Nelson Mandela

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Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela on his 90th birthday in 2008.
Mandela in 2008
Ààrẹ ilẹ̀ Gúúsù Áfríkà
In office
10 May 1994 – 14 June 1999
DeputyThabo Mbeki
Frederik Willem de Klerk
AsíwájúFrederik Willem de Klerk
Bi State President of South Africa
Arọ́pòThabo Mbeki
Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement
In office
3 September 1998 – 14 June 1999
AsíwájúAndrés Pastrana Arango
Arọ́pòThabo Mbeki
Àwọn àlàyé onítòhún
Ọjọ́ìbí
Rolihlahla Mandela

(1918-07-18)18 Oṣù Keje 1918
Mvezo, Union of South Africa
Aláìsí5 December 2013(2013-12-05) (ọmọ ọdún 95)
Johannesburg, Gúúsù Áfríkà
Ọmọorílẹ̀-èdèGúúsù Áfríkà
Ẹgbẹ́ olóṣèlúAfrican National Congress
(Àwọn) olólùfẹ́Evelyn Ntoko Mase (1944–1957)
Winnie Madikizela (1957–1996)
Graça Machel (1998–present)
ResidenceHoughton Estate, Gúúsù Áfríkà
Alma materUniversity of Fort Hare
University of London External System
University of South Africa
University of the Witwatersrand
SignatureSignature of Nelson Mandela
WebsiteMandela Foundation

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (IPA: [xoˈliɬaɬa manˈdeːla]; Ọjọ́ Kejìdínlógún Oṣù Keje Ọdún 1918 - Ọjọ́ Karùn-ún Oṣù Kejìlá Ọdún 2013)[3][4] jẹ́ Ààrẹ Gúúsù Áfíríkà láti ọdún 1994 títí di ọdún 1999, bẹ́ẹ̀ sì ni òun ni Ààrẹ Gúúsù Áfírík[s àkọ́kọ́ tó jẹ́ ẹni àdìbòyàn nínú ìdìbò-yani tòṣèlú ará ìlú aṣojú yanyan. Kí ó tó di Ààrẹ, Mandela jẹ́ alákitiyan olódì-apartheid, ati olórí Umkhonto we Sizwe, apa adigun Ìgbìmọ̀ Aṣòfin Ọmọ Orílẹ̀-èdè Áfíríkà (ANC). Lọ́dún 1962 ó di ẹni afofinmu won si da lebi ika ote ati awon ẹ̀sùn mìíràn, wọ́n sì rán an lẹ́wọ̀n gbere. Mandela lo ọdún mẹ́tàdínlọ́gbọ̀n (27) ní ẹ̀wọ̀n, ó lo ọ̀pọ̀ ọdún yìí ní Robben Island. Lẹ́yìn jijowo rẹ̀ kúrò lọ́gbà ẹ̀wọ̀n ní ọjọ́ 11 oṣù kejì ọdún 1990. Mandela ṣiwájú ẹgbẹ́ òṣèlú rẹ̀ nínú àwọn iforojomitorooro tó fa òṣèlú àwaarawa ti gbogbo eya ti o waye ni odun 1994, tó sì di Ààrẹ orílẹ̀ èdè Gúúsù Áfíríkà láti ọdún 1994 títí di 1999. O si ṣokùnfà ìfọwọ́sowọ́pọ̀ ní Gúúsù Afrika, Bákan náà ni a tún mọ Mandela sí Madiba, oyè ẹ̀yẹ tí àwọn Alágbà ìdílé Mandela ń lo.

Mandela ti gba ẹ̀bùn tó pọ̀ ju 250 lọ láàárín ogójì ọdún, nínú wọn ni Ẹ̀bùn Àlàáfíà Nobel 1993.

