Nelson Mandela

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His Excellency

Nelson Mandela

OM AC CC GCStJ QC GColIH RSerafO BR NPk MRCSI
Nelson Mandela on his 90th birthday in 2008.
Mandela in 2008
Ààrẹ ilẹ̀ Gúúsù Áfríkà
Lórí àga
10 May 1994 – 14 June 1999
Deputy Thabo Mbeki
Frederik Willem de Klerk
Asíwájú Frederik Willem de Klerk
As State President of South Africa
Arọ́pò Thabo Mbeki
Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement
Lórí àga
3 September 1998 – 14 June 1999
Asíwájú Andrés Pastrana Arango
Arọ́pò Thabo Mbeki
Ẹ̀kúnrẹ́rẹ́
Ìbí Rolihlahla Mandela
18 Oṣù Keje 1918 (1918-07-18) (ọmọ ọdún 96)
Mvezo, Union of South Africa
Ọmọorílẹ̀-èdè South African
Ẹgbẹ́ olóṣèlú African National Congress
Tọkọtaya pẹ̀lú Evelyn Ntoko Mase (1944–1957)
Winnie Madikizela (1957–1996)
Graça Machel (1998–present)
Ibùgbé Houghton Estate, South Africa
Alma mater University of Fort Hare
University of London External System
University of South Africa
University of the Witwatersrand
Ẹ̀sìn MethodismÀdàkọ:Citation needed
Ìtọwọ́bọ̀wé Signature of Nelson Mandela
Website Mandela Foundation

Àdàkọ:Apartheid Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (IPA: [xoˈliɬaɬa manˈdeːla]; 18 July 1918 - 05 December 2013)[1] je Aare Guusu Afrika lati 1994 di 1999, beesini ohun ni Aare Guusu Afrika akoko to je didiboyan ninu idiboyan toseluarailu asoju yanyan. Ki oto di aare, Mandela je alakitiyan olodi-apartheid, ati olori Umkhonto we Sizwe, apa adigun Kongresi Omoorile-ede Afrika (ANC). Ni 1962 o je fifofinmu o si je didalebi ika ote ati awon esun miran, o si je riran si ewon fun lailai. Mandela lo odun 27 ni ewon, o lo opo odun yi ni Robben Island. Leyin ijowo re kuro logba ewon ni ojo 11 Osu Keji 1990, Mandela lewaju egbe oloselu re ninu awon iforojomitorooro to fa oseluarailu gbogbo eya waye ni 1994. Gege bi aare lati 1994 de 1999, o sise fun ifowosowopo.

Ni Guusu Afrika, Mandela tun je mimo bi Madiba, oye eye ti awon alagba idile Mandela unlo.

Mandela ti gba ebun topo ju 250 lo ni arin ogoji odun, ninu won ni Ebun Nobel Alafia 1993.

Igba ewe[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Nelson Mandela ni 1937[2]

Nelson Mandela je ara eka kekere iran oba Thembu dynasty, to joba ni awon Ileagbegbe Transkei ni Igberiko Cape Guusu Afrika.[3] O je bibi ni Mvezo, abule kekere kan to budo si agbegbe Umtata, to je oluilu Transkei.[3] He has Khoisan ancestry on his mother's side[4]. Baba unla-unla baba re Ngubengcuka (to ku ni 1832), joba gege bi Inkosi Enkhulu, tabi oba, awon Thembu.[5] Ikan ninu awon omokunrin oba ohun to nje Mandela, ni baba unla re ati ibi ti oruko idile re ti wa. Sibesibe nitoripe o je omo Inkosi's child latodo iyawo iran Ixhiba (eyun "idile olowo osi"[6]), awon omoomo eka ebi oba re ko le gori ite ni Thembu.

