Brasil

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Lọ sí: atọ́ka, àwárí
Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìnira Aparapọ̀ ilẹ̀ Bràsíl
Federative Republic of Brazil
República Federativa do Brasil (Pọtogí)
Àsìá Àmì ọ̀pá àṣẹ
Motto"Ordem e Progresso"
(Potogí)
(Yorùbá: "Ìtòrò àti Ìlọsíwájú")
Orin-ìyìn orílẹ̀-èdè

Hino Nacional Brasileiro
(Potogí)
(Orin-ìyìn Onítọmọorílẹ̀-èdè Brasil)
Èdìdì onítọmọorílẹ̀-èdè
Selo Nacional do Brasil
(Potogí)
("Èdìdì Onítọmọorílẹ̀-èdè ilẹ̀ Bràsíl")
National Seal of Brazil (color).svg
Olúìlú Brasília
15°47′S 47°52′W / 15.783°S 47.867°W / -15.783; -47.867
ilú títóbijùlọ São Paulo
Èdè oníbiṣẹ́ Pọrtugí[1]
Àwọn ẹ̀yà ènìyàn (2010[2]) 47.73% Aláwọ̀funfun
43.13% Brown (Ẹlẹ́yàpúpọ̀)
7.61% Adúláwọ̀
1.09% Asian
0.43% Amerindian
Orúkọ aráàlú Ará Brazil
Ìjọba Orílẹ̀-èdè olómìnira oníàrẹ àpapọ̀
 -  Ààrẹ Dilma Rousseff (PT)
 -  Igbákejì Ààrẹ Michel Temer (PMDB)
 -  Ààrẹ ilé Aṣòfin Marco Maia (PT)
 -  Ààrẹ ilé Alàgbà José Sarney (PMDB)
 -  Ààrẹ Ilé-ẹjọ́ Gígajùlọ Ayres Britto
Aṣòfin Kọ́ngrésì Onítọmọorílẹ̀-èdè
 -  Ilé Aṣòfin Àgbà Ilé Alàgbà Àpapọ̀
 -  Ilé Aṣòfin Kéreré Ilé àwọn Aṣofin
Ilómínira látọ̀dọ̀ United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves 
 -  Filọ́lẹ̀ 7 September 1822 
 -  Recognized 29 August 1825 
 -  Orílẹ̀-èdè olómìnira 15 November 1889 
 -  Current constitution 5 October 1988 
Ààlà
 -  Total 8,514,877 km2 (5th)
3,287,597 sq mi 
 -  Omi (%) 0.65
Alábùgbé
 -  Ìdíye 2012[4] 193,946,886 
 -  2010 census 190,732,694[3] (5th)
 -  Ìṣúpọ̀ olùgbé 22/km2 (182nd)
57/sq mi
GIO (PPP) ìdíye 2011
 -  Iye lápapọ̀ $2.294 trillion[5] (7th)
 -  Ti ẹnikọ̀ọ̀kan $11,769[5] (75th)
GIO (onípípè) Ìdíye 2011
 -  Àpapọ̀ iye $2.493 trillion[5] (6th)
 -  Ti ẹnikọ̀ọ̀kan $12,788[5] (53rd)
Gini (2012) 51.9[6] (high
HDI (2011) 0.718[7] (high) (84th)
Owóníná Real (R$) (BRL)
Àkókò ilẹ̀àmùrè BRT (UTC−2 to −4)
 -  Summer (DST) BRST (UTC−2 to −4)
Ìdá ọjọ́ọdún dd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Ìwakọ̀ ní ọwọ́ right
Àmìọ̀rọ̀ Internet .br
Àmìọ̀rọ̀o tẹlifóònù +55

Brasil /bɹəˈzɪl/ (Pọrtugí: Brasil, IPA: [bɾaˈziw][8]), lóníbiṣẹ́ bíi Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìnira Aparapọ̀ ilẹ̀ Bràsíl (Federative Republic of Brazil[9][10] (Pọrtugí: República Federativa do Brasil, Pt-br-República Federativa do Brasil.ogg listen ), ni orílẹ̀-èdè tótóbijùlọ ní Gúúsì Amẹ́ríkà àti ní agbègbè Amẹ́ríkà Látìnì. Òkòwò rẹ̀ ni ìkaàrún tótóbijùlọ lagbaye, gegebi àlà jeografi àti bii alabugbe pelu 193 million eniyan.[11][4] Brasil ni orile-ede It is the largest Eledeluso totobijulo lagbaye, ati ikan soso ni orile awon Amerika.[11]

