Àkójọ àwọn ilẹ̀ ọbalúayé títóbijùlọ

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Lọ sí: atọ́ka, àwárí

Awon ile obaluaye titobijulo gege bi iposi ile won[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

For context, note that the total land area of the Earth is 148.94 million km2.[1]

All empires at their greatest extent[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. British Empire - 33 million km2 (1922)[2]
  2. Mongol Empire - 29 million km2 (1270 or 1309)[3][4]
  3. Russian Empire - 23.7 million km2 (1866)[3][4]
  4. Spanish Empire - 20.0 million km2 (ca. 1740-1790)[5]
  5. Qing Empire, China - 14.7 million km2 (1790)[3][4]
  6. Yuan Dynasty - 14.0 million km2 (1310)[4]
  7. Second French Colonial Empire - 13.5 million km2 (1938)[5]
  8. Umayyad Caliphate - 13.0 million km2 (720 or 750)[6]
  9. Abbasid Caliphate - 11.1 million km2 (750)[4]
  10. Portuguese Empire - 10.4 million km2 (1815)[5]
  11. United States of America - 9.8 million km2 (1899)[4]
  12. Empire of Brazil - 8.5 million km2 (1880)[5]
  13. Achaemenid Empire, Persia - 8.0 million km2 (480 BC)[7]
  14. Japanese Empire - 7.4 million km2 (1942)[5]
  15. Rashidun Caliphate - 6.7 million km2 (661)[4]
  16. Roman Empire - 6.5 million km2 (117)[8]
  17. Han Empire, China - 6.5 million km2 (100)[9]
  18. Ming Empire, China - 6.5 million km2 (1450)[3][4]
  19. Göktürk Khaganate - 6.0 million km2 (557)[3][9]
  20. Golden Horde Khanate - 6.0 million km2 (1310)[3][4]
  21. Uyghur Khaganate - 5.5 million km2 (800)[3][4]
  22. Tang Empire, China - 5.4 million km2 (715)[3][4]
  23. Macedonian Empire - 5.2 million km2 (323 BC)[3][10]
  24. Ottoman Empire - 5.2 million km2 (1683, 1829 or 1850)[3][4]
  25. Fatimid Caliphate - 5.1 million km2 (969)[3][4]
  26. Maurya Empire, India - 5.0 million km2 (250 BC)[3]
  27. Northern Yuan Dynasty (Oirats), Mongolia - 5.0 million km2 (1550)[4]
  28. Xin Dynasty, China - 4.7 million km2 (10)[9]
  29. Tufan (Tibet) Empire - 4.6 million km2 (800)[3][4]
  30. Pala Empire, India - 4.6 million km2 (850)
  31. Timurid Empire - 4.6 million km2 (1405)[3][4]
  32. Mughal Empire, India - 4.6 million km2 (1690)[3][4]
  33. First Mexican Empire - 4.4 million km2 (1822)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  34. Xiongnu Empire - 4.03 million km2 (176 BC)[11]
  35. Hunnic Empire - 4.0 million km2 (441)[9]
  36. Hepthalite Khanate (White Huns), India - 4.0 million km2 (490)[9]
  37. Eastern Turks Khanate - 4.0 million km2 (624)[9]
  38. Afsharid Dynasty, Persia - 4.0 million km2 (1747)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  39. Western Turks Khanate- 4.0 million km2 (630)[9]
  40. Rouran Khaganate (Juan-juan) - 4.0 million km2 (AD 405)[3][9]
  41. Seleucid Empire - 3.9 million km2 (301 BC)[3][10]
  42. Great Seljuq Empire - 3.9 million km2 (1080)[3][4]
  43. Italian Empire - 3.8 million km2 (1940)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  44. Kushan Empire, India- 3.8 million km2 (200)[9]
  45. Ilkhanate - 3.75 million km2 (1310)[3][4]
  46. Dutch Empire - 3.7 million km2(1940)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  47. Chola Dynasty, India - 3.6 million km2 (1050)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  48. Khwarazmian Empire - 3.6 million km2 (1218)[4]
  49. Nazi Germany - 3.6 million km2 (1942)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  50. Sassanid Empire, Persia - 3.5 million km2 (620)[3]
  51. Gupta Empire, India - 3.5 million km2 (400)[3]
  52. Chagatai Khanate - 3.5 million km2 (1310 or 1350)[3][4]
  53. Safavid Dynasty, Persia - 3.5 million km2 (1512)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  54. German Empire - 3.5 million km2 (1914)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  55. Western Jin Dynasty, China - 3.5 million km2 (300)[9]
  56. Shaybanid (Uzbek) Dynasty - 3.5 million km2 (1510)[4]
  57. Justinian Dynasty (Byzantine Empire) - 3.5 million km2 (555)[9]
  58. Song Dynasty (Northern Song), China - 3.5 million km2 (1100)[3][4]
  59. Ghaznavid Empire, Persia - 3.4 million km2 (1029)[3][4]
  60. First French Colonial Empire - 3.4 million km2 (1670)[4]
  61. Almoravid Caliphate - 3.3 million km2 (1147)[4]
  62. Tughlaq Dynasty, India- 3.2 million km2 (1320)[4]
  63. Ghurids Sultanate, Persia - 3.2 million km2 (1200)[4]
  64. Sui Dynasty, China - 3.1 million km2 (610)[4]
  65. Khazar Khanate - 3.0 million km2 (850)[3]
  66. Kalmar Union - 3.0 million km2 (1397)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  67. Kievan Rus' - 3.0 million km2 (1050)[3][4]
  68. Kara-Khanid Khanate - 3.0 million km2 (1025)[4]
  69. Qajar Dynasty, Persia- 3.0 million km2 (1796)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  70. Danish colonial empire - 3.0 million km2 (1800)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  71. Grand Duchy of Moscow - 3.0 million km2 (1505)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  72. Samanid Dynasty, Persia - 2.85 million km2 (928)[3][4]
  73. Median Empire - 2.8 million km2 (585 BC)[3][10]
  74. Qin Dynasty, China - 2.8 million km2 (206 BC)[9]
  75. Parthian Empire - 2.8 million km2 (1)[3][10]
  76. Eastern Jin Dynasty, China - 2.8 million km2 (347)[9]
  77. Liu Song Dynasty, China - 2.8 million km2 (420)[9]
  78. Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) - 2.8 million km2 (450)[9]
  79. Khilji Dynasty, India - 2.7 million km2 (1312 or 1320)[3][4]
  80. Ayyubid Caliphate - 2.7 million km2 (1190)[3]
  81. Majapahit Empire (Indonesia) - 2.7 million km2 (1389)[9]
  82. Liao Dynasty, China - 2.6 million km2 (947)[3][4]
  83. Indo-Greek (Yavana) Kingdom,India - 2.5 million km2 (150 BC)[9]
  84. Bactrian Empire - 2.5 million km2 (184 BC)[9]
  85. Later Zhao Dynasty, China - 2.5 million km2 (329)[9]
  86. Maratha Empire, India - 2.5 million km2 (1760)[3]
  87. Belgian Empire - 2.5 million km2 (1914)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  88. Kara-Khitan Khanate (Western Liao) - 2.5 million km2 (1210)[3]
  89. Jin Dynasty (Jurchen), China - 2.3 million km2 (1126)[3][4]
  90. Southern Qi Dynasty, China - 2.3 million km2 (502)[9]
  91. Southern Song Dynasty, China - 2.1 million km2 (1127)[4]
  92. Bahriyya Mamluks, Egypt - 2.1 million km2 (1300)[4]
  93. Burjiyya Mamluks, Egypt - 2.1 million km2 (1400)[3]
  94. First French Empire - 2.1 million km2 (1813)[4]
  95. Wei Dynasty, China - 2.0 million km2 (263)[9]
  96. Earlier Zhao Dynasty, China - 2.0 million km2 (316)[9]
  97. Former Qin Dynasty, China - 2.0 million km2 (376)[9]
  98. Western Roman Empire - 2.0 million km2 (395)[9]
  99. Northern Wei Dynasty, China - 2.0 million km2 (450)[9]
  100. Saffarid Dynasty, Persia - 2.0 million km2 (900)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  101. Almohad Caliphate - 2.0 million km2 (1200)[3]
  102. Satavahana Dynasty (Salivahana), India - 2.0 million km2 (90 AD)[9]
  103. Karkota Dynasty (Kashmir), India - 2.0 million km2 (750)[3][4]
  104. Inca Empire - 2.0 million km2 (1527)[3][4]
  105. Gurjara Pratihara Dynasty, India - 1.8 million km2 (860)[4]
  106. Sibir Khanate - 1.8 million km2 (1520)[4]
