Ọmọnìyàn

Lát'ọwọ́ Wikipedia, ìwé ìmọ̀ ọ̀fẹ́
Lọ sí: atọ́ka, àwárí
Ènìyàn
Fossil range: 0.2–0 Ma
Pleistocene - Recent
Ènìyàn akọ (òsì) àti abo (ọ̀tún)
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Superclass: Tetrapoda
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Eutheria
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorrhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Parvorder: Catarrhini
Superfamily: Hominoidea
Family: Hominidae
Subfamily: Homininae
Tribe: Hominini
Genus: Homo
Species: H. sapiens
Subspecies: H. s. sapiens
Trinomial name
Homo sapiens sapiens
Linnaeus, 1758

Awon ọmọnìyàn tabi omo eniyan ni awon iru Homo sapiens Homo sapiens (Latin: eniyan oloye; "wise man" tabi eniyan onimo; "knowing man"),[1][2] iru Homo kan soso to si wa laye (extant) abaratan primate elesemeji ninu Hominidae, ebi great ape. Sugbon, nigba miran o nje lilo lati tokasi eyi keyi toba je abaratan Homo.

Awon eniyan ni opolo todagba daada, to le e ni ironu afoyemo, ede, ifinuwo, ati isojutu isoro. Agbara opolo yi, lapapo mo inaro ara to jagbekun awon owo lati fowo se awon ohun, gba awoniyan laaye lati lo awon ohun isise daada ju awon iru miran lo. Mitochondrial DNA ati eri adikuta (fossil) fihan pe awoneniyan oni berelati Africa bi odun 200,000 seyin.[3] Pelu olukuluku eniyan ni gbogbo orile ayafi ni Antarctica, awon eniyan je awon iruaraleaye. Iye awon eniyan je 6.8 legbegberunkeji ni November 2009.[4]

Gege bi awon higher primates, adanida awon eniyan je alawujo. Sibesibe, awon eniyan je eyi soso to nlo sistemu ibanisoro lati so tenu ara re, pasiparo iyenu, ati igbajo. Awon eniyan da ifidimule awujo tosoro to ni opo awon eniyan ti won fowosowopo ati ti won takorawon, lati inu awon ebi de inu awon orile-ede. Awon ibarasepo awujo larin awon eniyan ti sedasile orisirisi opo iyi, ise awujo, ati awon igbese, ti lapapo won da ipilese awujo eniyan.

Awon eniyan se pataki nipa ife won lati loye ati kopa lori ayika won, won wa lati salaye ati lo awon isele adanida nipa sayensi, imoye, itan awaso, ati esin. Isawari adanida yi ti mu idagbasoke awon ohun isise didagba ati ogbonise, ti won je jijogun lati inu asa; awon eniyan nikan ni iru eda ti a mo ti won le se ina, se onje won, wo aso, ti won si le lo opolopo awon technologies miran.

Àwọn àkóónú

Oruko[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Oruko gbogbogbogeneric name Homo wa lati ede Latin ni orundun 18th homō "eniyan", to di eniyan aye ("earthly being") (Old Latin hemō, cognate to Old English guma "man", lati PIE Àdàkọ:PIE, meaning 'earth' or 'ground').[5]

Itan[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Evolution[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

A reconstruction of Australopithecus afarensis, a human ancestor that had developed bipedalism, but which lacked the large brain of modern humans

Asaro sayensi human evolution sakopo idagbasoke abatan Homo. "Awon eniyan oni" jetitumo gege bi iru eda Homo sapiens, ti eka iru eda re to wa laye ni a mo si Homo sapiens sapiens. Homo sapiens idaltu (to tumosi "baba oloye"), eka iru eda miran ti a mo ti pare.[6] Homo neanderthalensis, to pare ni odun 30,000 seyin, nigba miran je kikopo gege bi eka iru eda, "Homo sapiens neanderthalensis", sugbon awon asaro alabatan (genetic studies) nisin ro pe awon iru eda Neanderthal pinya lodo awon Homo sapiens ni bi odun 500,000 seyin.[7] Bakanna, apere die to wa Homo rhodesiensis ti je kikopo bi eka iru eda, sugbon opo eniyan ko gba be. Bi irisinu (Anatomically) awon eniyan oni koko hanjade ni akoole idokuta ni Afrika nibi odun 195,000 seyin, be sini awon agbewo molecular biology fun wa ni eri pe igba tosunmo igba ipinya lodo babanla kanna awon eniyan oni ni odun 200,000 seyin.[8][9][10][11][12] Agbewo kakiri ijorisirisi alabatan awon ara Afrika ti Dr. Sarah Tishkoff solori ri pe awon San ni won ni orisirisi albatan topojulo larin awon 113 eya eniyan otooto ti won gbeyewo, to so won di ikan ninu 14 "awon eniyan babanla" 14. Iwadi yi, bakanna se ibudo ibere irinjade eniyan oni ni guusu-apaiwoorun Afrika, nitosi bode etiodo Namibia ati Angola.[13]

