Índíà

Lát'ọwọ́ Wikipedia, ìwé ìmọ̀ ọ̀fẹ́
Lọ sí: atọ́ka, àwárí
Olómìnira ilẹ̀ Índíà
Republic of India
भारत गणराज्य*
Bhārat Gaṇarājya
Horizontal tricolour flag (deep saffron, white, and green). In the center of the white is a navy blue wheel with 24 spokes. Three lions facing left, right,and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and an elephant. Underneath is a motto "सत्यमेव जयते".
Àsìá
Motto"Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
सत्यमेव जयते  (Devanāgarī)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"[1]
Orin-ìyìn orílẹ̀-èdèJana Gana Mana
Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people
[2]
National Song[4]
Vande Mataram
I bow to thee, Mother
[3]
Image of globe centered on India, with India highlighted.
Olúìlú New Delhi
28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E / 28.6133°N 77.2083°E / 28.6133; 77.2083
ilú títóbijùlọ Mumbai
Èdè oníbiṣẹ́
Constitutional languages
Orúkọ aráàlú Ará Índíà
Ìjọba Federal republic,
parliamentary democracy[8]
 -  President Pratibha Patil
 -  Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
 -  Chief Justice K. G. Balakrishnan
Aṣòfin Sansad
 -  Ilé Aṣòfin Àgbà Rajya Sabha
 -  Ilé Aṣòfin Kéreré Lok Sabha
Independence from United Kingdom 
 -  Declared 15 August 1947 
 -  Republic 26 January 1950 
Ààlà
 -  Àpapọ̀ iye ààlà 3,287,240 km2 (7th)
1,269,210 sq mi 
 -  Omi (%) 9.56
Alábùgbé
 -  Ìdíye 2009 1,198,003,000[9] (2nd)
 -  2001 census 1,028,610,328[10] 
 -  Ìṣúpọ̀ olùgbé 364.4/km2 (32nd)
943.9/sq mi
GIO (PPP) ìdíye 2008
 -  Iye lápapọ̀ $3.298 trillion[11] (4th)
 -  Ti ẹnikọ̀ọ̀kan $2,780[11] (130th)
GIO (onípípè) Ìdíye 2008
 -  Àpapọ̀ iye $1.206 trillion[11] (12th)
 -  Ti ẹnikọ̀ọ̀kan $1,017[11] (143rd)
Gini (2004) 36.8[12] 
HDI (2007) 0.612[13] (medium) (134th)
Owóníná Indian rupee (₨) (INR)
Àkókò ilẹ̀àmùrè IST (UTC+5:30)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+5:30)
Ìwakọ̀ ní ọwọ́ left
Àmìọ̀rọ̀ Internet .in
Àmìọ̀rọ̀o tẹlifóònù 91

India, fun tonibise bi orile-ede Olominira ile India (Híndì: भारत गणराज्य Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also in other Indian languages), je orile-ede kan ni Guusu Asia. Ohun ni orile-ede keje titobijulo gege bi itobi jeografi, orile-ede keji toni iye awon eniyan julo pelu bi 1.18 egbegberunkeji eniyan, ati orile-ede oseluaralu toni iye awon eniyan julo lagbaye. O ja mo Okun India ni guusu, Okun arabu ni iwoorun, ati Ebado Benga ni ilaorun, India ni ile eti odo to je 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi).[15] O ni bode mo Pakistan ni iwoorun;[16] Saina, Nepal, ati Bhutan si ariwa; ati Bangladesh ati Burma ni ilaorun. India wa nitosi Sri Lanka, ati Maldives ti won wa ni Okun India.

Gege bi ile Asa-Olaju Afonifoji Indus ati agbegbe ojuona owo latayeraye ati awon ile obaluaye, abeorile India je didamo fun ola aje ati asa re kakiri atigba to ti wa.[17] Esin nla merin, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism ati Sikhism ni won bere latibe, nigbati Zoroastrianism, Esin Ju, Esin Kristi ati Imale de sibe ni egberundun akoko IO (CE) won si kopa ninu bi orisirisi asa agbegbe na seri. Diedie o je fifamora latowo British East India Company lati ibere orundun ikejidinlogun, o si di ile amusin Ile-oba Isodokan lati arin orundun ikandinlogun, India di orile-ede alominira ni 1947 leyin akitiyan fun isominira to se pataki fun isatako alaise jagidijagan kakiri.[18]