  107. Rashtrakuta Dynasty, India - 1.7 million km2 (805)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  108. Buyid Sultanate, Persia - 1.6 million km2 (980)[3][4]
  109. Mamluk Sultanate, India - 1.6 million km2 (1228)[4]
  110. Indo-Parthians (Pahalvas) Kingdom, India - 1.5 million km2 (AD 50)[9]
  111. Wu Dynasty, China- 1.5 million km2 (221)[9]
  112. Northern Zhou Dynasty, China - 1.5 million km2 (577)[9]
  113. Nanda Dynasty, India - 1.5 million km2 (350 or 321 BC)[9][12]
  114. Indo-Scythians (Shaka) Kingdom, India - 1.5 million km2 (BC 100)[10]
  115. Tulunids Emirate - 1.5 million km2 (900)[9]
  116. Idrisid Dynasty, Morocco - 1.5 million km2 (828)[3]
  117. Suri Dynasty, India - 1.5 million km2 (1545 AD)[3][4]
  118. Neo-Assyrian Empire - 1.4 million km2 (670 BC)[3][10]
  119. Songhai Empire - 1.4 million km2 (1500)[13]
  120. Macedonian Dynasty (Byzantine Empire) - 1.35 million km2 (1025)[3][9]
  121. Harsha Empire (Pusyabhutis), India - 1.35 million km2 (625 or 648)[3][4]
  122. Liang Dynasty, China - 1.3 million km2 (502 or 549)[3][9]
  123. Western Wei Dynasty, China - 1.3 million km2 (557)[9]
  124. Later Liang Dynasty, China- 1.3 million km2 (923)[4]
  125. Later Tang Dynasty, China - 1.3 million km2 (923)[4]
  126. Mali Empire - 1.29 million km2 (1312)[14]
  127. Shang Dynasty, China - 1.25 million km2 (1122 BC)[3][10]
  128. Western Zhou Dynasty, China - 1.25 million km2 (1122 BC)[10]
  129. Aksumite Empire - 1.25 million km2 (350)[3]
  130. Carolingian Dynasty, Francia - 1.2 million km2 (814)[3][4]
  131. Polish-Lithuanian Empire - 1.2 million km2 (1650)[3][4]
  132. Srivijaya Empire - 1.2 million km2 (1200)[3]
  133. Sunga Empire, India - 1.2 million km2 (BC 150)[3]
  134. Kingdom of Kush (Meroë) (25th Dynasty), Sudan - 1.2 million km2 (BC 700)[3]
  135. Thai Empire (Siam Empire) - 1.12 million km2 (1782)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  136. Chalukya Dynasty, India - 1.1 million km2 (636)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  137. Swedish Empire - 1.1 million km2 (1658)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  138. Lodhi Dynasty, India - 1.1 million km2 (1517)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  139. 18th Dynasty, Egypt - 1.0 million km2 (1450 BC)[10]
  140. New Kingdom in Egypt - 1.0 million km2 (1300 BC)[3][10]
  141. Ptolemaic Dynasty, Egypt - 1.0 million km2 (301 BC)[10]
  142. Eastern Wei Dynasty, China - 1.0 million km2 (550)[9]
  143. Northern Qi Dynasty, China - 1.0 million km2 (550)[9]
  144. Tahirid Dynasty, Persia - 1.0 million km2 (800)[4]
  145. Kalachuri Dynasty, India - 1.0 million km2 (1050)[3][4]
  146. Holy Roman Empire - 1.0 million km2 (1050)[4]
  147. Western Xia Dynasty (Tangut), China- 1.0 million km2 (1100)[3]
  148. Western Chalukya Empire, India - 1.0 million km2 (1121)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  149. Khmer Empire - 1.0 million km2 (1290)[3][4]
  150. Avars Empire - 1.0 million km2 (600)[9]
  151. Kanem Empire, Chad - 1.0 million km2 (1200)[4]
  152. Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty, India- 0.9 million km2 (10 BC)[10]
  153. Konbaung Dynasty, Burma - 0.9 million km2 (1800 AD)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  154. Volga Bulgars Khanate - 0.9 million km2 (1100)[3][4]
  155. Akkadian Empire - 0.8 million km2 (2250 BC)[10]
  156. Later Jin Dynasty, China - 0.8 million km2 (936)[4]
  157. Ghana Empire - 0.8 million km2 (1067)[9]
  158. Pagan Kingdom (Bagan), Burma - 0.8 million km2 (1200)[4]
  159. Western Satraps Dynasty, India - 0.8 million km2 (100)[9]
  160. Himyarite Kingdom, Yemen - 0.8 million km2 (400 AD)[10]
  161. Balhae Kingdom, Korea - 0.8 million km2 (830)[3]
  162. Khanate of Kazan - 0.7 million km2 (1540)[4]
  163. Merovingian Dynasty, Francia - 0.7 million km2 (558)[4]
  164. Bulgarian Empire - 0.7 million km2 (900)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  165. Shu Dynasty, China- 0.7 million km2 (221)[9]
  166. Yadava (Gauli) Kingdom, India- 0.7 million km2 (1250)[4]
  167. Paramara Dynasty , India - 0.7 million km2 (1050)[9]
  168. Kingdom of Dali (Hou li),China - 0.7 million km2 (1200)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  169. Vijayanagara (Tuluvas) Empire, India- 0.7 million km2 (1529)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  170. Kingdom of Nanzhao, China - 0.7 million km2 (830)[4]
  171. Austro-Hungarian Empire - 0.676615 million km2Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  172. 15th Dynasty (Hyksos), Egypt - 0.65 million km2 (1650 BC)[10]
  173. 26th Dynasty, Egypt- 0.65 million km2 (550 BC)[10]
  174. Vakataka Kingdom, India - 0.65 million km2 (450 AD)[10]
  175. Visigoths Kingdom - 0.6 million km2 (580)[9]
  176. Caliphate of Córdoba - 0.6 million km2 (1000)[4]
  177. Rai Dynasty (Chachas) (Sindh) ,India - 0.6 million km2 (675 AD)[9]
  178. Maukhari (Kannauj) Dynasty, India - 0.6 million km2 (600 AD)[4]
  179. Bahmani Sultanate, India - 0.6 million km2 (1470 AD)[4]
  180. Nizams Dynasty, India - 0.6 million km2 (1740 AD)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  181. Sikh Empire, India - 0.5609 million km2 (1845)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  182. Middle Kingdom, Egypt - 0.5 million km2 (1850 BC)[10]
  183. Lydian Empire - 0.5 million km2 (585 BC)[10]
  184. Neo-Babylonian Empire - 0.5 million km2 (562 BC)[10]
  185. Kosala Dynasty, India - 0.5 million km2 (543 BC)[9]
  186. Shishunaga Dynasty,India- 0.5 million km2 (510 BC)[9]
  187. Chu Dynasty, China - 0.5 million km2 (350 BC)[9]
  188. Pandyan Dynasty, India - 0.5 million km2 (1251)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  189. Later Han Dynasty, China - 0.5 million km2 (947)[4]
  190. Kangju Empire (Transoxiana) - 0.5 million km2 (100 BC)[9]
  191. Ostrogothic Kingdom- 0.5 million km2 (510 AD)[4]
  192. Goguryeo Kingdom, Korea - 0.45 million km2 (476)[10]
  193. Xia Dynasty, China (bassed on the hypothesis that prehistorical cities of Erlitou culture were once united) - 0.45 million km2 (1800 BC)[10]
  194. New Kingdom, Hittite - 0.45 million km2 (1250 or 1220 BC)[10]
  195. Crimean Khanate - 0.4 million km2 (1500)[4]
  196. Armenian Empire - 0.4 million km2 (83 BC)[9]
  197. Old Kingdom, Egypt - 0.4 million km2 (2400 BC)[10]
  198. Middle Kingdom, Assyria (under Tiglath-Pileser I) - 0.4 million km2 (1080 BC)[10]
  199. Latin Empire - 0.35 million km2 (1204)[9]
  200. Harappan Empire, India- 0.3 million km2 (1800 BC)[12]
  201. Mitanni Empire - 0.3 million km2 (1450 BC)[10]
  202. Carthaginian Empire - 0.3 million km2 (220 BC)[10]
  203. Palailogan Dynasty (Byzantine Empire) - 0.3 million km2 (1300)[10]
  204. 1st Dynasty, Babylon - 0.25 million km2 (1690 BC)[10]
  205. Serbian Empire - 0.25 million km2 (1350)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  206. Aztec Empire - 0.22 million km2 (1520)[4]
  207. Middle Elamite - 0.2 million km2 (1160 BC)[10]
  208. 2nd Dynasty, Isin - 0.2 million km2 (1130 BC)[10]
  209. Urartu Empire - 0.2 million km2 (800 BC)[10]
  210. Phrygian Dynasty - 0.2 million km2 (750 BC)[10]
  211. Old Kingdom, Assyria - 0.15 million km2 (1730 BC)[10]
  212. Eastern Zhou Dynasty, China - 0.15 million km2 (770 BC)[10]