Baba Mandela, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, je oloye ni ilu Mvezo.[7] Sugbon nitori aigboran si ijoba alamusin lenu, won yo Mphakanyiswa kuro ni ipo oye re won si ko ebi re lo si Qunu. Sibesibe, Mphakanyiswa ko kose lati je omo egbe Adamoran Inkosi, beesini o kopa gidi lat ri pe Jongintaba Dalindyebo gun ori ite Thembu. Lojowaju Dalindyebo san ore yi paa nipa gbigba Mandela sodo bi omo nigbati Mphakanyiswa ku.[8] Baba Mandela fe iyawo merin, pelu won o bi omo metala (okunrin merin ati obinrin mesan).[8] Mandela je omo iyawo keta, Nosekeni Fanny. Fanny je omobinrin Nkedama lati iran Mpemvu Xhosa, Otun Oba, ninu ile eni ti Mandela ti lo igba omode re.[9] Oruko abiso re Rolihlahla tumosi "fa eka igi", "onijangbon".[10][11]

Rolihlahla Mandela lo je omo akoko ninu ebi re to lo si ile-eko nibi ti oluko re Miss Mdingane ti fun ni oruko Geesi "Nelson".[12]

Nigbati Mandela to omo odun mesan, baba re ku nipa aisan tuberculosis, nitorie Jongintaba, di alagbato re.[8] Mandela lo si ile-eko ti o jinna si afin Jogintaba. Pelu bi asa Thembu se lasile, o je sisodagba nigba to to omo odun merindinlogun, o si losi ile-eko Clarkebury Boarding Institute.[13] Mandela pari ile-eko odo ni arin odun meji, kaka odun meta to ye.[13] Leyi to je yiyan lati jogun ipo baba re gege bi alamora oba, ni 1937 Mandela ko lo si Healdtown Comprehensive School, koleji awon elesin Wesley ni Fort Beaufort ti opo awon awon omo oloye ni Thembu ti lo si ile-eko.[14] Nigba to di omo odun mokandinlogun o feran lati ja ese ati eresisa ni ile-eko.[9]

Leyin to to de koleji, Mandela bere si keko fun iwe-eri Bachelor Ise-Ona ni Fort Hare University, nibi to ti pade Oliver Tambo. Tambo ati Mandela di ore ati elegbe. Mandela tun di ore pelu Kaiser ("K.D.") Matanzima eni to je gege bi oloye Otunba Thembu wa lori ila fun ite ni Transkei,[6] eyi ti yio fa lojo iwaju lati tewogba eto Bantustan. Itileyin re fun awon eto yi fa ilodi larin ohun ati Mandela.[9] Ni eyin odun kn ni koleji Mandela kopa ninu boikotu ti Igbimo awon Asoju Akeko se nitori awon eto yunifasiti, nitorie won le kuro nibe.[15] Lojowaju nigba to wa ni ogba ewon, Mandela keko fun Iwe-eri Bachelor Ofin lati ibi eto okere Yunifasiti Londonu.

Dere to kuro ni Fort Hare, Jongintaba so fun Mandela ati Justice (to je omo Jogintaba ati eni to kan lati joba) pe ohun ti seto igbeyawo fun awon mejeeji. Sugbo awon mejeeji nitoripe won ko feran eto igbeyawo yi, won kora won si ko lo si Johannesburg.[16] Nigba to de be, Mandela nibere koko ri ise bi asona ninu koto alumoni.[17] Sugbon, eni to gba sise tete yara le kuro nigba to gbo pe Mandela je alagbato Oba. Mandela leyin na bere ise bi akowe ni ile-ise agbejoro to wa ni Johannesburg, Witkin, Sidelsky ati Edelman, lati odo ore ati alawose re, Walter Sisulu.[17] Bo se unsise ni Witkin, Sidelsky ati Edelman, Mandela pari iwe-eri B.A. re ni Yunifasiti Guusu Afrika pelu ifiranse, leyin na lo wa bere si ni gbeko ofin ni Yunifasiti Witwatersrand, nibi to ti bere si ni sore awon elegbe akoko re ati awon alakitiyan olodi apartheid lojowaju Joe Slovo, Harry Schwarz ati Ruth First. Slovo yio wa di Alakoso Oro Ile ninu ijoba Mandela lojowaju, nigbati Schwarz yio di Olusoju Guusu Afrika ni Amerika. Ni asiko yi, Mandela gbe ni Alexandra, to wa ni ariwa Johannesburg.[18]

Agbese oselu[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Leyin ibori Egbe Omoorile-ede awon Afrikaner ninu idiboyan 1948, nitoripe awon wonyi fowo mo eto apartheid iseloto eya,[19] Mandela bere si ni kopa gidigidi ninu oselu. O lewaju ninu Kampein Agidi ti ANC se ni 1952 ati ninu Kongresi awon Eniyan ni 1955 ti Ipinu Idanide re je ipile eto ilodi apartheid cause.[20][21] Larin asiko yi, Mandela ati elegbe agbejoro re Oliver Tambo da ile-ise agbejoro Mandela ati Tambo sile lati pese imoran ofin ofe fun opo awon alawodudu ti won ko ni agbejoro.[22]

