Oyún ṣíṣẹ́

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Oyún ṣíṣẹ́
Oyún ṣíṣẹ́Awọn ofin oyún ṣíṣẹ́ l’agbaye[1] Àdàkọ:Leftlegend Àdàkọ:Leftlegend Àdàkọ:Leftlegend Àdàkọ:Leftlegend Àdàkọ:Leftlegend Àdàkọ:Leftlegend Àdàkọ:Leftlegend Àdàkọ:Leftlegend
Awọn ofin oyún ṣíṣẹ́ l’agbaye[1]

Àdàkọ:Leftlegend Àdàkọ:Leftlegend Àdàkọ:Leftlegend Àdàkọ:Leftlegend Àdàkọ:Leftlegend Àdàkọ:Leftlegend Àdàkọ:Leftlegend

Àdàkọ:Leftlegend
Ìpínsọ́wọ̀ àti àwọn òkunfà ìta
ICD/CIM-10O04. O04.
ICD/CIM-9779.6 779.6
DiseasesDB4153
MedlinePlus002912

Oyún ṣíṣẹ́ (Ìṣẹ́yún, ṣíṣẹ́ oyún) ni fifi opin si Oyún nipa yiyọ tabi fifi tipatipa mu oyún-inu tabi ọmọ-inu kuro ni ile- ọmọ ṣaaju ki o to le yè fun ara rẹ. Oyún ṣíṣẹ́ kan le dede waye lojiji, ni eyi ti o jẹ wipe a npe ni Oyún ti o bajẹ. A tun le mọọmọ ṣe okunfa rẹ, ni eyi ti a mọ si oyún ṣíṣẹ́ ti a ṣe okunfa rẹ. Ọrọ naa ti a npe ni oyún ṣíṣẹ́ ni ọpọlọpọ igba duro fun oyún ṣíṣẹ́ ti a ṣe okunfa rẹ ti oyún eniyan. Ilana miiran lẹyin ti oyún-inu ti le da duro ki o si yè fun ra rẹ ni a mọ si "fifi òpin si oyún ti o ti pẹ́" labẹ ìṣègùn oyinbo.[2]

Awọn ọna ati ààbò[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ìṣègùn igbalode nlo awọn oogun tabi awọn iṣẹ-abẹ fun oyún ṣíṣẹ́ ti a mọọmọ ṣe okunfa rẹ. Awọn oogun mejeeji naa mifepristone ati prostaglandin jẹ eyiti o munadoko bíi iṣẹ-abẹ laarin oṣu mẹta àkọ́kọ́.[3][4] Nigbati lilo awọn oogun oyinbo le munadoko ni oṣu mẹta èkejì,[5] awọn ọna iṣẹ-abẹ jọ mọ eyiti ewu rẹ kéré nipa awọn iṣẹlẹ atunbọtan.[4] Ìfètò s’ọmọ bíbí, ati pẹlu oogun naa ati awọn ohun-elo ìfètò s’ọmọ bíbí ti a nfi s’ójú-ara ni a le bẹrẹ si lo ni kété ti a ba ṣe oyún kan.[4] Oyún ṣíṣẹ́ ni awọn orilẹ-èdè to ti dagbasoke ni ìtàn eyiti lara awọn ilana ti o ni idaabobo julọ ni ìṣègùn oyinbo ọlọjọ pipẹ nigbati a ba gba a láàyè labẹ ofin agbegbe.[6][7] Awọn oyún ṣíṣẹ́ ti kò ba díjú kìí fa ailera ọpọlọ tabi awọn iṣoro ti a le f’ojuri.[8] The Àjọ Ilera L’agbaye gba nimọran pe ki irú ipele oyún ṣíṣẹ́ labẹ ofin eyiti o ni ààbò ki o wa fun gbogbo obinrin l’agbaye.[9] Oyún ṣíṣẹ́ ti kò ní ààbò, ni idakeji, maa nfa bíi 47,000 ikú aláboyúns[8] ati miliọnu marun (5) igbani si ile-iwosan l’ọdun kan l’agbaye.[10]

Ìtàn nipa àjàkále àrùn[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

O to miliọnu mẹrinlelọgọta (44) oyún ṣíṣẹ́ ti o nwaye l’ọdun kan l’agbaye, ti diẹ si eyi jẹ eyiti a nṣe lai si ààbò.[11] Diẹ ni iye oyún ṣíṣẹ́ fi yatọ laarin ọdun 2003 ati 2008,[11] lẹyin ti o ti fi ọpọlọpọ ọdun dinku nitori bi rírí ààyè si ẹ̀kọ́ nipa fifi ètò s’ọmọ bibi ati dida ọmọ bibi duro ṣe gberu.[12] Láti 2008, ida ogoji obinrin l’agbaye ti ni ààyè si oyún ṣíṣẹ́ ti a mọọmọ ṣe okunfa rẹ labẹ ofin "lai si idiwọ fun ohun ti o fàá".[13] Ṣugbọn o ni gbèdéke ibi ti oyún le pẹ́ dé ti a fi le ṣẹ́ ẹ.[13]