Record-breaking empires[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

These are empires that reached record-breaking sizes in their time, each one having a larger landmass than (or equal to) the previous record-holding empire before it.[4]

By era[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ancient empires[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent.
Roman Empire at its greatest extent.
Macedonian Empire at its greatest extent.
Maurya Empire at its greatest extent.
  1. Achaemenid Empire - 8.0 million km2 (480 BC)[7][15]
  2. Han Empire, China - 6.5 million km2 (AD 100)[9]
  3. Roman Empire - 6.5 million km2 (AD 117)[8][16]
  4. Macedonian Empire - 5.2 million km2 (323 BC)[3][10]
  5. Maurya Empire, India - 5.0 million km2 (250 BC)[3][17]
  6. Xin Dynasty, China - 4.7 million km2 (AD 10)[9]
  7. Xiongnu Empire - 4.03 million km2 (176 BC)[11][18]
  8. Hunnic Empire - 4.0 million km2 (AD 441)[9]
  9. Hapthalite Khanate (White Huns), India - 4.0 million km2 (AD 490)[9]
  10. Rouran Khaganate (Juan-juan) - 4.0 million km2 (AD 405)[3][9]
  11. Seleucid Empire - 3.9 million km2 (301 BC)[3][10]
  12. Kushan Empire, India - 3.8 million km2 (AD 200)[9][19]
  13. Sassanid Empire - 3.5 million km2 (AD 450)[3][10]
  14. Gupta Empire, India - 3.5 million km2 (AD 400)[3][20]
  15. Western Jin Dynasty, China - 3.5 million km2 (AD 300)[9]
  16. Median Empire - 2.8 million km2 (585 BC)[3][10]
  17. Qin Dynasty, China - 2.8 million km2 (206 BC)[9]
  18. Parthian Empire - 2.8 million km2 (AD 1)[3][10]
  19. Eastern Jin Dynasty, China - 2.8 million km2 (AD 347)[9]
  20. Liu Song Dynasty, China - 2.8 million km2 (AD 420)[9]
  21. Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) - 2.8 million km2 (AD 450)[9]
  22. Indo-Greek (Yavana) Kingdom, India - 2.5 million km2 (150 BC)[9]
  23. Bactrian Empire - 2.5 million km2 (184 BC)[9]
  24. Later Zhao Dynasty, China - 2.5 million km2 (329)[9]
  25. Northern Wei Dynasty, China - 2.2 million km2 (AD 450)[9]
  26. Wei Dynasty, China - 2.0 million km2 (AD 263)[9]
  27. Former Qin Dynasty, China - 2.0 million km2 (AD 376)[9]
  28. Western Roman Empire - 2.0 million km2 (AD 395)[9]
  29. Earlier Zhao Dynasty, China - 2.0 million km2 (316)[9]
  30. Satavahana Empire (Salivahana), India - 2.0 million km2 (AD 90)[9]
  31. Indo-Parthians (Pahalvas) Kingdom , India - 1.5 million km2 (AD 50)[9]
  32. Wu Dynasty, China - 1.5 million km2 (AD 221)[9]
  33. Indo-Scythians (Shaka) Kingdom, India - 1.5 million km2 (BC 100)[10]
  34. Nanda Dynasty, India - 1.5 million km2 (350 or 321 BC)[9][12]
  35. Neo-Assyrian Empire - 1.4 million km2 (670 BC)[10]
  36. Shang Dynasty, China - 1.25 million km2 (1122 BC)[3][10]
  37. Western Zhou Dynasty, China - 1.25 million km2 (1122 BC)[10]
  38. Aksumite Empire - 1.25 million km2 (AD 350)[3]
  39. Sunga Empire, India - 1.2 million km2 (BC 150)[3]
  40. Kingdom of Kush (Meroë) (25th Dynasty), Sudan - 1.2 million km2 (BC 700)[3]
  41. 18th Dynasty, Egypt - 1.0 million km2 (1450 BC)[10]
  42. New Kingdom in Egypt - 1.0 million km2 (1300 BC)[3][10]
  43. Ptolemaic Empire, Egypt - 1.0 million km2 (301 BC)[10]
  44. Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty, India - 0.9 million km2 (10 BC)[10]
  45. Akkadian Empire - 0.8 million km2 (2250 BC)[10]
  46. Western Satraps Dynasty, India - 0.8 million km2 (AD 100)[9]
  47. Himyarite Kingdom, Yemen - 0.8 million km2 (400 AD)[10]
  48. Shu Dynasty, China - 0.7 million km2 (221)[9]
  49. 15th Dynasty (Hyksos), Egypt - 0.65 million km2 (1650 BC)[10]
  50. Vakataka Kingdom, India - 0.65 million km2 (450 AD)[10]
  51. 26th Dynasty, Egypt - 0.65 million km2 (550 BC)[10]
  52. Middle Kingdom, Egypt - 0.5 million km2 (1850 BC)[10]
  53. Lydian Empire - 0.5 million km2 (585 BC)[10]
  54. Neo-Babylonian Empire - 0.5 million km2 (562 BC)[10]
  55. Kosala Dynasty, India - 0.5 million km2 (543 BC)[9]
  56. Shishunaga Dynasty, India - 0.5 million km2 (510 BC)[9]
  57. Chu Dynasty, China - 0.5 million km2 (350 BC)[9]
  58. Kangju Empire (Transoxiana) - 0.5 million km2 (100 BC)[9]
  59. Goguryeo Kingdom, Korea - 0.45 million km2 (476)[10]
  60. Xia Dynasty, China (bassed on the hypothesis that prehistorical cities of Erlitou culture were once united) - 0.45 million km2 (1800 BC)[10]
  61. New Kingdom, Hittite - 0.45 million km2 (1250 or 1220 BC)[10]
  62. Armenian Empire - 0.4 million km2 (83 BC)[9]
  63. Old Kingdom, Egypt - 0.4 million km2 (2400 BC)[10]
  64. Middle Kingdom, Assyria - 0.4 million km2 (1080 BC)[10]
  65. Harappan Empire, India (based on the hypothesis that Indus Valley was once united) - 0.3 million km2 (1800 BC)[12]
  66. Mitanni Dynasty - 0.3 million km2 (1450 BC)[10]
  67. Carthaginian Empire - 0.3 million km2 (220 BC)[10]
  68. 1st Dynasty, Babylon - 0.25 million km2 (1690 BC)[10]
  69. Middle Elamite - 0.2 million km2 (1160 BC)[10]
  70. 2nd Dynasty, Isin - 0.2 million km2 (1130 BC)[10]
  71. Urartu Empire - 0.2 million km2 (800 BC)[10]
  72. Phrygian Dynasty - 0.2 million km2 (750 BC)[10]
  73. Old Kingdom, Assyria - 0.15 million km2 (1730 BC)[10]
  74. Eastern Zhou Dynasty, China - 0.15 million km2 (770 BC)[10]

