, oye eye ti awon alagba idile Mandela unlo.

Mandela ti gba ebun topo ju 250 lo ni arin ogoji odun, ninu won ni Ebun Nobel Alafia 1993.

Ìgbà èwe[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Nelson Mandela ni 1937[5]

Nelson Mandela jẹ ara eka kekere iran oba Thembu dynasty, to joba ni awon Ileagbegbe Transkei ni Igberiko Cape Guusu Afrika.[6] O je bibi ni Mvezo, abule kekere kan to budo si agbegbe Umtata, to je oluilu Transkei.[6] He has Khoisan ancestry on his mother's side[7]. Baba unla-unla baba re Ngubengcuka (to ku ni 1832), joba gege bi Inkosi Enkhulu, tabi oba, awon Thembu.[8] Ikan ninu awon omokunrin oba ohun to nje Mandela, ni baba unla re ati ibi ti oruko idile re ti wa. Sibesibe nitoripe o je omo Inkosi's child latodo iyawo iran Ixhiba (eyun "idile olowo osi"[9]), awon omoomo eka ebi oba re ko le gori ite ni Thembu.

Baba Mandela, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, je oloye ni ilu Mvezo.[10] Sugbon nitori aigboran si ijoba alamusin lenu, won yo Mphakanyiswa kuro ni ipo oye re won si ko ebi re lo si Qunu. Sibesibe, Mphakanyiswa ko kose lati je omo egbe Adamoran Inkosi, beesini o kopa gidi lat ri pe Jongintaba Dalindyebo gun ori ite Thembu. Lojowaju Dalindyebo san ore yi paa nipa gbigba Mandela sodo bi omo nigbati Mphakanyiswa ku.[11] Baba Mandela fe iyawo merin, pelu won o bi omo metala (okunrin merin ati obinrin mesan).[11] Mandela je omo iyawo keta, Nosekeni Fanny. Fanny je omobinrin Nkedama lati iran Mpemvu Xhosa, Otun Oba, ninu ile eni ti Mandela ti lo igba omode re.[12] Oruko abiso re Rolihlahla tumosi "fa eka igi", "onijangbon".[13][14]

Rolihlahla Mandela lo je omo akoko ninu ebi re to lo si ile-eko nibi ti oluko re Miss Mdingane ti fun ni oruko Geesi "Nelson".[15]

Nigbati Mandela to omo odun mesan, baba re ku nipa aisan tuberculosis, nitorie Jongintaba, di alagbato re.[11] Mandela lo si ile-eko ti o jinna si afin Jogintaba. Pelu bi asa Thembu se lasile, o je sisodagba nigba to to omo odun merindinlogun, o si losi ile-eko Clarkebury Boarding Institute.[16] Mandela pari ile-eko odo ni arin odun meji, kaka odun meta to ye.[16] Leyi to je yiyan lati jogun ipo baba re gege bi alamora oba, ni 1937 Mandela ko lo si Healdtown Comprehensive School, koleji awon elesin Wesley ni Fort Beaufort ti opo awon awon omo oloye ni Thembu ti lo si ile-eko.[17] Nigba to di omo odun mokandinlogun o feran lati ja ese ati eresisa ni ile-eko.[12]

Leyin to to de koleji, Mandela bere si keko fun iwe-eri Bachelor Ise-Ona ni Fort Hare University, nibi to ti pade Oliver Tambo. Tambo ati Mandela di ore ati elegbe. Mandela tun di ore pelu Kaiser ("K.D.") Matanzima eni to je gege bi oloye Otunba Thembu wa lori ila fun ite ni Transkei,[9] eyi ti yio fa lojo iwaju lati tewogba eto Bantustan. Itileyin re fun awon eto yi fa ilodi larin ohun ati Mandela.[12] Ni eyin odun kn ni koleji Mandela kopa ninu boikotu ti Igbimo awon Asoju Akeko se nitori awon eto yunifasiti, nitorie won le kuro nibe.[18] Lojowaju nigba to wa ni ogba ewon, Mandela keko fun Iwe-eri Bachelor Ofin lati ibi eto okere Yunifasiti Londonu.

Dere to kuro ni Fort Hare, Jongintaba so fun Mandela ati Justice (to je omo Jogintaba ati eni to kan lati joba) pe ohun ti seto igbeyawo fun awon mejeeji. Sugbo awon mejeeji nitoripe won ko feran eto igbeyawo yi, won kora won si ko lo si Johannesburg.[19] Nigba to de be, Mandela nibere koko ri ise bi asona ninu koto alumoni.[20] Sugbon, eni to gba sise tete yara le kuro nigba to gbo pe Mandela je alagbato Oba. Mandela leyin na bere ise bi akowe ni ile-ise agbejoro to wa ni Johannesburg, Witkin, Sidelsky ati Edelman, lati odo ore ati alawose re, Walter Sisulu.[20] Bo se unsise ni Witkin, Sidelsky ati Edelman, Mandela pari iwe-eri B.A. re ni Yunifasiti Guusu Afrika pelu ifiranse, leyin na lo wa bere si ni gbeko ofin ni Yunifasiti Witwatersrand, nibi to ti bere si ni sore awon elegbe akoko re ati awon alakitiyan olodi apartheid lojowaju Joe Slovo, Harry Schwarz ati Ruth First. Slovo yio wa di Alakoso Oro Ile ninu ijoba Mandela lojowaju, nigbati Schwarz yio di Olusoju Guusu Afrika ni Amerika. Ni asiko yi, Mandela gbe ni Alexandra, to wa ni ariwa Johannesburg.[21]