India je orile-ede olominira kan to ni ipinle 28 ati awon agbegbe isokan meje pelu sistemu onileasofin oseluaralu. Okowo India ni okowo ikokanla titobijulo gege bi olorujo GDP lagbaye ati ikerin titobijulo gege bi ibamu agbara iraja. Otun je omo egbe Ajoni awon Orile-ede, G-20, BRIC, SAFTA ati Agbajo Owo Agbaye. India je orile-ede toni ohun-ijagun bombu inuatomu, o si ni ile-ise ologun ikewa ton nawojulo pelu ile-ise ologun adigun keji titobijulo lagbaye. Atunse okowo to bere lati 1991 ti so India di ikan ninu awon okowo to n dagba kiakia julo lagbaye;[19] sibesibe, aini si tun ba ja,[20] aimookomooka, iwa-ibaje, arun, ati aijeunkanu. Gege bi awujo esin olopolopo, eledepupo ati eleya eniyan pupo, India tun je ibugbe fun opolopo awon eran-igbe ni opolopo ibi alaabo.

Orísun ìtumọ̀ ọ̀rọ̀[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

India (pípè /ˈɪndiə/) gege bi oruko wa lati Indus, to wa lati oro Persia Atijo Hindu, lati Sanskrit सिन्धु Sindhu, oruko ibile fun Odo Indus.[21] Awon Griiki ayeijoun n pe awon ara India ni Indoi (Ινδοί), awon eniyan Indus.[22] Ilana Ibagbepo ile India ati lilo oro towopo ninu opo awon ede India bakanna tun seidamo Bharat (pipe [ˈbʱɑːrʌt̪]  ( ẹ tẹ́tí gbọ́)) gege bi oruko onibise iru kanna.[23] Bharat gege bi oruko wa lati oruko oba olokiki Bharata ninu awon Itan-Awaso Hindu. Hindustan ([hɪnd̪ʊˈstɑːn]  ( ẹ tẹ́tí gbọ́)), ni berebere to je oro Persia fun “Ile Hindus” lati toka si apaariwa India, bakanna tun lilo gege bi oruko gbogbo India.[24]

Ìtàn[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Awon ibugbe apata Igba Okuta pelu awon iyaworan ni Bhimbetka rock shelters ni Madhya Pradesh ni eri igbe eniyan pipejulo ni India. Awon ibudo akoko ti a mo bere ni odun to ju 9,000 seyin lo, diedie o si dagba soke si Indus Valley Civilisation,[25] ti ojo ori re to odun 3400 BCE ni apaiwoorun India. Eyi je titele pelu Vedic period, to se ipilese Esin Hindu ati awon asa miran igba ibere awujo India, o si pari ni awon odun 500 BCE. Lati bi 550 BCE, opolopo awon ile-oba alominira ati orile-ede olominira ti a mo bi Mahajanapadas je didasile kakiri ibe.[26]

Damaged brown painting of a reclining man and woman.
Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, sixth century

Ni orundun keta KIO (BCE), opo gbogbo Guusu Asia je piparapo di Ileobaluaye Maurya latowo Chandragupta Maurya o si lokunkun ni asiko Ashoka Olokiki.[27] Lati igba orundun keta IO (CE), ijoba iran Gupta samojuto igba ti a mo bi ancient "Igba Oniwura India ayeijoun."[28][29] Awon ileobaluaye ni Apaguusu India je kikopomo gbogbo awon ti Chalukya, ti Cholas ati ti Vijayanagara Empire. Sayensi, teknoloji, ise-ero, ise-ona, ogbon, ede, litireso, mathematiiki, itorawo, esin ati imo-oye di olokunkun labe itoju awon oba wonyi.

Leyin awon iborile lati Arin Asia larin orundun 10th ati 12th, opo Ariwa India ni won bo si abe ijoba Delhi Sultanate ati leyin eyi sabe Ileobaluaye Mughal. Labe isejoba Akbar the Great, India gbadun idagbasoke asa ati okowo pupo ati irepo esin.[30][31] Awon obaluaye Mughal diedie fe ile won si pupo lati dori apa nla abeorile. Sibesibe, ni Ariwa-Apailaorun India, alagbara to joba ibe ni ileoba Ahom ti Assam, gege bi ikan ninu awon ileoba ti won lodi si ijobalenilori Mughal. Ihalemo ninla akoko si agbara ijoba Mughal wa latodo oba Hindu Rajput kan Maha Rana Pratap ti Mewar ni orundun 16th ati leyin eyi latodo orile-ede Hindu kan to n je adapapo Maratha, to joba lori opo India ni arin orundun 18th.[32]

Lati orundun 16th, awon alagbara ara Europe bi Portugal, Hollandi, Fransi, ati Iparapo Ileoba se idasile ibudo owo (trading posts) be sini leyin eyi won lo anfani ti awon ija abele ibe fa wa lati sedasile awon ibiamusin nibe. Nigba to fi di 1856, opo India ti bo sabe idari British East India Company.[33] Odun kan leyin eyi, igbogundi kakiri awon eyo ologun olodi ijoba ati awon ileoba, ti a mo bi Ogun Ilominira Akoko India tabi Sepoy Mutiny, koju idari ile-ise yi gidigidi sugbon ko yori si rere. Nitori aidurorege, India bo si abe isejoba taara Oba Alade Britani.