Mahatma Gandhi nipa lori iha Mandela, ati bi be awon ona ti awon alakitiyan olodi apartheid Guusu Afrika fi koju re.[23][24] (nitorie Mandela kopa ninu ajoro 29–30 January 2007 ni New Delhi to sajodun odun 100k ti Gandhi se akose satyagraha (ilodi alainijagidijagan) ni Guusu Afrika).[25]

Initially committed to nonviolent resistance, Mandela and 150 others were arrested on 5 December 1956 and charged with treason. The marathon Treason Trial of 1956–1961 followed, with all defendants receiving acquittals.[26] From 1952–1959, a new class of black activists known as the Africanists disrupted ANC activities in the townships, demanding more drastic steps against the National Party regime.[27] The ANC leadership under Albert Luthuli, Oliver Tambo and Walter Sisulu felt not only that the Africanists were moving too fast but also that they challenged their leadership.[27] The ANC leadership consequently bolstered their position through alliances with small White, Coloured, and Indian political parties in an attempt to give the appearance of wider appeal than the Africanists.[27] The Africanists ridiculed the 1955 Freedom Charter Kliptown Conference for the concession of the 100,000-strong ANC to just a single vote in a Congressional alliance. Four secretaries-general of the five participating parties secretly belonged to the reconstituted South African Communist Party (SACP).[28][29] In 2003 Blade Nzimande, the SACP General Secretary, revealed that Walter Sisulu, the ANC Secretary-General, secretly joined the SACP in 1955[30] which meant all five Secretaries General were SACP and thus explains why Sisulu relegated the ANC from a dominant role to one of five equals.

In 1959, the ANC lost its most militant support when most of the Africanists, with financial support from Ghana and significant political support from the Transvaal-based Basotho, broke away to form the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) under the direction of Robert Sobukwe and Potlako Leballo.[31]

Awon agbese ilodi si apartheid[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

In 1961, Mandela became leader of the ANC's armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (translated Spear of the Nation, and also abbreviated MK), which he co-founded.[32] He coordinated sabotage campaigns against military and government targets, making plans for a possible guerrilla war if the sabotage failed to end apartheid.[33] Mandela also raised funds for MK abroad and arranged for paramilitary training of the group.[33]

Fellow ANC member Wolfie Kadesh explains the bombing campaign led by Mandela: "When we knew that we [sic] going to start on 16 December 1961, to blast the symbolic places of apartheid, like pass offices, native magistrates courts, and things like that ... post offices and ... the government offices. But we were to do it in such a way that nobody would be hurt, nobody would get killed."[34] Mandela said of Wolfie: "His knowledge of warfare and his first hand battle experience were extremely helpful to me."[11]

Mandela described the move to armed struggle as a last resort; years of increasing repression and violence from the state convinced him that many years of non-violent protest against apartheid had not and could not achieve any progress.[11][35]

Later, mostly in the 1980s, MK waged a guerrilla war against the apartheid regime in which many civilians became casualties.[33] Mandela later admitted that the ANC, in its struggle against apartheid, also violated human rights, sharply criticising those in his own party who attempted to remove statements supporting this fact from the reports of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.[36]

Up until July 2008, Mandela and ANC party members were barred from entering the United States — except the United Nations headquarters in Manhattan — without a special waiver from the US Secretary of State, because of their South African apartheid regime era designation as terrorists.[37][38]

Arrest and Rivonia trial[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

On 5 August 1962 Mandela was arrested after living on the run for seventeen months, and was imprisoned in the Johannesburg Fort.[39] The arrest was made possible because the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) tipped off the security police as to Mandela's whereabouts and disguise.[40][41][42] Three days later, the charges of leading workers to strike in 1961 and leaving the country illegally were read to him during a court appearance. On 25 October 1962, Mandela was sentenced to five years in prison. Two years later on 11 June 1964, a verdict had been reached concerning his previous engagement in the African National Congress (ANC).[43]