Ìgbésẹ̀ Òṣèlú[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Leyin ti egbe oselu Egbe Omoorile-ede egbe oseluAfrikaner ninu eto idibo odun 1948, nitoripe awon wonyi fowo mo eto apartheid's apartheid's apartheid's eleya-meya,[22] Mandela bere si ni kopa gidigidi ninu oro oselu. O siwaju ninu Kampein Agidi ti ANC se ni 1952 ati ninu Kongresi awon eniyan ni 1955 ti pinu ti abajade re je ipile eto ilodi si ise eleya-meyaanti apartheid.[23][24] Larin asiko yi, Mandela ati agbejoro re Oliver Tambo da ile-ise agbejoro Mandel's ati Tambo sile lati pese imoran ofin ofe fun opo awon alawodudu ti won ko ni agbejoro.[25]

Mahatma Gandhi nipa iha ti Mandela ati bi awon ona ti awon alakitiyan olodi apartheid Guusu Afrika fi koju re.[26][27] (nitori re, Mandela kopa ninu apero oro arofo 29–30 January 2007 ni New Delhi to sajodun odun kewa ti Gandhi se akoso satyagraha (ilodi alainijagidijagan) ni Guusu Afrika).[28]

Àwọn ìtọ́kasí[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. Mandela, Nelson (1994). Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela. Randburg: Macdonald Purnell. p. 438. ISBN 0-316-87496-5. 
  2. Dodds, Craig (14 December 2013). "Madiba funeral: Tutu snubbed". Weekend Argus. http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/eastern-cape/madiba-funeral-tutu-snubbed-1.1622484#.Uqw_C9IW2yg. Retrieved 14 Desember 2013. 
  3. "Nelson Mandela - Biography". Nobelprize.org. The Nobel Foundation. 1993. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1993/mandela-bio.html. Retrieved 30 April 2009. 
  4. BBC News
  5. Mandela 1996, pp. 16, 17
  6. 6.0 6.1 "South Africa: Celebrating Mandela At 90". AllAfrica.com. 17 July 2008. http://allafrica.com/stories/200807180124.html. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  7. "So, where do we come from?". beta.mnet.co.za. 19 September 2004. http://beta.mnet.co.za/carteblanche/Article.aspx?Id=2619. Retrieved 11 October 2010. 
  8. Kopkind, Andrew (16 March 1990). "Book Review - Higher than Hope". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc.. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,316920,00.html. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Mafela, Munzhedzi James (October 2008). "The revelation of African culture in Long Walk to Freedom". Indigenous Biography and Autobiography. Australian National University. http://epress.anu.edu.au/aborig_history/indigenous_biog/mobile_devices/ch08.html. Retrieved 18 July 2009. 
  10. Guiloineau, Jean; Rowe, Joseph (2002). Nelson Mandela: the early life of Rolihlahla Mandiba. North Atlantic Books. p. 13. ISBN 1556434170. http://books.google.com/?id=4iKSlwuya1YC&pg=PA13. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Aikman (2003), pp 70–71
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Mandela, Nelson (2006). Mandela: The Authorized Portrait. Kansas City, Mo.: Andrews McMeel Pub. p. 13. ISBN 0-7407-5572-2. http://www.nextreads.com/display2.aspx?recid=126238&FC=1. Retrieved 26 May 2008. 
  13. Mandela 1996, p.7
  14. Àṣìṣe
  15. Mandela 1996, p. 9. "No one in my family had ever attended school [...] On the first day of school my teacher, Miss Mdingane, gave each of us an English name. This was the custom among Africans in those days and was undoubtedly due to the British bias of our education. That day, Miss Mdingane told me that my new name was Nelson. Why this particular name I have no idea."
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Mandela celebrates 90th birthday". BBC. 17 July 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/7500615.stm. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  17. "Healdtown Comprehensive School". Historic Schools Project: South Africa. http://www.historicschools.org.za/view.asp?ItemID=1&tname=tblComponent2&oname=Schools&pg=front&subm=Pilot%20Schools. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  18. Mandela 1996, pp. 18-19.
  19. Mandela 1996, pp. 10, 20.
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Nelson Mandela Biography - Early Years". Nelson Mandela Foundation. http://www.nelsonmandela.org/index.php/memory/views/biography/. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  21. "Nelson Mandela Children's Fund - Organise". Nelson Mandela Children's Fund. http://www.nmcf.co.za/organize.html. Retrieved 28 October 2008.  Àdàkọ:Dead link
  22. Àdàkọ:Cite Web
  23. "The Defiance Campaign". African National Congress. Archived from the original on 2008-07-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20080713192018/http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/struggles/defiance.html. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  24. "Congress of the People, 1955". African National Congress. Archived from the original on 22 June 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080622053030/http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/campaigns/cop/index.html. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  25. Callinicos, Luli (2004). Oliver Tambo: Beyond the Engeli Mountains. New Africa Books. p. 173. ISBN 0864866666. 
  26. Mandela, Nelson (3 January 2000). "The Sacred Warrior". Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century. http://www.time.com/time/time100/poc/magazine/the_sacred_warrior13a.html. Retrieved 26 May 2008. 
  27. Bhana, Surendra; Vahed, Goolam (2005). The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914. p. 149. 
  28. Bhalla, Nita (29 January 2007). "Mandela calls for Gandhi's non-violence approach". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 May 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080508192753/http://www.boston.com/news/world/asia/articles/2007/01/29/mandela_calls_for_gandhis_non_violence_approach/. Retrieved 26 May 2008. 

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