Two smiling men in robes sitting on the ground, with bodies facing the viewer and with heads turned toward each other. The younger wears a white Nehru cap; the elder is bald and wears glasses. A half dozen other people are in the background.
Mahatma Gandhi (right) with Jawaharlal Nehru, 1937. Nehru would go on to become India's first prime minister in 1947.

Ni orundun 20th, akitiyan fun ilominira kakiri orile-ede bere latowo Indian National Congress ati awon agbajo oloselu miran.[34] Olori India Mahatma Gandhi lewaju awon egbegberun eniyan ni opolopo igbese torile-ede fun aigboran araalu aini-jagidijagan .[18]

Ni ojo 15 osu kejo 1947, India gba ilominira kuro lowo isejoba Britani, sugbon nigba kanna awon agbegbe ogunlogo Musulum je pipinniya lati da orile-ede otooto Pakistan.[35] Ni ojo 26 osi kinni 1950, India di orile-ede olominira be sini ilana ibagbepo tuntun je gbigbe jade.[36]

Lati igba ilominira, India ti ni awon isoro lati owojagidijagan esin, casteism, naxalism, isedaniloro ati latowo awon igbogunti oludase agbegbe, agaga ni Jammu ati Kashmir ati Ariwailaorun India. Lati igba awon odun 1990 awon idigbolu adaniloro ti nipa lori opolopo awon ilu India. India ni ariyanjiyan ile pelu orile-ede Olominira awon Eniyan ile Saina, to di ni odun 1962 Ogun Saina-India, ati pelu Pakistan, to fa awon ogun ni 1947, 1965, 1971 ati ni 1999. India je omo egbe adasile Iparapo awon Orile-ede (gege bi India Britani) ati Non-Aligned Movement. Ni odun 1974, India se nuclear test nipamo[37] ati idanwo marun ni 1998, eyi so India di orile-ede to ni bombu inuatomu.[37] Lati 1991, atundase okowo pataki[38] ti so India di ikan ninu awon okowo to n dagba kiakia julo lagbaye, eyi fun lagbara pupo laye.[19]

Ijoba[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Àdàkọ:Indian symbols Ilana-Ibagbepo ile India, to je ilana-ibagbepo togunjulo ati to kunrerejulo ti orile-ede alominira lagbaye, je gbigba bi ofin ni 26 January 1950.[39] Akokoso ilana-ibagbepo yi setumo India gege bi orile-ede olominira toseluaralu sovereign, sosialisti, ti araaye.[40] India ni ileasofin oniyewumeji to n sise bi sistemu onileasofin iru Westminster. Iru ijoba re je jijuwe pe o je bi 'quasi-federal' pelu gbongan to lagbara ati awon ipinle ti won ko lagbara,[41] sugbon o ti di apapo diedie lati opin awon odun 1990 nitori awon iyipada oloselu, olokowo ati alawujo.[42]

Aare ile India ni olori orile-ede[43] to je didiboyan latowo igbimo onidiboyan[44] fun igba odun marun kan.[45][46] Alakoso Agba ni olori ijoba, ohun lo si segbese opo agbara alase.[43] Gege bi yiyan latowo Aare,[47]Alakoso Agba je titileyin latowo egbe oloselu tabi ifowosowopo oloselu to ni ogunlogo awon ijoko ni ile kekere Ileasofin.[43] Apa ijoba apase ni Aare, Igbakeji Aare, ati Igbimo awon Alakoso (Kabinet ni igbimo apase re) ti olori re je Alakoso Agba. Alakoso yiowu to ni ipo gbodo je ikan ninu awon omo ile ileasofin. Ninu sistemu onileasofin ti India, apase wa labe asofin, nibi ti Alakoso Agba ati Igbimo re wa labe ile kekere.[48]

Asofin ile India ni Ileasofin oniyewumeji, to ni ile oke ti o n je Rajya Sabha (Igbimo awon Ipinle) ati ile kekere to n je Lok Sabha (Ile awon Eniyan).[49] Rajya Sabha, agbarajo aiyese, ni 245 omo egbe ti won wa nibe fun odun marun.[50] Opo won je didiboyan taara latowo awon asofin ipinle ati agbegbe gege bi iye awon eniyan won.[50]

Awon ipinle India[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Map of India showing its subdivision into states and territories.
Administrative divisions of India, including 28 states and 7 union territories.