Medieval empires[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Mongol Empire at its greatest extent.
Ming Empire at its greatest extent.
The expansion of the Caliphate.      Expansion under Muhammad, 622-632      Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632-661      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750
Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c. 1030 C.E.
Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent.
  1. Mongol Empire - 33.0 million km2 (1270 or 1309)[3][4]
  2. Yuan Dynasty - 14.0 million km2 (1310)[4]
  3. Umayyad Caliphate - 13.0 million km2 (720 or 750)[6]
  4. Abbasid Caliphate - 11.1 million km2 (750)[4]
  5. Rashidun Caliphate - 6.7 million km2 (661)[4]
  6. Ming Empire, China - 6.5 million km2 (1450)[3][4]
  7. Göktürk Khaganate - 6.0 million km2 (557)[3][9]
  8. Golden Horde Khanate - 6.0 million km2 (1310)[3][4]
  9. Uyghur Khaganate - 5.5 million km2 (800)[3][4]
  10. Tang Empire, China - 5.4 million km2 (715)[3][4]
  11. Fatimid Caliphate - 5.1 million km2 (969)[3][4]
  12. Tufan (Tibet) Empire - 4.6 million km2 (800)[3][4]
  13. Pala Empire, India - 4.6 million km2 (850)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  14. Timurid Empire - 4.6 million km2 (1405)[3][4]
  15. Eastern Turks Khanate - 4.0 million km2 (624)[9]
  16. Western Turks Khanate - 4.0 million km2 (600)[9]
  17. Great Seljuq Empire - 3.9 million km2 (1080)[3][4]
  18. Ilkhanate - 3.75 million km2 (1310)[3][4]
  19. Chola Dynasty, India - 3.6 million km2 (1050)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  20. Khwarazmian Empire - 3.6 million km2 (1218)[4][21]
  21. Sassanid Empire - 3.5 million km2 (620)[3]
  22. Chagatai Khanate - 3.5 million km2 (1310 or 1350)[3][4]
  23. Justinian Dynasty (Byzantine Empire) - 3.5 million km2 (555)[9]
  24. Northern Yuan Empire (Oirats), Mongolia - 3.5 million km2 (1400)[4]
  25. Song Dynasty (Northern Song), China- 3.5 million km2 (1100)[3][4]
  26. Ghaznavid Empire, Persia - 3.4 million km2 (1029)[3][4]
  27. Almoravid Caliphate - 3.3 million km2 (1147)[4][22]
  28. Tughlaq Dynasty, India - 3.2 million km2 (1320)[4]
  29. Ghurids Sultanate, Persia - 3.2 million km2 (1200)[4]
  30. Sui Dynasty, China - 3.1 million km2 (610)[4]
  31. Khazar Khanate - 3.0 million km2 (850)[3][23]
  32. Kalmar Union - 3.0 million km2 (1397)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  33. Kievan Rus' - 3.0 million km2 (1050)[3][4]
  34. Kara-Khanid Khanate - 3.0 million km2 (1025)[4]
  35. Samanid Dynasty, Persia - 2.85 million km2 (928)[3][4]
  36. Ayyubid Caliphate - 2.7 million km2 (1190)[3][24]
  37. Majapahit Empire (Indonesia) - 2.7 million km2 (1389)[9]
  38. Khilji Dynasty, India - 2.7 million km2 (1312 or 1320)[3][4]
  39. Liao Dynasty, China - 2.6 million km2 (947)[3][4]
  40. Kara-Khitan Khanate(Western Liao) - 2.5 million km2 (1210)[3][25]
  41. Jin Dynasty(Jurchen), China) - 2.3 million km2 (1126)[3][4]
  42. Southern Qi Dynasty, China - 2.3 million km2 (502)[9]
  43. Southern Song Dynasty, China - 2.1 million km2 (1127)[4]
  44. Bahriyya Mamluks, Egypt - 2.1 million km2 (1300)[4]
  45. Burjiyya Mamluks, Egypt - 2.1 million km2 (1400)[3][26]
  46. Saffarid Dynasty, Persia - 2.0 million km2 (900)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  47. Ottoman Empire - 2.0 million km2 (1480)[3][4]
  48. Almohad Caliphate - 2.0 million km2 (1200)[3][27]
  49. Karkota Dynasty (Kashmir), India - 2.0 million km2 (750)[3][4]
  50. Pratihara Dynasty, India - 1.8 million km2 (860)[4]
  51. Rashtrakuta Dynasty, India - 1.7 million km2 (805)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  52. Buyid Sultanate, Persia - 1.6 million km2 (980)[3][4]
  53. Mamluk Sultanate, India - 1.6 million km2 (1228)[4]
  54. Northern Zhou Dynasty, China - 1.5 million km2 (577)[9]
  55. Tulunids Emirate - 1.5 million km2 (900)[9]
  56. Idrisid Dynasty, Morocco - 1.5 million km2 (828)[3]
  57. Songhai Empire - 1.4 million km2 (1500)[13]
  58. Macedonian Dynasty (Byzantine Empire) - 1.35 million km2 (1025)[3][9]
  59. Harsha Empire (Pusyabhutis), India - 1.35 million km2 (625 or 648)[3][4]
  60. Liang Dynasty, China - 1.3 million km2 (502 or 549)[3][9]
  61. Western Wei Dynasty, China - 1.3 million km2 (557)[9]
  62. Later Liang Dynasty, China - 1.3 million km2 (923)[4]
  63. Later Tang Dynasty, China - 1.3 million km2 (923)[4]
  64. Mali Empire - 1.29 million km2 (1312)[14]
  65. Carolingian Dynasty, Francia - 1.2 million km2 (814)[3][4]
  66. Srivijaya Empire - 1.2 million km2 (1200)[3]
  67. Chalukya Dynasty, India - 1.1 million km2 (636)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  68. Eastern Wei Dynasty, China - 1.0 million km2 (550)[9]
  69. Northern Qi Dynasty, China - 1.0 million km2 (550)[9]
  70. Tahirid Dynasty, Persia - 1.0 million km2 (800)[4]
  71. Holy Roman Empire - 1.0 million km2 (1050)[4]
  72. Western Xia Dynasty (Tangut), China - 1.0 million km2 (1100)[3]
  73. Western Chalukya Empire, India - 1.0 million km2 (1121)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  74. Khmer Empire - 1.0 million km2 (1290)[3][4]
  75. Kalachuri Dynasty, India - 1.0 million km2 (1050)[3][4]
  76. Avars Empire - 1.0 million km2 (600)[9]
  77. Kanem Empire, Chad - 1.0 million km2 (1200)[4]
  78. Volga Bulgars Khanate - 0.9 million km2 (1100)[3][4]
  79. Later Jin Dynasty, China - 0.8 million km2 (936)[4]
  80. Ghana Empire - 0.8 million km2 (1067)[9]
  81. Pagan Kingdom (Bagan), Burma - 0.8 million km2 (1200)[4]
  82. Balhae Kingdom, Korea - 0.8 million km2 (830)[3]
  83. Merovingian Dynasty, Francia - 0.7 million km2 (558)[4]
  84. Yadava (Gauli) Kingdom, India - 0.7 million km2 (1250)[4]
  85. Bulgarian Empire - 0.7 million km2 (900)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  86. Paramara Dynasty, India - 0.7 million km2 (1050)[9]
  87. Kingdom of Dali (Hou li), China - 0.7 million km2 (1200)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  88. Kingdom of Nanzhao, China - 0.7 million km2 (830)[9]
  89. Visigoths Kingdom - 0.6 million km2 (580)[9]
  90. Caliphate of Córdoba - 0.6 million km2 (1000)[4]
  91. Rai Dynasty (Chachas) (Sindh), India - 0.6 million km2 (675 AD)[9]
  92. Maukhari (Kannauj) Dynasty, India - 0.6 million km2 (600 AD)[4]
  93. Bahmani Sultanate, India - 0.6 million km2 (1470 AD)[4]
  94. Later Han Dynasty, China - 0.5 million km2 (947)[4]
  95. Pandyan Dynasty, India - 0.5 million km2 (1251)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  96. Ostrogothic Kingdom - 0.5 million km2 (510 AD)[4]
  97. Latin Empire - 0.35 million km2 (1204)[9]
  98. Palailogan Dynasty (Byzantine Empire)- 0.3 million km2 (1300)[10]
  99. Serbian Empire - 0.25 million km2 (1350)Àdàkọ:Citation needed

Modern empires[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

British Empire at its greatest extent.
Russian Empire at its greatest extent.
Spanish Empire at its greatest extent.
All territories and spheres of influence ever held by the French Empire
Anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire.
Qing Empire at its greatest extent.
Ottoman Empire territories acquired between 1300 and 1683.
  1. British Empire - 33.67 million km2 (1922)[2][28]
  2. Russian Empire - 23.7 million km2 (1866)[3][4]
  3. Spanish Empire - 20.0 million km2 (ca. 1740-1790)[5][29]
  4. Qing Empire, China - 14.7 million km2 (1790)[3][4]
  5. Second French Colonial Empire - 13 million km2 (1938)[5][30]
  6. Portuguese Empire - 10.4 million km2 (1815)[5][31]
  7. Empire of Brazil - 8.5 million km2 (1880)[5]
  8. Japanese Empire - 7.4 million km2 (1942)[5]
  9. Ottoman Empire - 5.2 million km2 (1683, 1829 or 1850)[3][4]
  10. Northern Yuan Empire (Oirats), Mongolia - 5.0 million km2 (1550)[4]
  11. Ming Empire, China - 5.0 million km2 (1540)[3][4]
  12. Mughal Empire, India - 4.6 million km2 (1690)[3][4]
  13. First Mexican Empire - 4.4 million km2 (1822)[32]
  14. Afsharid Dynasty, Persia - 4.0 million km2 (1747)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  15. Italian Empire - 3.8 million km2 (1940)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  16. Dutch Empire - 3.7 million km2(1940)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  17. Nazi German Empire - 3.6 million km2 (1942)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  18. German Empire - 3.5 million km2 (1914)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  19. Safavid Dynasty, Persia - 3.5 million km2 (1512)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  20. Shaybanid (Uzbek) Dynasty - 3.5 million km2 (1510)[4]
  21. First French Colonial Empire - 3.4 million km2 (1670)[4]
  22. Danish colonial empire - 3.0 million km2 (1800)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  23. Qajar Dynasty, Persia - 3.0 million km2 (1796)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  24. Grand Duchy of Moscow - 3.0 million km2 (1505)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  25. Belgian Empire - 2.5 million km2 (1914)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  26. Maratha Empire, India - 2.5 million km2 (1760)[3]
  27. First French Empire - 2.1 million km2 (1813)[4]
  28. Inca Empire - 2.0 million km2 (1527)[3][4]
  29. Sibir Khanate - 1.8 million km2 (1520)[4]
  30. Suri Dynasty ,India - 1.5 million km2 (1545 AD)[3][4]
  31. Polish-Lithuanian Empire - 1.2 million km2 (1650)[3][4]
  32. Thai Empire (Siam Empire) - 1.12 million km2 (1782)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  33. Lodhi Dynasty, India - 1.1 million km2 (1517 AD)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  34. Swedish Empire - 1.1 million km2 (1658)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  35. Konbaung Dynasty, Burma - 0.9 million km2 (1800 AD)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  36. Khanate of Kazan - 0.7 million km2 (1540)[4]
  37. Vijayanagara (Tuluvas) Empire, India - 0.7 million km2 (1529)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  38. Austro-Hungarian Empire - 0.676615 million km2Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  39. Nizams Dynasty, India - 0.6 million km2 (1740 AD)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  40. Sikh Empire, India - 0.5609 million km2 (1845)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  41. Crimean Khanate - 0.4 million km2 (1500)[4]
  42. Aztec Empire - 0.22 million km2 (1520)[4]