Ìtàn, àwùjọ ati àṣà[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Oyún ṣíṣẹ́ ni ìtàn eyiti o pé ìtàn. A ti ṣe e nipasẹ oriṣiriṣi ọna, ti o ni ninu awọn egbòògi, lilo ohun-elo ti o mú, ibanilọkanjẹ ti a le f’ojuri, ati awọn miiran awọn ọna ibilẹ́ lati igba lailai.[14] Awọn awọn ofin ti o rọ̀mọ́ oyún ṣíṣẹ́ , ni bi o ti ṣe wọ́pọ̀ lati ṣe e tó, ati awọn ipo àṣà ati ti ẹ̀sìn yàtọ̀ si ara wọn gan-an kaakiri agbaye. Ni abẹ awọn iṣẹlẹ kan ni pàtó, oyún ṣíṣẹ́ tọ̀nà labẹ ofin, bíi ibalopọ laarin mọlẹbi, ifipabanilopọ, awọn iṣoro kan pẹlu oyún-inu, awọn nnkan ti o niiṣe pẹlu ọrọ-ajé tabi ewu nipa ilera iya.[15] Ni ọpọlọpọ ibi l’agbaye ariyanjiyan nwa awuyewuye l’awujọ lori bi o ṣe tọ́ sí, ṣíṣẹ̀tọ́, ati awọn ọrọ labẹ ofin lori oyún ṣíṣẹ́. Awọn ti o lodi si oyún ṣíṣẹ́ maa nsọ wipe ọmọ-inu tabi oyún-inu jẹ eniyan ti o si ni ẹ̀tọ́ si ìyè ti wọn si nfi oyún ṣíṣẹ́ wé ìpànìyàn.[16][17] Awọn ti o faramọ awọn ẹ̀tọ́ oyún ṣíṣẹ́ ntẹnumọ ẹ̀tọ́ obinrin lati pinnu ohun ti o niiṣe pẹlu ra rẹ̀[18] ti wọn si tun ntẹnumọ awọn ẹ̀tọ́ gẹgẹ bi eniyan l’apapọ.[9]

Àwọn ìtọ́kasí[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. "World Abortion Policies 2013" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  2. Grimes, DA; Stuart, G (2010). "Abortion jabberwocky: the need for better terminology". Contraception 81 (2): 93–6. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.09.005. PMID 20103443. 
  3. Kulier, R; Kapp, N; Gülmezoglu, AM; Hofmeyr, GJ; Cheng, L; Campana, A (Nov 9, 2011). "Medical methods for first trimester abortion.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (11): CD002855. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002855.pub4. PMID 22071804. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Kapp, N; Whyte, P; Tang, J; Jackson, E; Brahmi, D (Sep 2013). "A review of evidence for safe abortion care.". Contraception 88 (3): 350–63. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.10.027. PMID 23261233. 
  5. Wildschut, H; Both, MI; Medema, S; Thomee, E; Wildhagen, MF; Kapp, N (Jan 19, 2011). "Medical methods for mid-trimester termination of pregnancy.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (1): CD005216. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005216.pub2. PMID 21249669. 
  6. Grimes, D. A.; Benson, J.; Singh, S.; Romero, M.; Ganatra, B.; Okonofua, F. E.; Shah, I. H. (2006). "Unsafe abortion: The preventable pandemic" (PDF). The Lancet 368 (9550): 1908–1919. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69481-6. PMID 17126724. http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/general/lancet_4.pdf. 
  7. Raymond, EG; Grossman, D; Weaver, MA; Toti, S; Winikoff, B (Nov 2014). "Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.". Contraception 90 (5): 476–479. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2014.07.012. PMID 25152259. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Lohr, P. A.; Fjerstad, M.; Desilva, U.; Lyus, R. (2014). "Abortion". BMJ 348: f7553. doi:10.1136/bmj.f7553. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Organization, World Health (2012). Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems (2nd ed. ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. p. 8. ISBN 9789241548434. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/70914/1/9789241548434_eng.pdf?ua=1. 
  10. Shah, I.; Ahman, E. (December 2009). "Unsafe abortion: global and regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges" (PDF). Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 31 (12): 1149–58. PMID 20085681. http://www.sogc.org/jogc/abstracts/full/200912_WomensHealth_1.pdf. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Sedgh, G.; Singh, S.; Shah, I. H.; Åhman, E.; Henshaw, S. K.; Bankole, A. (2012). "Induced abortion: Incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008" (PDF). The Lancet 379 (9816): 625–632. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61786-8. PMID 22264435. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/Sedgh-Lancet-2012-01.pdf. 
  12. Sedgh G, Henshaw SK, Singh S, Bankole A, Drescher J (September 2007). "Legal abortion worldwide: incidence and recent trends". Int Fam Plan Perspect 33 (3): 106–116. doi:10.1363/ifpp.33.106.07. PMID 17938093. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3310607.html. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Culwell KR, Vekemans M, de Silva U, Hurwitz M (July 2010). "Critical gaps in universal access to reproductive health: Contraception and prevention of unsafe abortion". International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 110: S13–16. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.04.003. PMID 20451196. 
  14. Joffe, Carole (2009). "1. Abortion and medicine: A sociopolitical history". In MPaul, ES Lichtenberg, L Borgatta, DA Grimes, PG Stubblefield, MD Creinin (PDF). Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy (1st ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.. ISBN 978-1-4443-1293-5. Archived from the original on 21 October 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/62bppK1Iw. 
  15. Boland, R.; Katzive, L. (2008). "Developments in Laws on Induced Abortion: 1998–2007". International Family Planning Perspectives 34 (3): 110–120. doi:10.1363/ifpp.34.110.08. PMID 18957353. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3411008.html. 
  16. Pastor Mark Driscoll (18 October 2013). "What do 55 million people have in common?". Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2013/10/18/what-do-55-million-people-have-in-common/. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  17. Dale Hansen (18 March 2014). "Abortion: Murder, or Medical Procedure?". Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dale-hansen/abortion-murder-or-medica_b_4986637.html. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  18. Sifris, Ronli Noa (2013). Reproductive Freedom, Torture and International Human Rights Challenging the Masculinisation of Torture.. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 3. ISBN 9781135115227. http://books.google.ca/books?id=9pVWAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA3.