States:

  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Assam
  4. Bihar
  5. Chhattisgarh
  6. Goa
  7. Gujarat
  1. Haryana
  2. Himachal Pradesh
  3. Jammu and Kashmir
  4. Jharkhand
  5. Karnataka
  6. Kerala
  7. Madhya Pradesh
  1. Maharashtra
  2. Manipur
  3. Meghalaya
  4. Mizoram
  5. Nagaland
  6. Orissa
  7. Punjab
  1. Rajasthan
  2. Sikkim
  3. Tamil Nadu
  4. Tripura
  5. Uttar Pradesh
  6. Uttarakhand
  7. West Bengal

Union Territories:

  1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  2. Chandigarh
  3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  4. Daman and Diu
  5. Lakshadweep
  6. National Capital Territory of Delhi
  7. Puducherry


Àwọn Akóìjánupọ̀: 21°N 78°E / 21°N 78°E / 21; 78

Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. "State Emblem -Inscription". National Informatics Centre(NIC). http://www.india.gov.in/knowindia/state_emblem.php. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  2. "National Anthem – Know India portal". National Informatics Centre(NIC). 2007. http://india.gov.in/knowindia/national_anthem.php. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 
  3. "National Song – Know India portal". National Informatics Centre(NIC). 2007. http://india.gov.in/knowindia/national_song.php. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  4. "Constituent Assembly of India — Volume XII". Constituent Assembly of India: Debates. parliamentofindia.nic.in, National Informatics Centre. 1950-01-24. http://parliamentofindia.nic.in/ls/debates/vol12p1.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-29. "The composition consisting of the words and music known as Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it." 
  5. "The Union: Official Language". Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. National Informatics Centre(NIC). 2007. http://india.gov.in/knowindia/official_language.php. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  6. "Notification No. 2/8/60-O.L., dated 27 April, 1960". Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. National Informatics Centre(NIC). http://www.rajbhasha.gov.in/preseng.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  7. "Official Languages Resolution, 1968". Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. National Informatics Centre(NIC). http://www.rajbhasha.gov.in/dolresolutioneng.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-11. .
  8. 8.0 8.1 "India at a Glance". Know India Portal. National Informatics Centre(NIC). http://india.gov.in/knowindia/india_at_a_glance.php. Retrieved 2007-12-07. 
  9. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  10. "India at a glance: Population". Census of India, 2001. Government of India. http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/India_at_glance/popu1.aspx. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 "India". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=534&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr1.x=40&pr1.y=15. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  12. "Field Listing — Distribution of family income — Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. 15 May 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  13. "Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G". The United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  14. "Total Area of India" (PDF). Country Studies, India. Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. December 2004. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/India.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-03. "The country’s exact size is subject to debate because some borders are disputed. The Indian government lists the total area as 3,287,260 square kilometres and the total land area as 3,060,500 square kilometres; the United Nations lists the total area as 3,287,263 square kilometres and total land area as 2,973,190 square kilometres." 
  15. Kumar, V. Sanil; K. C. Pathak, P. Pednekar, N. S. N. Raju (2006). "Coastal processes along the Indian coastline" (PDF). Current Science 91 (4): 530–536. http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/350/1/Curr_Sci_91_530.pdf. 
  16. Footnote: The Government of India also considers Afghanistan to be a bordering country. This is because it considers the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir to be a part of India including the portion bordering Afghanistan. A ceasefire sponsored by the United Nations in 1948 froze the positions of Indian and Pakistani-held territory. As a consequence, the region bordering Afghanistan is in Pakistan-administered Kashmir.
  17. Oldenburg, Phillip. 2007. "India: History," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007. Archived 1 November 2009.
  18. 18.0 18.1 written by John Farndon. (1997). Concise Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 455. ISBN 0-7513-5911-4. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 "India is the second fastest growing economy". Economic Research Service (ERS). United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/India/. Retrieved 5 August 2007. 