Awon olubatan to sunmo awon eniyan julo ni awon gorilla ati chimpanzee, sugbon awon eniyan ko wa latodo awon akiti woyi: bibeeko awon akiti wonyi nipin babanla kanna pelu awon eniyan oni.[14] Afaimo ko mo je pe awon eniyan nibatan julo mo awon iru eda meji chimpanzee: Common Chimpanzee ati Bonobo.[14] Isetelentele gbogbo genome ti mu yewa pe "leyin odun 6.5 [million] idagbajade otooto, awon iyato larin chimpanzee ati eniyan tobiju awon to wa larin awon eniyan ti won ko ni ibatan mo ra won lo lemewa ati won dinju lemewa larin awon eku ati omole/ekute". Won da laba pe ibajorapo awon itelentele DNA larin eniyan ati chimpanzee wa larin 95% ati 99%.[15][16][17][18] O ti je didiye pe It has been estimated that the human iran eniya pinya lodo ti awon chimpanzees bi odun egbegberun marun seyin, ati latodo ti awon gorilla bi odun egbegberun mejo seyin. Sibesibe, agbari kan hominid ti o je wiwari ni Chad ni 2001, ti o je kikopo bi Sahelanthropus tchadensis, sunmo bi odun egbegberun mejo seyin, eyi fihan pe o se e se ki ipinya o waye nibere ju bi a se so loke lo.[19]







Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. Goodman M, Tagle D, Fitch D, Bailey W, Czelusniak J, Koop B, Benson P, Slightom J (1990). "Primate evolution at the DNA level and a classification of hominoids". J Mol Evol 30 (3): 260 – 6. doi:10.1007/BF02099995. PMID 2109087. 
  2. "Hominidae Classification". Animal Diversity Web @ UMich. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/classification/Hominidae.html. Retrieved 2006-09-25. 
  3. The Smithsonian Institution, Human Origins Program
  4. "World POPClock Projection". U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division/International Programs Center. http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/popclockworld.html. Retrieved 2009-09-19. 
  5. Porkorny (1959) s.v. "g'hðem" pp. 414-416; "Homo." Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. 23 Sep. 2008. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Homo>.
  6. Human evolution: the fossil evidence in 3D, by Philip L. Walker and Edward H. Hagen, Dept. of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara, retrieved April 5, 2005.
  7. Green, R. E., Krause, J, Ptak, S. E., Briggs, A. W., Ronan, M. T., Simons, J. F., et al. (2006) Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA. Nature, 16, 330–336. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7117/abs/nature05336.html
  8. http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=102968
  9. "Age of ancient humans reassessed". BBC News. February 16, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4269299.stm. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  10. The Oldest Homo Sapiens: - URL retrieved May 15, 2009
  11. Alemseged, Z., Coppens, Y., Geraads, D. (2002). "Hominid cranium from Homo: Description and taxonomy of Homo-323-1976-896". Am J Phys Anthropol 117 (2): 103–12. doi:10.1002/ajpa.10032. PMID 11815945. 
  12. Stoneking, Mark; Soodyall, Himla (1996). "Human evolution and the mitochondrial genome". Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 6 (6): 731–6. doi:10.1016/S0959-437X(96)80028-1. 
  13. BBC World News "Africa's genetic secrets unlocked", 1 May 2009; the results were published in the online edition of the journal Science.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Wood B, Richmond BG (July 2000). "Human evolution: taxonomy and paleobiology". J. Anat. 197 ( Pt 1): 19–60. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2000.19710019.x. PMC 1468107. PMID 10999270. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1468107. 
  15. Frans de Waal, Bonobo. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. ISBN 0-520-20535-9 [1]
  16. Britten RJ (2002). "Divergence between samples of chimpanzee and human DNA sequences is 5%, counting indels". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99 (21): 13633–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.172510699. PMC 129726. PMID 12368483. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/99/21/13633. 
  17. Wildman, D., Uddin, M., Liu, G., Grossman, L., Goodman, M. (2003). "Implications of natural selection in shaping 99.4% nonsynonymous DNA identity between humans and chimpanzees: enlarging genus Homo". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100 (12): 7181–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.1232172100. PMC 165850. PMID 12766228. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/100/12/7181. 
  18. Ruvolo M (1 March 1997). "Molecular phylogeny of the hominoids: inferences from multiple independent DNA sequence data sets". Mol Biol Evol 14 (3): 248–65. PMID 9066793. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/14/3/248. 
  19. Brunet, M., Guy, F., Pilbeam, D., Mackaye, H., Likius, A., Ahounta, D., Beauvilain, A., Blondel, C., Bocherens, H., Boisserie, J., De Bonis, L., Coppens, Y., Dejax, J., Denys, C., Duringer, P., Eisenmann, V., Fanone, G., Fronty, P., Geraads, D., Lehmann, T., Lihoreau, F., Louchart, A., Mahamat, A., Merceron, G., Mouchelin, G., Otero, O., Pelaez Campomanes, P., Ponce De Leon, M., Rage, J., Sapanet, M., Schuster, M., Sudre, J., Tassy, P., Valentin, X., Vignaud, P., Viriot, L., Zazzo, A., Zollikofer, C. (2002). "A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa". Nature 418 (6894): 145–51. doi:10.1038/nature00879. PMID 12110880. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v418/n6894/full/nature00879.html.