By type[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Contiguous empires[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. Mongol Empire - 33.0 million km2 (1270 or 1309)[3][4]
  2. Russian Empire - 23.7 million km2 (1866)[3][4]
  3. Qing Empire, China - 14.7 million km2 (1790)[3][4]
  4. Yuan Khanate - 14.0 million km2 (1310)[4]
  5. Umayyad Caliphate - 13.0 million km2 (720 or 750)[6]
  6. Abbasid Caliphate - 11.1 million km2 (750)[4]
  7. Empire of Brazil - 8.5 million km2 (1880)[5]
  8. Achaemenid Empire, Persia - 8.0 million km2 (480 BC)[7]
  9. Rashidun Caliphate - 6.7 million km2 (661)[4]
  10. Han Empire, China - 6.5 million km2 (100)[9]
  11. Ming Empire, China - 6.5 million km2 (1450)[3][4]
  12. Göktürk Khaganate - 6.0 million km2 (557)[3][9]
  13. Golden Horde Khanate - 6.0 million km2 (1310)[3][4]
  14. Uyghur Khaganate - 5.5 million km2 (800)[3][4]
  15. Tang Empire, China - 5.4 million km2 (715)[3][4]
  16. Macedonian Empire - 5.2 million km2 (323 BC)[3][10]
  17. Fatimid Caliphate - 5.1 million km2 (969)[3][4]
  18. Maurya Empire, India - 5.0 million km2 (250 BC)[3]
  19. Northern Yuan Empire (Oirats), Mongolia - 5.0 million km2 (1550)[4]
  20. Xin Dynasty, China - 4.7 million km2 (10)[9]
  21. Tufan (Tibet) Empire - 4.6 million km2 (800)[3][4]
  22. Pala Empire, India - 4.6 million km2 (850)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  23. Timurid Empire - 4.6 million km2 (1405)[3][4]
  24. Mughal Empire, India - 4.6 million km2 (1690)[3][4]
  25. First Mexican Empire - 4.4 million km2 (1822)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  26. Xiongnu Empire - 4.03 million km2 (176 BC)[11]
  27. Hunnic Empire - 4.0 million km2 (441)[9]
  28. Hepthalite Khanate (White Huns), India - 4.0 million km2 (490)[9]
  29. Eastern Turks Khanate - 4.0 million km2 (624)[9]
  30. Afsharid Dynasty, Persia - 4.0 million km2 (1747)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  31. Western Turks Khanate - 4.0 million km2 (630)[9]
  32. Rouran Khaganate (Juan-juan) - 4.0 million km2 (405)[3][9]
  33. Seleucid Empire - 3.9 million km2 (301 BC)[3][10]
  34. Great Seljuq Empire - 3.9 million km2 (1080)[3][4]
  35. Kushan Empire, India - 3.8 million km2 (200)[9]
  36. Ilkhanate - 3.75 million km2 (1310)[3][4]
  37. Khwarazmian Empire - 3.6 million km2 (1218)[4]
  38. Nazi German Empire - 3.6 million km2 (1942)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  39. Sassanid Empire, Persia - 3.5 million km2 (620)[3]
  40. Gupta Empire, India - 3.5 million km2 (400)[3]
  41. Chagatai Khanate - 3.5 million km2 (1310 or 1350)[3][4]
  42. Safavid Dynasty , Persia - 3.5 million km2 (1512)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  43. Western Jin Dynasty, China - 3.5 million km2 (300)[9]
  44. Shaybanid (Uzbek) Dynasty - 3.5 million km2 (1510)[4]
  45. Song Dynasty (Northern Song), China- 3.5 million km2 (1100)[3][4]
  46. Ghaznavid Empire, Persia - 3.4 million km2 (1029)[3][4]
  47. Almoravid Caliphate - 3.3 million km2 (1147)[4]
  48. Tughlaq Dynasty, India - 3.2 million km2 (1320)[4]
  49. Ghurids Sultanate, Persia - 3.2 million km2 (1200)[4]
  50. Sui Dynasty, China - 3.1 million km2 (610)[4]
  51. Khazar Khanate - 3.0 million km2 (850)[3]
  52. Kievan Rus' - 3.0 million km2 (1050)[3][4]
  53. Kara-Khanid Khanate - 3.0 million km2 (1025)[4]
  54. Grand Duchy of Moscow - 3.0 million km2 (1505)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  55. Qajar Dynasty, Persia - 3.0 million km2 (1796)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  56. Samanid Dynasty, Persia - 2.85 million km2 (928)[3][4]
  57. Median Empire - 2.8 million km2 (585 BC)[3][10]
  58. Qin Dynasty, China - 2.8 million km2 (206 BC)[9]
  59. Parthian Empire - 2.8 million km2 (1)[3][10]
  60. Eastern Jin Dynasty, China - 2.8 million km2 (347)[9]
  61. Liu Song Dynasty, China - 2.8 million km2 (420)[9]
  62. Khilji Dynasty, India - 2.7 million km2 (1312 or 1320)[3][4]
  63. Ayyubid Caliphate - 2.7 million km2 (1190)[3]
  64. Liao Dynasty, China - 2.6 million km2 (947)[3][4]
  65. Indo-Greek (Yavana) Kingdom, India - 2.5 million km2 (150 BC)[9]
  66. Bactrian Empire - 2.5 million km2 (184 BC)[9]
  67. Later Zhao Dynasty, China - 2.5 million km2 (329)[9]
  68. Maratha Empire, India - 2.5 million km2 (1760)[3]
  69. Kara-Khitan Khanate (Western Liao) - 2.5 million km2 (1210)[3]
  70. Jin Dynasty (Jurchen) China - 2.3 million km2 (1126)[3][4]
  71. Southern Qi Dynasty, China - 2.3 million km2 (502)[9]
  72. Southern Song Dynasty, China - 2.1 million km2 (1127)[4]
  73. Bahriyya Mamluks, Egypt - 2.1 million km2 (1300)[4]
  74. Burjiyya Mamluks, Egypt - 2.1 million km2 (1400)[3]
  75. Wei Dynasty, China - 2.0 million km2 (263)[9]
  76. Earlier Zhao Dynasty, China - 2.0 million km2 (316)[9]
  77. Former Qin Dynasty, China - 2.0 million km2 (376)[9]
  78. Western Roman Empire - 2.0 million km2 (395)[9]
  79. Northern Wei Dynasty, China - 2.0 million km2 (450)[9]
  80. Saffarid Dynasty, Persia - 2.0 million km2 (900)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  81. Almohad Caliphate - 2.0 million km2 (1200)[3]
  82. Inca Empire - 2.0 million km2 (1527)[3][4]
  83. Karkota Dynasty (Kashmir), India - 2.0 million km2 (750)[3][4]
  84. Satavahana Empire (Salivahana), India - 2.0 million km2 (90 AD)[9]
  85. Pratihara Dynasty, India - 1.8 million km2 (860)[4]
  86. Sibir Khanate - 1.8 million km2 (1520)[4]
  87. Rashtrakuta Dynasty, India - 1.7 million km2 (805)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  88. Buyid Sultanate, Persia - 1.6 million km2 (980)[3][4]
  89. Mamluk Sultanate, India - 1.6 million km2 (1228)[4]
  90. Indo- Parthians (Pahalvas) Kingdom , India - 1.5 million km2 (AD 50)[9]
  91. Wu Dynasty, China - 1.5 million km2 (221)[9]
  92. Northern Zhou Dynasty, China - 1.5 million km2 (577)[9]
  93. Nanda Dynasty, India - 1.5 million km2 (350 or 321 BC)[9][12]
  94. Indo-Scythians (Shaka) Kingdom, India- 1.5 million km2 (BC 100)[10]
  95. Tulunids Emirate - 1.5 million km2 (900)[9]
  96. Idrisid Dynasty, Morocco - 1.5 million km2 (828)[3]
  97. Suri Dynasty, India - 1.5 million km2 (1545 AD)[3][4]
  98. Neo-Assyria - 1.4 million km2 (670 BC)[3][10]
  99. Songhai Empire - 1.4 million km2 (1500)[13]
  100. Macedonian Dynasty, Byzantine Empire - 1.35 million km2 (1025)[3][9]
  101. Harsha Empire (Pusyabhutis), India - 1.35 million km2 (625 or 648)[3][4]
  102. Liang Dynasty, China - 1.3 million km2 (502 or 549)[3][9]
  103. Western Wei Dynasty, China - 1.3 million km2 (557)[9]
  104. Later Liang Dynasty, China - 1.3 million km2 (923)[4]
  105. Later Tang Dynasty, China - 1.3 million km2 (923)[4]
  106. Shang Dynasty, China - 1.25 million km2 (1122 BC)[3][10]
  107. Western Zhou Dynasty, China - 1.25 million km2 (1122 BC)[10]
  108. Axumite Empire - 1.25 million km2 (350)[3]
  109. Polish-Lithuanian Empire - 1.2 million km2 (1650)[3][4]
  110. Carolingian Dynasty, Francia - 1.2 million km2 (814)[3][4]
  111. Sunga Empire, India - 1.2 million km2 (BC 150)[3]
  112. Kingdom of Kush (Meroë) (25th Dynasty), Sudan - 1.2 million km2 (BC 700)[3]
  113. Mali Empire - 1.2 million km2 (1312)[14]
  114. Thai Empire (Siam Empire) - 1.12 million km2 (1782)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  115. Chalukya Dynasty, India - 1.1 million km2 (636)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  116. Lodhi Dynasty, India - 1.1 million km2 (1517 AD)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  117. 18th Dynasty, Egypt - 1.0 million km2 (1450 BC)[10]
  118. 19th Dynasty, Egypt - 1.0 million km2 (1300 BC)[3][10]
  119. Eastern Wei Dynasty, China - 1.0 million km2 (550)[9]
  120. Northern Qi Dynasty, China - 1.0 million km2 (550)[9]
  121. Tahirid Dynasty, Persia - 1.0 million km2 (800)[4]
  122. Holy Roman Empire - 1.0 million km2 (1050)[4]
  123. Kalachuri Dynasty, India - 1.0 million km2 (1050)[3][4]
  124. Western Xia Dynasty (Tangut), China - 1.0 million km2 (1100)[3]
  125. Western Chalukya Dynasty, India - 1.0 million km2 (1121)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  126. Khmer Empire - 1.0 million km2 (1290)[3][4]
  127. Avars Empire- 1.0 million km2 (600)[9]
  128. Kanem Empire, Chad - 1.0 million km2 (1200)[4]
  129. Volga Bulgars Khanate - 0.9 million km2 (1100)[3][4]
  130. Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty, India- 0.9 million km2 (10 BC)[10]
  131. Konbaung Dynasty, Burma - 0.9 million km2 (1800 AD)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  132. Akkadian Empire - 0.8 million km2 (2250 BC)[10]
  133. Later Jin Dynasty, China - 0.8 million km2 (936)[4]
  134. Ghana Empire - 0.8 million km2 (1067)[9]
  135. Pagan Kingdom (Bagan), Burma - 0.8 million km2 (1200)[4]
  136. Western Satraps Dynasty, India - 0.8 million km2 (100)[9]
  137. Himyarite Kingdom, Yemen - 0.8 million km2 (400 AD)[10]
  138. Balhae Kingdom, Korea - 0.8 million km2 (830)[3]
  139. Khanate of Kazan - 0.7 million km2 (1540)[4]
  140. Merovingian Dynasty, Francia - 0.7 million km2 (558)[4]
  141. Bulgarian Empire - 0.7 million km2 (900)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  142. Shu Dynasty, China- 0.7 million km2 (221)[9]
  143. Yadava (Gauli) Kingdom, India - 0.7 million km2 (1250)[4]
  144. Paramara Dynasty ,India - 0.7 million km2 (1050)[9]
  145. Kingdom of Dali (Hou li), China - 0.7 million km2 (1200)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  146. Vijayanagara (Tuluvas) Empire, India - 0.7 million km2 (1529)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  147. Kingdom of Nanzhao, China - 0.7 million km2 (830)[4]
  148. Austro-Hungarian Empire - 0.676615 million km2 (1910)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  149. 15th Dynasty (Hyksos), Egypt - 0.65 million km2 (1650 BC)[10]
  150. 26th Dynasty, Egypt - 0.65 million km2 (550 BC)[10]
  151. Vakataka Kingdom, India - 0.65 million km2 (450 AD)[10]
  152. Visigoths Kingdom - 0.6 million km2 (580)[9]
  153. Caliphate of Córdoba - 0.6 million km2 (1000)[4]
  154. Rai Dynasty (Chachas) (Sindh), India - 0.6 million km2 (675 AD)[9]
  155. Maukhari (Kannauj) Dynasty ,India - 0.6 million km2 (600 AD)[4]
  156. Bahmani Sultanate, India - 0.6 million km2 (1470 AD)[4]
  157. Nizams Dynasty, India - 0.6 million km2 (1740 AD)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  158. Sikh Empire, India - 0.5609 million km2 (1845)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  159. Middle Kingdom, Egypt - 0.5 million km2 (1850 BC)[10]
  160. Lydian Empire - 0.5 million km2 (585 BC)[10]
  161. Neo-Babylonian Empire - 0.5 million km2 (562 BC)[10]
  162. Kosala Dynasty, India - 0.5 million km2 (543 BC)[9]
  163. Shishunaga Dynasty, India - 0.5 million km2 (510 BC)[9]
  164. Chu Dynasty, China - 0.5 million km2 (350 BC)[9]
  165. Pandyan Dynasty, India - 0.5 million km2 (1251)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  166. Later Han Dynasty, China - 0.5 million km2 (947)[4]
  167. Kangju Empire (Transoxiana) - 0.5 million km2 (100 BC)[9]
  168. Ostrogothic Kingdom - 0.5 million km2 (510 AD)[4]
  169. Goguryeo Kingdom, Korea - 0.45 million km2 (476)[10]
  170. Xia Dynasty, China (bassed on the hypothesis that prehistorical cities of Erlitou culture were once united) - 0.45 million km2 (1800 BC)[10]
  171. New Kingdom, Hittite - 0.45 million km2 (1250 or 1220 BC)[10]
  172. Crimean Khanate - 0.4 million km2 (1500)[4]
  173. Old Kingdom, Egypt - 0.4 million km2 (2400 BC)[10]
  174. Middle Kingdom, Assyria (under Tiglath-Pileser I) - 0.4 million km2 (1080 BC)[10]
  175. Armenian Empire - 0.4 million km2 (83 BC)[9]
  176. Latin Empire - 0.35 million km2 (1204)[9]
  177. Harappan Empire, India - 0.3 million km2 (1800 BC)[12]
  178. Mitanni Empire - 0.3 million km2 (1450 BC)[10]
  179. Palailogan Dynasty (Byzantine Empire) - 0.3 million km2 (1300)[9]
  180. 1st Dynasty, Babylon - 0.25 million km2 (1690 BC)[10]
  181. Serbian Empire - 0.25 million km2 (1350)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  182. Aztec Empire - 0.22 million km2 (1520)[4]
  183. Middle Elamite - 0.2 million km2 (1160 BC)[10]
  184. 2nd Dynasty, Isin - 0.2 million km2 (1130 BC)[10]
  185. Urartu Empire - 0.2 million km2 (800 BC)[10]
  186. Phrygian Dynasty - 0.2 million km2 (750 BC)[10]
  187. Old Kingdom, Assyria - 0.15 million km2 (1730 BC)[10]
  188. Eastern Zhou Dynasty, China - 0.15 million km2 (770 BC)[10]