While Mandela was imprisoned, police arrested prominent ANC leaders on 11 July 1963, at Liliesleaf Farm, Rivonia, north of Johannesburg. Mandela was brought in, and at the Rivonia Trial they were charged by the chief prosecutor Dr. Percy Yutar with the capital crimes of sabotage (which Mandela admitted) and crimes which were equivalent to treason, but easier for the government to prove.[44] The second charge accused the defendants of plotting a foreign invasion of South Africa, which Mandela denied.[44]

In his statement from the dock at the opening of the defence case in the trial on 20 April 1964 at Pretoria Supreme Court, Mandela laid out the reasoning in the ANC's choice to use violence as a tactic.[45] His statement described how the ANC had used peaceful means to resist apartheid for years until the Sharpeville Massacre.[46] That event coupled with the referendum establishing the Republic of South Africa and the declaration of a state of emergency along with the banning of the ANC made it clear to Mandela and his compatriots that their only choice was to resist through acts of sabotage and that doing otherwise would have been tantamount to unconditional surrender.[46] Mandela went on to explain how they developed the Manifesto of Umkhonto we Sizwe on 16 December 1961 intent on exposing the failure of the National Party's policies after the economy would be threatened by foreigners' unwillingness to risk investing in the country.[47] He closed his statement with these words: "During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to the struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die."[35]

Bram Fischer, Vernon Berrange, Harry Schwarz, Joel Joffe, Arthur Chaskalson and George Bizos were part of the defence team that represented the accused.[48] Harold Hanson was brought in at the end of the case to plead mitigation.[49] All except Rusty Bernstein were found guilty, but they escaped the gallows and were sentenced to life imprisonment on 12 June 1964.[49] Charges included involvement in planning armed action, in particular four charges of sabotage, which Mandela admitted to, and a conspiracy to help other countries invade South Africa, which Mandela denied.[49]

Atimole logba ewon[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ogba ewon Erekusu Robben
Ihamo ewon Nelson Mandela ni Erekusu Robben

Nelson Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island where he remained for the next eighteen of his twenty-seven years in prison.[50] While in jail, his reputation grew and he became widely known as the most significant black leader in South Africa.[1] On the island, he and others performed hard labour in a lime quarry.[51] Prison conditions were very basic. Prisoners were segregated by race, with black prisoners receiving the fewest rations.[52] Political prisoners were kept separate from ordinary criminals and received fewer privileges.[53] Mandela describes how, as a D-group prisoner (the lowest classification) he was allowed one visitor and one letter every six months.[54] Letters, when they came, were often delayed for long periods and made unreadable by the prison censors.[11]

Whilst in prison Mandela undertook study with the University of London by correspondence through its External Programme and received the degree of Bachelor of Laws.[55] He was subsequently nominated for the position of Chancellor of the University of London in the 1981 election, but lost to Princess Anne.[55]

In his 1981 memoir Inside BOSS[56] secret agent Gordon Winter describes his involvement in a plot to rescue Mandela from prison in 1969: this plot was infiltrated by Winter on behalf of South African intelligence, who wanted Mandela to escape so they could shoot him during recapture. The plot was foiled by British Intelligence.[56]

In March 1982 Mandela was transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison, along with other senior ANC leaders Walter Sisulu, Andrew Mlangeni, Ahmed Kathrada and Raymond Mhlaba.[54] It was speculated that this was to remove the influence of these senior leaders on the new generation of young black activists imprisoned on Robben Island, the so-called "Mandela University".[57] However, National Party minister Kobie Coetsee says that the move was to enable discreet contact between them and the South African government.[58]

In February 1985 President P.W. Botha offered Mandela his freedom on condition that he 'unconditionally rejected violence as a political weapon'.[59] Coetsee and other ministers had advised Botha against this, saying that Mandela would never commit his organisation to giving up the armed struggle in exchange for personal freedom.[60] Mandela indeed spurned the offer, releasing a statement via his daughter Zindzi saying "What freedom am I being offered while the organisation of the people remains banned? Only free men can negotiate. A prisoner cannot enter into contracts."[58]

The first meeting between Mandela and the National Party government came in November 1985 when Kobie Coetsee met Mandela in Volks Hospital in Cape Town where Mandela was recovering from prostate surgery.[61] Over the next four years, a series of tentative meetings took place, laying the groundwork for further contact and future negotiations, but little real progress was made.[58]

In 1988 Mandela was moved to Victor Verster Prison and would remain there until his release. Various restrictions were lifted and people such as Harry Schwarz were able to visit him. Schwarz, a friend of Mandela, had known him since university when they were in the same law class. He was also a defence barrister at the Rivonia Trial and would become Mandela's ambassador to Washington during his presidency.