Ìgbà èwe[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Nelson Mandela lọ́dún 1937[5]

Nelson Mandela jẹ́ ọmọ ẹ̀ka kékeré ìran ọba Thembu dynasty, tó ń jọba ní agbègbè TranskeiÌgbèríko Cape Gúúsù Áfíríkà.[6] Wọ́n bí i ní Mvezo, abúlé kékeré kan tó sún mọ́ agbègbè Umtata, tó jẹ́ olú-ìlú Transkei.[6] Ọmọ ìran Khoisan ni ìyá ńlá rẹ̀[7]. Bàbá ńlá bàbá rẹ̀ ni Ngubengcuka tó jọba gẹ́gẹ́ bí Inkosi Enkhulu tàbí ọba àwọn Thembu ṣáájú kó tó kú ní ọdún (1832).[8] Ìkan nínú àwọn ọmọkùnrin ọba ọ̀hún ló ń jẹ́ Mandela, ni bàbá ńlá rẹ̀ àti ibi tí orúkọ ìdílé rẹ̀ ti wá. Síbẹ̀ nítorí pé ó jẹ́ ọmọ Inkosi's látọ̀dọ̀ ìyàwó ìran Ixhiba (ìyẹn "ìdílé olowo osi"[9]), àwọn ọmọ-ọmọ ẹ̀ka ẹbí ọba rẹ̀ kò lè gorí ìtẹ́ ní Thembu.

Bàbá Mandela ni Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa. Ó jẹ́ Olóyè ní ìlú Mvezo.[10] Ṣùgbọ́n nítorí àìgbọ́ràn sí ìjọba amúnisìn lenu, wọ́n yọ Mphakanyiswa kúrò ní ipò oyè rẹ̀ wọ́n sì kọ ẹbí rẹ̀ lọ sí Qunu. Síbẹ̀, Mphakanyiswa kọ̀ kó ṣàìjẹ́ ọmọ ẹgbẹ́ Adámọ̀ràn Inkosi, bẹ́ẹ̀ sì ni ó kópa gidi láti rí i pé Jongintaba Dalindyebo gun orí ìtẹ́ Thembu. Dalindyebo san ore yi paa fun Mphakanyiswa nípa gbigba Mandela sọ́dọ̀ bí ọmọ nígbà tí Mphakanyiswa kú.[11] Bàbá Mandela fẹ́ ìyàwó mẹ́rin, ó sì bí ọmọ mẹ́tàlá (13) ọkùnrin mẹ́rin àti obìnrin mẹ́sàn-án.[11] Mandela jẹ́ ọmọ ìyàwó kẹta, Nosekeni Fanny. Fanny jẹ́ ọmọbìnrin Nkedama láti ìran Mpemvu Xhosa, Otun Oba, ninu ile eni ti Mandela ti lo igba omode re.[12] Orúkọ àbísọ rẹ Rolihlahla túmọ̀ sí "fa ẹ̀ka igi", "oníjàngbọ̀n".[13][14]

Rolihlahla Mandela ló jẹ́ ọmọ àkọ́kọ́ nínú ẹbí rẹ tó lọ sí ilé ẹ̀kọ́ níbi tí olùkọ́ rẹ̀ Miss Mdingane ti fún un lórúkọ Gẹ̀ẹ́sì "Nelson".[15]

Nígbà tí Mandela tó ọmọ ọdún mẹ́sàn-án, bàbá rẹ̀ kú nípa ikọ́ ẹ̀gbẹ (TB), nítorí èyí Jongintaba, di alágbàtọ́ rẹ̀.[11] Mandela lọ sí ilé ẹ̀kọ́ tí ó jìnnà sí ààfin Jogintaba. Pẹ̀lú bí àṣà Thembu ṣe là á sílẹ̀, ó jẹ́ siso dagba nígbà tó tó ọmọ ọdún mẹ́rìndínlógún (16), ó sì relé ẹ̀kọ́ Clarkebury Boarding Institute.[16] Mandela parí ilé ẹ̀kọ́ odo láàárín ọdún méjì, kàkà ọdún mẹ́ta tó yẹ.[16] Leyi to je yiyan lati jogun ipo baba re gege bi Alamoran Oba, ni odun 1937 Mandela ko lo si Healdtown Comprehensive School, koleji awon elesin Wesley ni Fort Beaufort ti opo awon awon omo oloye ni Thembu ti n lo si ile-eko.[17] Nigba ti o di omo odun mokan-dinlogun (19) o feran lati ja ese ati eresisa ni ile-eko.[12]