Maritime empires[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. British Empire - 33.67 million km2 (1922)[2]
  2. Spanish Empire - 20.0 million km2 (ca. 1740-1790)[5]
  3. Second French Colonial Empire - 12.3 million km2 (1938)[5]
  4. Portuguese Empire - 10.4 million km2 (1815)[5]
  5. United States of America - 9.67 million km2 (1899)[4]
  6. Japanese Empire - 7.4 million km2 (1942)[5]
  7. Roman Empire - 6.5 million km2 (117)[8]
  8. Ottoman Empire - 5.2 million km2 (1683, 1829 or 1850)[3][4]
  9. Italian Empire - 3.8 million km2 (1940)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  10. Dutch Empire - 3.7 million km2(1940)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  11. Chola Dynasty, India - 3.6 million km2 (1050)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  12. German Empire - 3.5 million km2 (1914)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  13. Justinian Dynasty (Byzantine Empire) - 3.5 million km2 (555)[9]
  14. First French Colonial Empire - 3.4 million km2 (1670)[4]
  15. Kalmar Union - 3.0 million km2 (1397)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  16. Danish Colonial empire - 3.0 million km2 (1800)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  17. Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) - 2.8 million km2 (450)[9]
  18. Majapahit Empire (Malaya) - 2.7 million km2 (1389)[9]
  19. Belgian Empire - 2.5 million km2 (1914)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  20. First French Empire - 2.1 million km2 (1813)[4]
  21. Srivijaya Empire - 1.2 million km2 (1200)[3]
  22. Swedish Empire - 1.1 million km2 (1658)Àdàkọ:Citation needed
  23. Ptolemaic Dynasty, Egypt - 1.0 million km2 (301 BC)[10]
  24. Carthaginian Empire - 0.3 million km2 (220 BC)[10]

Largest empires by population[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Population estimates are unknown for many other ancient empires not listed here.

Population size[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. British Empire - 531.3 million (in 1938)[33]
  2. Qing Empire, China - 432.2 million in 1851.[34]
  3. Russian Empire - 176.4 million in 1913
  4. Mughal Empire, India - 175.0 million in 1700
  5. Japanese Empire - 134.8 million in 1938
  6. Northern Song Dynasty, China - 123.0 million in 1103[35][36]
  7. French Empire - 112.9 million in 1938
  8. Ming Empire, China - 110.0 million in 1600.[37][38]
  9. Mongol Empire - 110.0 million (in the 13th century)[39]
  10. Yuan Khanate - 86.0 million in 1290.[35][40]
  11. Roman Empire - 80.0 million (in 2nd century AD)[41][42]
  12. Sassanid Empire, Persia - 78.0 million (in the 7th century AD)
  13. Nazi German Empire - 75.4 million (in 1938)[33]
  14. Han Empire, China - 74.0 million in 2[35][43]
  15. Southern Song Dynasty, China - 73.0 million in 1193.[35][44]
  16. Spanish Empire - 68.2 million[45]
  17. German Empire - 64.9 million in 1914
  18. Eastern Han Empire, China - 64 million in 156[35][46]
  19. Umayyad Caliphate - 62.0 million (in the 7th century)[47]
  20. Dutch Empire - 60.0 million in 1940.
  21. Sui Dynasty, China - 53.0 million in 606[35][48]
  22. Tang Empire, China - 53.0 million in 755[35][49]
  23. Austro-Hungarian Empire - 52.8 million in 1914
  24. Italian Empire - 51.9 million in 1938
  25. Maurya Empire, India - 50.0 million in the 2nd century BC
  26. Achaemenid Empire - 49.4 million (in the 5th century BC)[50]
  27. Jin Dynasty, China - 48.0 million in 1195.[35][51]