  20. Poverty estimates for 2004–05, Planning commission, Government of India, March 2007. Accessed: 25 August 2007.
  21. "India", Oxford English Dictionary, second edition, 2100a.d. Oxford University Press.
  22. Basham, A. L. (2000). The Wonder That Was India. South Asia Books. ISBN 0283992573. 
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  24. "Hindustan". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. 2007. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/266465/Hindustan. Retrieved 18 June 2007. 
  25. "Introduction to the Ancient Indus Valley". Harappa. 1996. http://www.harappa.com/indus/indus1.html. Retrieved 18 June 2007. 
  26. Krishna Reddy (2003). Indian History. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. p. A107. ISBN 0070483698. 
  27. Jona Lendering. "Maurya dynasty". http://www.livius.org/man-md/mauryas/mauryas.html. Retrieved 17 June 2007. 
  28. "Gupta period has been described as the Golden Age of Indian history". National Informatics Centre (NIC). http://india.gov.in/knowindia/ancient_history4.php. Retrieved 3 October 2007. 
  29. Heitzman, James. (2007). "Gupta Dynasty," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007. Archived 31 October 2009.
  30. "The Mughal Legacy". http://www.edwebproject.org/india/mughals.html. 
  31. "The Mughal World : Life in India's Last Golden Age". http://www.easternbookcorporation.com/moreinfo.php?txt_searchstring=13880. 
  32. The Mughals: The Marathas.
  33. "History : Indian Freedom Struggle (1857–1947)". National Informatics Centre (NIC). http://india.gov.in/knowindia/history_freedom_struggle.php. Retrieved 3 October 2007. "And by 1856, the British conquest and its authority were firmly established." 
  34. Markovits, Claude, ed (2004). A History of Modern India, 1480–1950. Anthem South Asian Studies. Anthem Press. p. 345. ISBN 1-84331-152-6. 
  35. written by John Farndon. (1997). Concise Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 322. ISBN 0-7513-5911-4. 
  36. "CIA Factbook: India". CIA Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html. Retrieved 10 March 2007. 
  37. 37.0 37.1 "India Profile". Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI). 2003. http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/India/index.html. Retrieved 20 June 2007. 
  38. Montek Singh Ahluwalia (2002) (MS Word). Economic Reforms in India since 1991: Has Gradualism Worked?. Journal of Economic Perspectives. http://planningcommission.nic.in/aboutus/speech/spemsa/msa008.doc. Retrieved 13 June 2007. 
  39. Pylee, Moolamattom Varkey (2004). "The Longest Constitutional Document". Constitutional Government in India (2nd ed.). S. Chand. p. 4. ISBN 8121922038. http://books.google.com/books?id=veDUJCjr5U4C&pg=PA4&dq=India+longest+constitution&as_brr=0&sig=ZpqDCkfUoglOQx0XQ8HBpRWkRAk#PPA4,M1. Retrieved 31 October 2007. 
  40. Dutt, Sagarika (1998). "Identities and the Indian state: An overview". Third World Quarterly 19 (3): 411–434. doi:10.1080/01436599814325.  at p. 421.
  41. Wheare, K.C. (1964). Federal Government (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 28. 
  42. Echeverri-Gent, John (2002). "Politics in India's Decentred Polity". In Ayres, Alyssa; Oldenburg, Philip. Quickening the Pace of Change. India Briefing. London: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 076560812X.  at pp. 19–20; Sinha, Aseema (2004). "The Changing Political Economy of Federalism in India". India Review 3 (1): 25. doi:10.1080/14736480490443085.  at pp. 25–33.
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 Sharma, Ram (1950). "Cabinet Government in India". Parliamentary Affairs 4 (1): 116–126. 
  44. "Election of President". The Constitution Of India. Constitution Society. http://www.constitution.org/cons/india/p05054.html. Retrieved 2 September 2007. "The President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college." 
  45. Gledhill, Alan (1964). The Republic of India: The Development of Its Laws and Constitution (2nd ed.). Stevens and Sons. p. 112. 
  46. "Tenure of President's office". The Constitution Of India. Constitution Society. http://www.constitution.org/cons/india/p05056.html. Retrieved 2 September 2007. "The President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office." 
  47. "Appointment of Prime Minister and Council of Ministers". The Constitution Of India. Constitution Society. http://www.constitution.org/cons/india/p05075.html. Retrieved 2 September 2007. "The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President and the other Ministers shall be appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister." 
  48. Matthew, K.M. (2003). Manorama Yearbook 2003. Malayala Manorama. p. 524. ISBN 8190046187. 
  49. Gledhill, Alan (1964). The Republic of India: The Development of Its Laws and Constitution (2nd ed.). Stevens and Sons. p. 127. 
  50. 50.0 50.1 "Our Parliament A brief description of the Indian Parliament". www.parliamentofindia.gov.in. http://www.india.gov.in/outerwin.htm?id=http://parliamentofindia.gov.in/. Retrieved 16 June 2007.