Ìyàtọ̀ láàrin àwọn àtúnyẹ̀wò "Atọ́ka Ìdàgbàsókè Ènìyàn"

Jump to navigation Jump to search
Kò sí ìsọníṣókí àtúnṣe
[[:Image:UN Human Development Report 2007 (2) CBC.svg|('''Color-blind compliant map''') For red-green color vision problems.]]]]
'''Atọ́ka Ìdàgbàsókè Ènìyàn''' ('''AIE''' tabi '''HDI''') je statitiki àkópọ̀jáde tounje lilo lati toipo awon orile-ede bii ipele "idagbasoke eniyan" ati lati pinya awon orile-ede [[developed country|adagbasoke]] (idagbasoke giga), [[developing country|toundagbasoke]] (idagbasoke arin), ati [[underdeveloped|aitodagbasoke]] (idagbasoke kekere). Statistiki na je kikopojade lati inu data lori [[life expectancy|igbe àdúródè]], [[education|eko]] ati per-capita [[GDP|GIO]] tenikookan (gege bi olutoka [[standard of living|iru igbesiaye]]) to je gbigbajo latowo awon orile-ede kookan to si je sise pelu icollected at the national level using the formula given in the Methodology section below.yi:
* <math>x</math>-index = <math>\frac{x - \min\left(x\right)}{\max\left(x\right)-\min\left(x\right)}</math>
==Origins of the HDI ==
The origins of the HDI are to be found in the [[United Nations Development Programme]]'s (UNDP) [[Human Development Report]]s (HDRs). These were devised and launched by [[Pakistani people|Pakistani]] Economist [[Mahbub ul Haq]] in 1990 and had the explicit purpose: ‘‘to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people centered policies.’’ <ref>Haq, Mahbub ul. 1995. Reflections on Human Development. New York: Oxford University Press.</ref>.
To produce the HDRs, Haq brought together a group of well known development economists including: [[Paul Streeten]], [[Frances Stewart]], [[Gustav Ranis]], [[Keith Griffin]], [[Sudhir Anand]], and [[Meghnad Desai]]. But it was [[Amartya Sen]]’s work on capabilities and functionings that provided the underlying conceptual framework. Haq was sure that a simple composite measure of human development was needed in order to convince the public, academics, and policy-makers that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but also improvements in human well-being. Sen initially opposed this idea, but he went
on to help Haq develop the Human Development Index (HDI). Sen was worried that it was difficult to capture the full complexity of human capabilities in a single index but Haq persuaded him that only a single number would shift the attention of policy-makers from
concentration on economic to human well-being.<ref>Sakiko Fukuda-Parr The Human Development Paradigm: operationalizing Sen’s ideas on capabilities Feminist Economics 9(2 – 3), 2003, 301 – 317</ref><ref>United Nations Development Programme. 1999. Human Development Report 1999. New York:Oxford University Press.</ref>
nibi ti <math>\min\left(x\right)</math> ati <math>\max\left(x\right)</math> je iye gigajulo ati kikerejulo ti ayipada <math>x</math> le ni, ni telentele.
The HDI has been used since 1990 by the [[United Nations]] Development Programme for its annual Human Development Reports.

Ètò ìtọ́sọ́nà