Percentage of world population[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Achaemenid Empire in the 5th century BC.
  1. Achaemenid Empire, Persia - 44.0% (49.4 million out of 112.4 million[52] in the 5th century BC/480 BC)[50]
  2. Sassanid Empire, Persia - 37.1% (78.0 million out of 210 million[53] in the 7th century AD)
  3. Qing Empire, China - 36.6% (381.0 million out of 1.041 billion in 1820)[54]
  4. Roman Empire - 35.9% (80.0 million out of 223 million[55] in the 2nd century AD)
  5. Maurya Empire, India - 33.3% (50.0 million out of 150 million in the 2nd century BC[56])
  6. Umayyad Caliphate - 29.5% (62.0 million out of 210 million[53] in the 7th century AD)
  7. Mughal Empire, India - 29.2% (175.0 million out of 600 million[57] in 1700)
  8. Ming Empire, China - 28.8% (160.0 million out of 556.2 million in 1600)[54]
  9. Tang Empire, China - 28.0% (70.0 million out of 250 million in 850 AD)[54]
  10. Gupta Empire, India - 26.36% (58.0 million out of 220 million in 400 AD) [33]
  11. Han Empire, China - 26.0% (59.6 million out of 230 million[54] in 2 AD)
  12. Mongol Empire - 25.6% (110.0 million out of 429 million[58] in the 13th century)
  13. Pala Empire, India - 24.0% (60.0 million out of 250 million in 850)[54]
  14. British Empire - 23.1% (531.3 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938)[33]
  15. Song Dynasty, China - 22.0% (59.0 million out of 268 million in 1000)[54]
  16. Abbasid Caliphate - 20.0% (50.0 million out of 250 million in 850)[54]
  17. Rashidun Caliphate - 19.1% (40.3 million out of 210 million in 7th century)
  18. Kushan Empire, India - 19.0% (42.37 million out of 223 million in 140)[54]
  19. Tughlaq Dynasty, India - 18.91% (70.0 million out of 370 million in 1330)[54]
  20. Spanish Empire - 12.3% (68.2 million out of 556 million[54] in the 17th century)
  21. Mali Empire - 10.0% (45.0 million out of 450 million[59] in the mid 15th century)
  22. Russian Empire - 9.8% (176.4 million out of 1.791 billion[54] in 1913)
  23. Ottoman Empire - 7.1% (39.0 million out of 556 million[54] in the 17th century)
  24. Japanese Empire - 5.9% (134.8 million out of 2.295 billion[54] in 1938)
  25. Vijayanagara Empire, India - 5.0% (25.0 million out of 500 million[54] in the 16th century)
  26. French Empire - 4.9% (112.9 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938)
  27. German Empire - 3.7% (64.9 million out of 1.753 billion in 1910)
  28. Dutch Empire - 3.5% (60.0 million out of 1.700 billion in 1907)
  29. Nazi German Empire - 3.3% (75.4 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938)
  30. Austro-Hungarian Empire - 2.9% (51.3 million out of 1.753 billion in 1910)
  31. Italian Empire - 2.3% (51.9 million out of 2.295 billion in 1938)



Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. CIA - The World Factbook(132.37 plus 14.4 for Antarctica and 2.17 for Greenland).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Ferguson 2004, p. 15.
  3. 3.000 3.001 3.002 3.003 3.004 3.005 3.006 3.007 3.008 3.009 3.010 3.011 3.012 3.013 3.014 3.015 3.016 3.017 3.018 3.019 3.020 3.021 3.022 3.023 3.024 3.025 3.026 3.027 3.028 3.029 3.030 3.031 3.032 3.033 3.034 3.035 3.036 3.037 3.038 3.039 3.040 3.041 3.042 3.043 3.044 3.045 3.046 3.047 3.048 3.049 3.050 3.051 3.052 3.053 3.054 3.055 3.056 3.057 3.058 3.059 3.060 3.061 3.062 3.063 3.064 3.065 3.066 3.067 3.068 3.069 3.070 3.071 3.072 3.073 3.074 3.075 3.076 3.077 3.078 3.079 3.080 3.081 3.082 3.083 3.084 3.085 3.086 3.087 3.088 3.089 3.090 3.091 3.092 3.093 3.094 3.095 3.096 3.097 3.098 3.099 3.100 3.101 3.102 3.103 3.104 3.105 3.106 3.107 3.108 3.109 3.110 3.111 3.112 3.113 3.114 3.115 3.116 3.117 3.118 3.119 3.120 3.121 3.122 3.123 3.124 3.125 3.126 3.127 3.128 3.129 3.130 3.131 3.132 3.133 3.134 3.135 3.136 3.137 3.138 3.139 3.140 3.141 3.142 3.143 3.144 3.145 3.146 3.147 3.148 3.149 3.150 3.151 3.152 3.153 3.154 3.155 3.156 3.157 3.158 3.159 3.160 3.161 3.162 3.163 3.164 3.165 3.166 3.167 3.168 3.169 3.170 3.171 3.172 3.173 3.174 3.175 3.176 3.177 3.178 3.179 3.180 3.181 Peter Turchin, Thomas D. Hall and Jonathan M. Adams, "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires", Journal of World-Systems Research Vol. 12 (no. 2), pp. 219-229 (2006).
  4. 4.000 4.001 4.002 4.003 4.004 4.005 4.006 4.007 4.008 4.009 4.010 4.011 4.012 4.013 4.014 4.015 4.016 4.017 4.018 4.019 4.020 4.021 4.022 4.023 4.024 4.025 4.026 4.027 4.028 4.029 4.030 4.031 4.032 4.033 4.034 4.035 4.036 4.037 4.038 4.039 4.040 4.041 4.042 4.043 4.044 4.045 4.046 4.047 4.048 4.049 4.050 4.051 4.052 4.053 4.054 4.055 4.056 4.057 4.058 4.059 4.060 4.061 4.062 4.063 4.064 4.065 4.066 4.067 4.068 4.069 4.070 4.071 4.072 4.073 4.074 4.075 4.076 4.077 4.078 4.079 4.080 4.081 4.082 4.083 4.084 4.085 4.086 4.087 4.088 4.089 4.090 4.091 4.092 4.093 4.094 4.095 4.096 4.097 4.098 4.099 4.100 4.101 4.102 4.103 4.104 4.105 4.106 4.107 4.108 4.109 4.110 4.111 4.112 4.113 4.114 4.115 4.116 4.117 4.118 4.119 4.120 4.121 4.122 4.123 4.124 4.125 4.126 4.127 4.128 4.129 4.130 4.131 4.132 4.133 4.134 4.135 4.136 4.137 4.138 4.139 4.140 4.141 4.142 4.143 4.144 4.145 4.146 4.147 4.148 4.149 4.150 4.151 4.152 4.153 4.154 4.155 4.156 4.157 4.158 4.159 4.160 4.161 4.162 4.163 4.164 4.165 4.166 4.167 4.168 4.169 4.170 4.171 4.172 4.173 4.174 4.175 4.176 4.177 4.178 4.179 4.180 4.181 4.182 4.183 4.184 4.185 4.186 4.187 4.188 4.189 4.190 4.191 4.192 4.193 4.194 4.195 4.196 4.197 4.198 4.199 4.200 4.201 4.202 4.203 4.204 4.205 4.206 4.207 4.208 4.209 Rein Taagepera "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia", International Studies Quarterly Vol. 41, 475-504 (1997).
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 Gordon (2005)
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Blankinship, Khalid Yahya (1994), The End of the Jihad State, the Reign of Hisham Ibn 'Abd-al Malik and the collapse of the Umayyads, State University of New York Press, p. 37, ISBN 0791418278 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Vasseghi, Sheda, "The other Iran story: Re-engineering the nation's cultural DNA", Breaking... WorldTribune.com World Tribune News, (12 October 2009).
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Steele, Christy, "Rome", p. 36 (2001).
  9. 9.000 9.001 9.002 9.003 9.004 9.005 9.006 9.007 9.008 9.009 9.010 9.011 9.012 9.013 9.014 9.015 9.016 9.017 9.018 9.019 9.020 9.021 9.022 9.023 9.024 9.025 9.026 9.027 9.028 9.029 9.030 9.031 9.032 9.033 9.034 9.035 9.036 9.037 9.038 9.039 9.040 9.041 9.042 9.043 9.044 9.045 9.046 9.047 9.048 9.049 9.050 9.051 9.052 9.053 9.054 9.055 9.056 9.057 9.058 9.059 9.060 9.061 9.062 9.063 9.064 9.065 9.066 9.067 9.068 9.069 9.070 9.071 9.072 9.073 9.074 9.075 9.076 9.077 9.078 9.079 9.080 9.081 9.082 9.083 9.084 9.085 9.086 9.087 9.088 9.089 9.090 9.091 9.092 9.093 9.094 9.095 9.096 9.097 9.098 9.099 9.100 9.101 9.102 9.103 9.104 9.105 9.106 9.107 9.108 9.109 9.110 9.111 9.112 9.113 9.114 9.115 9.116 9.117 9.118 9.119 9.120 9.121 9.122 9.123 9.124 9.125 9.126 9.127 9.128 9.129 9.130 9.131 9.132 9.133 9.134 9.135 9.136 9.137 9.138 9.139 9.140 9.141 9.142 9.143 9.144 9.145 9.146 9.147 9.148 Rein Taagepera "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.", Social Science History Vol. 3, 115-138 (1979).
  10. 10.000 10.001 10.002 10.003 10.004 10.005 10.006 10.007 10.008 10.009 10.010 10.011 10.012 10.013 10.014 10.015 10.016 10.017 10.018 10.019 10.020 10.021 10.022 10.023 10.024 10.025 10.026 10.027 10.028 10.029 10.030 10.031 10.032 10.033 10.034 10.035 10.036 10.037 10.038 10.039 10.040 10.041 10.042 10.043 10.044 10.045 10.046 10.047 10.048 10.049 10.050 10.051 10.052 10.053 10.054 10.055 10.056 10.057 10.058 10.059 10.060 10.061 10.062 10.063 10.064 10.065 10.066 10.067 10.068 10.069 10.070 10.071 10.072 10.073 10.074 10.075 10.076 10.077 10.078 10.079 10.080 10.081 10.082 10.083 10.084 10.085 10.086 10.087 10.088 10.089 10.090 10.091 10.092 10.093 10.094 10.095 10.096 10.097 10.098 10.099 10.100 10.101 10.102 10.103 10.104 10.105 10.106 10.107 10.108 10.109 10.110 Rein Taagepera "Size and Duration of Empires Growth-Decline Curves, 3000 to 600 B.C.", Social Science Research Vol. 7, 180-196 (1978).
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Claudio Cioffi-Revilla, J. Daniel Rogers, Steven P. Wilcox, & Jai Alterman, "Computing the Steppes: Data Analysis for Agent-Based Modeling of Polities in Inner Asia", Proceedings of the 104th Annual Meeting of the Amer. Pol. Sci. Assoc., Boston, MA, p. 8 August 28–31, (2008).
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 Rein Taagepera "Size and Duration of Empires: Systematics of Size", Social Science Research Vol. 7, 108-127 (1978).
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 John O. Hunwick: Timbuktu and the Songahy Empire: Al-Sa’di’s Ta’rikh Al-sudan Down to 1613 and other Contemporary Documents (Brill, 2003),p. xlix.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Hempstone, page 312
  15. Stewart, Basil, "Restoration of Palestine", (In reference to the Achaemenid Empire), p. 3 (2003).
  16. Parker, Philip, "The Empire Stops Here", p. 2 (2009).
  17. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1979) is 3.4 million km2 in 261 BC.
  18. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1979) and Turchin et al (2006) is 9.0 million km2 in 176 BC. As it should be noted, historians are divided on whether the Xiongnu was an empire, and modern consensus in the majority of reputable sources is that the Xiongnu did not exceed 5 million km2 at their greatest extent.
  19. Peak area estimated by Turchin et al (2006) is 2.0 million km2 in AD 140.
  20. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1979) is 1.7 million km2 in AD 440.
  21. Peak area estimated by Turchin et al (2006) is 2.3 million km2 in 1210.
  22. Peak area estimated by Turchin et al (2006) is 1.0 million km2 in 1120.
  23. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 1.0 million km2 in 900.
  24. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 1.7 million km2 in 1200.
  25. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 1.0 million km2 in 1130.
  26. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 1.6 million km2 in 1400.
  27. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 1.5 million km2 in 1163.
  28. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 35.5 million km2 in 1920.
  29. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 13.7 million km2 in 1780 or 1810.
  30. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 11.5 million km2 in 1920.
  31. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 5.5 million km2 in 1820.
  32. Mexican Empire, All Empires, http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=Mexican_empire_i, retrieved 2009-08-02 
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 Harrison (1998, pp. 3,7).
  34. Recorded number of persons in 1851 is 432,164,047 according to Draft History of Qing.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 35.4 35.5 35.6 35.7 (a) John D. Durand, 1960, "The Population Statistics of China, A.D. 2–1953," Population Studies Vol. 13 (No. 3), 209–256. (b) John D. Durand, 1974, "Historical Estimates of World Population: An Evaluation," University of Pennsylvania, Population Center, Analytical and Technical Reports, Number 10.
  36. Recorded number of persons and households in 1103 are 45,981,845 and 20,524,065, respectively (Song Huiyao), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 46,734,784 and 20,882,438 in 1109, respectively (Song Huiyao).
  37. Jean-Noël Biraben, "The History of the Human Population From the First Beginnings to the Present" in Demography: Analysis and Synthesis: A Treatise in Population (Eds: Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, Guillaume J. Wunsch), Vol. III, Chapter 66, pp 5-18, Academic Press:San Diego (2005).
  38. Recorded number of persons and households in 1393 are 60,545,812 and 10,652,870, respectively (Ming Hui Dian), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 66,598,337 and 11,415,829 in 1403, respectively (Book of Ming).
  39. The combined population of China and Korea in the 13th century was 83 million in Biraben (2003Àdàkọ:Page number). The combined population of Eastern Europe, Russia, Central Asia, Iran, Iraq and Turkey was about 27 million in Maddison (2006Àdàkọ:Page number).
  40. Recorded number of persons and households in 1290 are 58,834,711 and 13,196,206, respectively (History of Yuan), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 59,848,964 and 13,430,322 in 1291, respectively (History of Yuan).
  41. Mclynn Frank "Marcus Aurelius" p. 4. Published by The Bodley Head 2009
  42. There are several different estimates for the Roman Empire. Scheidel (2006, p. 2) estimates 60 million. Goldsmith (1984, p. 263) estimates 55 million. Beloch (1886, p. 507) estimates 54 million. Maddison (2006, p. 51, 120) estimates 48 million. Roman Empire Population estimates 65 million (while mentioning several other estimates between 55 million and 120 million).
  43. Recorded number of persons and households in AD 2 are 59,594,978 and 12,233,062, respectively (Book of Han).
  44. Recorded number of persons and households in 1193 are 27,845,085 and 12,302,873, respectively (Wenxian Tongkao), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 28,320,085 and 12,670.801 in 1223, respectively (Wenxian Tongkao).
  45. The combined population of Spain, Portugal, Italy, Netherlands, United States and the Philippines was 29.2 million in Maddison (2006Àdàkọ:Page number). The population of Latin America was 39 million in Biraben (2003Àdàkọ:Page number), minus Brazil and its 4 million people with was a part of the Portuguese empire.
  46. Recorded number of persons and households in 156 are 56,486,856 and 10,677,960 respectively (Book of the Later Han).
  47. The combined population of Southwest Asia and North Africa was about 57 million in Biraben (2003Àdàkọ:Page number). The combined population of Spain and Portugal was about 5 million in Maddison (2006Àdàkọ:Page number).
  48. Recorded number of persons and households are 46,019,956 and 8,907,546, respectively, in 606 (Tongdian) or 609 (Book of Sui).
  49. Recorded number of persons and households in 755 are 52,919,309 and 8,914,709, respectively (Book of Tang).
  50. 50.0 50.1 While estimates for the Achaemenid Empire range from 10–80+ million, most prefer 50 million. Prevas (2009, p. 14) estimates 10 million 1. Langer (2001, p. 40) estimates around 16 million 2. McEvedy and Jones (2001, p. 50) estimates 17 million 3. Strauss (2004, p. 37) estimates about 20 million 4. Ward (2009, p. 16) estimates at 20 million 5. Aperghis (2007, p. 311) estimates 32 million 6. Scheidel (2009, p. 99) estimates 35 million 7. Zeinert (1996, p. 32) estimates 40 million 8. Rawlinson and Schauffler (1898, p. 270) estimates possibly 50 million 9. Astor (1899, p. 56) estimates almost 50 million 10. Lissner (1961, p. 111) estimates probably 50 million 11. Milns (1968, p. 51) estimates some 50 million 12. Hershlag (1980, p. 140) estimates nearly 50 million 13. Yarshater (1996, p. 47) estimates by 50 million 14. Daniel (2001, p. 41) estimates at 50 million 15. Meyer and Andreades (2004, p. 58) estimates to 50 million 16. Pollack (2004, p. 7) estimates about 50 million 17. Jones (2004, p. 8) estimates over 50 million 18. Safire (2007, p. 627) estimates in 50 million 19. Dougherty (2009, p. 6) estimates about 70 million 20. Richard (2008, p. 34) estimates nearly 70 million 21. Mitchell (2004, p. 16) estimates over 70 million 22. Hanson (2001, p. 32) estimates almost 75 million 23. West (1913, p. 85) estimates about 75 million 24. Zenos (1889, p. 2) estimates exactly 75 million 25. Cowley (1999 and 2001, p. 17) estimates possibly 80 million 26. Cook (1904, p. 277) estimates exactly 80 million 27.
  51. Recorded number of persons and households in 1195 are 48,490,400 and 7,223,400, respectively (History of Jin).
  52. Historical Estimates of World Population U.S. Census Bureau.
  53. 53.0 53.1 McEvedy and Jones (1978).
  54. 54.00 54.01 54.02 54.03 54.04 54.05 54.06 54.07 54.08 54.09 54.10 54.11 54.12 54.13 Maddison, op cit. For alternate estimates, see the Economic History Services' USA/UK GDP search tool.
  55. Mclynn Frank "Marcus Aurelius" p.4. Published by The Bodley Head 2009
  56. Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones (1978), "Atlas of World Population History", Facts on File (p. 342-351). New York.
  57. Thomlinson (1975, Table 1).
  58. Biraben, Jean-Noel (1979-01). "Essai sur l'evolution du nombre des hommes". Population (French Edition) 34 (1): 13–25. doi:10.2307/1531855. 
  59. Walker, Sheila S., African roots/American cultures: Africa in the creation of the Americas, Published by Rowman & Littlefield, p. 127. (2001)