- 1927 – Leon Trotsky is expelled from the Soviet Communist Party, leaving Joseph Stalin in undisputed control of the Soviet Union.
- 1981 – Space Shuttle program: mission STS-2, utilizing the Space Shuttle Columbia, marks the first time a manned spacecraft is launched into space twice.
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- 1842 – John Strutt, English physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1919)
- 1915 – Roland Barthes, French critic and writer (d. 1980)
- 1938 – Benjamin Mkapa, Tanzanian politician
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