Leyin to to de koleji, Mandela bere si keko fun iwe-eri Bachelor Ise-Ona ni Fort Hare University, nibi to ti pade Oliver Tambo. Tambo ati Mandela di ore ati elegbe. Mandela tun di ore pelu Kaiser ("K.D.") Matanzima eni to je gege bi oloye Otunba Thembu wa lori ila fun ite ni Transkei,[9] eyi ti yio fa lojo iwaju lati tewogba eto Bantustan. Itileyin re fun awon eto yi fa ilodi larin ohun ati Mandela.[12] Ni eyin odun kn ni koleji Mandela kopa ninu boikotu ti Igbimo awon Asoju Akeko se nitori awon eto yunifasiti, nitorie won le kuro nibe.[18] Lojowaju nigba to wa ni ogba ewon, Mandela keko fun Iwe-eri Bachelor Ofin lati ibi eto okere Yunifasiti Londonu.

Dere to kuro ni Fort Hare, Jongintaba so fun Mandela ati Justice (to je omo Jogintaba ati eni to kan lati joba) pe ohun ti seto igbeyawo fun awon mejeeji. Sugbo awon mejeeji nitoripe won ko feran eto igbeyawo yi, won kora won si ko lo si Johannesburg.[19] Nigba to de be, Mandela nibere koko ri ise bi asona ninu koto alumoni.[20] Sugbon, eni to gba sise tete yara le kuro nigba to gbo pe Mandela je alagbato Oba. Mandela leyin na bere ise bi akowe ni ile-ise agbejoro to wa ni Johannesburg, Witkin, Sidelsky ati Edelman, lati odo ore ati alawose re, Walter Sisulu.[20] Bo se unsise ni Witkin, Sidelsky ati Edelman, Mandela pari iwe-eri B.A. re ni Yunifasiti Guusu Afrika pelu ifiranse, leyin na lo wa bere si ni gbeko ofin ni Yunifasiti Witwatersrand, nibi to ti bere si ni sore awon elegbe akoko re ati awon alakitiyan olodi apartheid lojowaju Joe Slovo, Harry Schwarz ati Ruth First. Slovo yio wa di Alakoso Oro Ile ninu ijoba Mandela lojowaju, nigbati Schwarz yio di alusoju Guusu Afrika ni Amerika. Ní àsìkò yìí, Mandela gbé ní Alexandra, tó wà ní àríwá Johannesburg.[21]

Ìgbésẹ̀ Òṣèlú[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Lẹ́yìn tí ẹgbẹ́ òṣèlú Egbe Omoorile-ede egbe oseluAfrikaner ninu eto idibo odun 1948, nitoripe awon wonyi fowo mo eto apartheid's apartheid's apartheid's eleya-meya,[22] Mandela bere si ni kopa gidigidi ninu oro oselu. O siwaju ninu Kampein Agidi ti ANC se ni 1952 ati ninu Kongresi awon eniyan ni 1955 ti pinu ti abajade re je ipile eto ilodi si ise eleya-meyaanti apartheid.[23][24] Larin asiko yi, Mandela ati agbejoro re Oliver Tambo da ile-ise agbejoro Mandel's ati Tambo sile lati pese imoran ofin ofe fun opo awon alawodudu ti won ko ni agbejoro.[25]

Mahatma Gandhi nipa iha ti Mandela ati bi awon ona ti awon alakitiyan olodi apartheid Guusu Afrika fi koju re.[26][27] (nitori re, Mandela kopa ninu apero oro arofo 29–30 January 2007 ni New Delhi to sajodun odun kewa ti Gandhi se akoso satyagraha (ilodi alainijagidijagan) ni Guusu Afrika).[28]