Throughout Mandela's imprisonment, local and international pressure mounted on the South African government to release him, under the resounding slogan Free Nelson Mandela![62] In 1989, South Africa reached a crossroads when Botha suffered a stroke and was replaced as president by Frederik Willem de Klerk.[63] De Klerk announced Mandela's release in February 1990.[64]

Mandela was visited several times by delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross, while at Robben Island and later at Pollsmoor prison. Mandela had this to say about the visits: "to me personally, and those who shared the experience of being political prisoners, the Red Cross was a beacon of humanity within the dark inhumane world of political imprisonment."[65][66]

Ifisile kuro lewon[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

On 2 February 1990, State President F.W. de Klerk reversed the ban on the ANC and other anti-apartheid organisations, and announced that Mandela would shortly be released from prison.[67] Mandela was released from Victor Verster Prison in Paarl on 11 February 1990. The event was broadcast live all over the world.[68]

On the day of his release, Mandela made a speech to the nation.[69] He declared his commitment to peace and reconciliation with the country's white minority, but made it clear that the ANC's armed struggle was not yet over when he said "our resort to the armed struggle in 1960 with the formation of the military wing of the ANC (Umkhonto we Sizwe) was a purely defensive action against the violence of apartheid. The factors which necessitated the armed struggle still exist today. We have no option but to continue. We express the hope that a climate conducive to a negotiated settlement would be created soon, so that there may no longer be the need for the armed struggle."

He also said his main focus was to bring peace to the black majority and give them the right to vote in both national and local elections.[69]

Negotiations[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Following his release from prison, Mandela returned to the leadership of the ANC and, between 1990 and 1994, led the party in the multi-party negotiations that led to the country's first multi-racial elections.[70]

In 1991, the ANC held its first national conference in South Africa after its unbanning, electing Mandela as President of the organisation. His old friend and colleague Oliver Tambo, who had led the organisation in exile during Mandela's imprisonment, became National Chairperson.[71]

Mandela's leadership through the negotiations, as well as his relationship with President F.W. de Klerk, was recognised when they were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. However, the relationship was sometimes strained, particularly so in a sharp exchange in 1991 when he furiously referred to De Klerk as the head of "an illegitimate, discredited, minority regime". The talks broke down following the Boipatong massacre in June 1992 when Mandela took the ANC out of the negotiations, accusing De Klerk's government of complicity in the killings.[72] However, talks resumed following the Bisho massacre in September 1992, when the spectre of violent confrontation made it clear that negotiations were the only way forward.[11]

Mandela pade Aare Amerika Bill Clinton ni 1993

Following the assassination of ANC leader Chris Hani in April 1993, there were renewed fears that the country would erupt in violence.[73] Mandela addressed the nation appealing for calm, in a speech regarded as 'presidential' even though he was not yet president of the country at that time. Mandela said "tonight I am reaching out to every single South African, black and white, from the very depths of my being. A white man, full of prejudice and hate, came to our country and committed a deed so foul that our whole nation now teeters on the brink of disaster. A white woman, of Afrikaner origin, risked her life so that we may know, and bring to justice, this assassin. The cold-blooded murder of Chris Hani has sent shock waves throughout the country and the world. ...Now is the time for all South Africans to stand together against those who, from any quarter, wish to destroy what Chris Hani gave his life for – the freedom of all of us".[74] While some riots did follow the assassination, the negotiators were galvanised into action, and soon agreed that democratic elections should take place on 27 April 1994, just over a year after Hani's assassination.[58]

Aare Guusu Afrika[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Igbeyawo ati ebi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ifeyinseti[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