Àwọn ìtọ́kasí[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. Mandela, Nelson (1994). Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela. Randburg: Macdonald Purnell. p. 438. ISBN 0-316-87496-5. 
  2. Dodds, Craig (14 December 2013). "Madiba funeral: Tutu snubbed". Weekend Argus. http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/eastern-cape/madiba-funeral-tutu-snubbed-1.1622484#.Uqw_C9IW2yg. Retrieved 14 Desember 2013. 
  3. "Nelson Mandela - Biography". Nobelprize.org. The Nobel Foundation. 1993. Retrieved 30 April 2009. 
  4. BBC News
  5. Mandela 1996, pp. 16, 17
  6. 6.0 6.1 "South Africa: Celebrating Mandela At 90". AllAfrica.com. 17 July 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  7. "So, where do we come from?". beta.mnet.co.za. 19 September 2004. Retrieved 11 October 2010. 
  8. Kopkind, Andrew (16 March 1990). "Book Review - Higher than Hope". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Mafela, Munzhedzi James (October 2008). "The revelation of African culture in Long Walk to Freedom". Indigenous Biography and Autobiography. Australian National University. Retrieved 18 July 2009. 
  10. Guiloineau, Jean; Rowe, Joseph (2002). Nelson Mandela: the early life of Rolihlahla Mandiba. North Atlantic Books. p. 13. ISBN 1556434170. http://books.google.com/?id=4iKSlwuya1YC&pg=PA13. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Aikman (2003), pp 70–71
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Mandela, Nelson (2006). Mandela: The Authorized Portrait. Kansas City, Mo.: Andrews McMeel Pub. p. 13. ISBN 0-7407-5572-2. http://www.nextreads.com/display2.aspx?recid=126238&FC=1. Retrieved 26 May 2008. 
  13. Mandela 1996, p.7
  14. Àṣìṣe ìtọ́kasí: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named longwalk
  15. Mandela 1996, p. 9. "No one in my family had ever attended school [...] On the first day of school my teacher, Miss Mdingane, gave each of us an English name. This was the custom among Africans in those days and was undoubtedly due to the British bias of our education. That day, Miss Mdingane told me that my new name was Nelson. Why this particular name I have no idea."
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Mandela celebrates 90th birthday". BBC. 17 July 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/7500615.stm. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  17. "Healdtown Comprehensive School". Historic Schools Project: South Africa. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  18. Mandela 1996, pp. 18-19.
  19. Mandela 1996, pp. 10, 20.
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Nelson Mandela Biography - Early Years". Nelson Mandela Foundation. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  21. "Nelson Mandela Children's Fund - Organise". Nelson Mandela Children's Fund. Retrieved 28 October 2008. [Ìjápọ̀ tí kò ṣiṣẹ́ mọ́]
  22. Àdàkọ:Cite Web
  23. "The Defiance Campaign". African National Congress. Archived from the original on 2008-07-13. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  24. "Congress of the People, 1955". African National Congress. Archived from the original on 22 June 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  25. Callinicos, Luli (2004). Oliver Tambo: Beyond the Engeli Mountains. New Africa Books. p. 173. ISBN 0864866666. 
  26. Mandela, Nelson (3 January 2000). "The Sacred Warrior". Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century. http://www.time.com/time/time100/poc/magazine/the_sacred_warrior13a.html. Retrieved 26 May 2008. 
  27. Bhana, Surendra; Vahed, Goolam (2005). The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914. p. 149. 
  28. Bhalla, Nita (29 January 2007). "Mandela calls for Gandhi's non-violence approach". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 May 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080508192753/http://www.boston.com/news/world/asia/articles/2007/01/29/mandela_calls_for_gandhis_non_violence_approach/. Retrieved 26 May 2008. 

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