iyin[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

E tun wo[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Nelson Mandela - Biography". Nobelprize.org. The Nobel Foundation. 1993. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1993/mandela-bio.html. Retrieved 30 April 2009. 
  2. Mandela 1996, pp. 16, 17
  3. 3.0 3.1 "South Africa: Celebrating Mandela At 90". AllAfrica.com. 17 July 2008. http://allafrica.com/stories/200807180124.html. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  4. "So, where do we come from?". beta.mnet.co.za. 19 September 2004. http://beta.mnet.co.za/carteblanche/Article.aspx?Id=2619. Retrieved 11 October 2010. 
  5. Kopkind, Andrew (16 March 1990). "Book Review - Higher than Hope". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc.. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,316920,00.html. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Mafela, Munzhedzi James (October 2008). "The revelation of African culture in Long Walk to Freedom". Indigenous Biography and Autobiography. Australian National University. http://epress.anu.edu.au/aborig_history/indigenous_biog/mobile_devices/ch08.html. Retrieved 18 July 2009. 
  7. Guiloineau, Jean; Rowe, Joseph (2002). Nelson Mandela: the early life of Rolihlahla Mandiba. North Atlantic Books. p. 13. ISBN 1556434170. http://books.google.com/?id=4iKSlwuya1YC&pg=PA13. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Aikman (2003), pp 70–71
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Mandela, Nelson (2006). Mandela: The Authorized Portrait. Kansas City, Mo.: Andrews McMeel Pub. p. 13. ISBN 0-7407-5572-2. http://www.nextreads.com/display2.aspx?recid=126238&FC=1. Retrieved 26 May 2008. 
  10. Mandela 1996, p.7
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Mandela, Nelson (1994). Long Walk to Freedom. Little, Brown and Company. 
  12. Mandela 1996, p. 9. "No one in my family had ever attended school [...] On the first day of school my teacher, Miss Mdingane, gave each of us an English name. This was the custom among Africans in those days and was undoubtedly due to the British bias of our education. That day, Miss Mdingane told me that my new name was Nelson. Why this particular name I have no idea."
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Mandela celebrates 90th birthday". BBC. 17 July 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/7500615.stm. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  14. "Healdtown Comprehensive School". Historic Schools Project: South Africa. http://www.historicschools.org.za/view.asp?ItemID=1&tname=tblComponent2&oname=Schools&pg=front&subm=Pilot%20Schools. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  15. Mandela 1996, pp. 18-19.
  16. Mandela 1996, pp. 10, 20.
  17. 17.0 17.1 "Nelson Mandela Biography - Early Years". Nelson Mandela Foundation. http://www.nelsonmandela.org/index.php/memory/views/biography/. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  18. "Nelson Mandela Children's Fund - Organise". Nelson Mandela Children's Fund. http://www.nmcf.co.za/organize.html. Retrieved 28 October 2008.  Àdàkọ:Dead link
  19. "The 1948 election and the National Party Victory". South African History Online. http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/governence-projects/SA-1948-1976/1948-election.htm. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  20. "The Defiance Campaign". African National Congress. Archived from the original on 2008-07-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20080713192018/http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/struggles/defiance.html. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  21. "Congress of the People, 1955". African National Congress. Archived from the original on 22 June 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080622053030/http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/campaigns/cop/index.html. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  22. Callinicos, Luli (2004). Oliver Tambo: Beyond the Engeli Mountains. New Africa Books. p. 173. ISBN 0864866666. 
  23. Mandela, Nelson (3 January 2000). "The Sacred Warrior". Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century. http://www.time.com/time/time100/poc/magazine/the_sacred_warrior13a.html. Retrieved 26 May 2008. 
  24. Bhana, Surendra; Vahed, Goolam (2005). The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914. p. 149. 
  25. Bhalla, Nita (29 January 2007). "Mandela calls for Gandhi's non-violence approach". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 May 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080508192753/http://www.boston.com/news/world/asia/articles/2007/01/29/mandela_calls_for_gandhis_non_violence_approach/. Retrieved 26 May 2008. 
  26. "Nelson Mandela's Testimony at the Treason Trial 1956-60". African National Congress. Archived from the original on 2 August 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080802140822/http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/mandela/1960s/treason.html. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 "ANC - Statement to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission". African National Congress. August 1996. Archived from the original on 22 May 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080522154321/http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/misc/trcall.html. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  28. Shillington, Kevin (2005). Encyclopedia of African History. CRC Press. p. 1449. ISBN 1579582451. 
  29. "The Freedom Charter". African National Congress. Archived from the original on 3 July 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080703180122/http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/charter.html. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  30. SACP Salutes Walter SisuluÀdàkọ:Dead link
  31. Leeman, Bernard (1996). Alexander, Peter; Hutchison, Ruth; Schreuder, Deryck. ed. The PAC of Azania in Africa Today. The Humanities Research Centre, The Australian National University Canberra: The Australian National University Canberra. ISBN 0731524918. 
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