O ni bode mo Okun Atlantiki ni ilaorun, Brasil ni etiomi to to 7,491 km (4,655 mi).[11] O ni bode ni ariwa pelu Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname ati agbegbe okere Fransi ni Guiana fransi; ni ariwaiwoorun pelu Kolombia; ni iwoorun pelu Bolivia ati Peru; ni guusuiwoorun pelu Argentina ati Paraguay ati ni guusu pelu Uruguay. Opo awon erekusu osupo wa ni ara ile Brasil, bi Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, ati Trindade and Martim Vaz.[11] O ni bode mo gbogbo awon orile-ede Guusu Amerika ayafi Ekuador ati Tsile.

Brasil tele je imusin Portugal latigba ti Pedro Álvares Cabral gunle sibe ni 1500 titi di 1815, nigba to di ileoba ati Ileoba Asokan Portugal, Brasil ati awon Algafe je didasile. Ibase amusin na je gige ni 1808, nigbati oluilu ileobaluaye alamusin Portugal je gbigbe kuro ni Lisbon lo si Rio de Janeiro, leyin igba ti Napoleon gbogunlu Portugal.[12] Brasil gba ilominira ni 1822 pelu idasile Ileobaluaye ile Brasil, orile-ede abasokan pelu iru ijoba kabiyesi onilanairepo ati sistemu onileasofin. Brasil orile-ede olominira oniare ni 1889, nigba ti ifipagbajoba ologun sakede Orile-ede Olominira, botilejepe ileasofin oniyewu meji, loni to n je Kongresi, ti wa lati igba itowobowe ilanairepo akoko ni 1824.[12] Ilanairepo Brasil loni, to je dida ni 1988, pe Brasil ni Orile-ede Olominira Apapo.[13] Iparapo orile-ede na waye pelu isokan larin Agbegbe Ijoba Apapo, awon Ipinle 26, ati awon Agbegbe ibile 5,564.[13][14]

Okowo Brasil ni ikefa totobijulo lagbaye gegebi GDP oloruko ati ikeje totobijulo gegebi osuwon agbara inawo (titi de 2011).[15][16] Brazil ni ikan ninu awon okowo gbangba to unsare dagba julo lagbaye. Awon atunse okowo to waye ti fun ni idamo tuntun kariaye.[17] Brasil je omoegbe oludasile Awon Orile-ede Asokan, G20, CPLP, Isokan Latini, Agbajo awon Orile-ede Iberia Amerika, Agbajo awon Orile-ede Amerika, Mercosul ati Isokan awon Orile-ede Guusu Amerika, ati ikan ninu awon orile-ede BRIC. Bakana Brasil tun je ikan ninu awon awon orile-ede Olohun-orisirisi 17, ibe je ile fun awon orisi eran igbe, ayika adanida, opo awon alumoni adanida nibi orisi ibi abo.[11] Pelu awon eya 67 abinibi ti won da duro, Brasil ni iye awon eniyan aitibapade to pojulo lagbaye.[18]

Ìtumọ̀ orúkọ[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Oruko re bi "Brasil" wa lati oruko igi brasil, igi kan to n wu nigbakan ni janti rere leti eba omi Brasil. Ni ede Portugal, igi brasil unje pau-brasil, nibi ti brasil ti tumo si "pupa bi ojuina", lati ede Latin brasa ("ember") ati alemeyin -il (lati -iculum tabi -ilium).[19][20][21] Nitoripe igi brasil se da aro pupa, o niyi daada ni Europe lati fi kun aso, ohun si ni aje akoko to wulo lati Brasil. Kakiri igba orundun 16k, opo igi brasil je fifatu latowo awon eniya abinibi (agaga awon Tupi) leba etiomi Brasil, awon yi si ta won fun awon onibukata ara Europe (agaga awon ara Portugal, ati fun awon ara Fransi) fun pasiparo fun orisi oja amulo lati Europe.[22]

Oruko onibise ile yi, ninu awon akosile awon ara portugal, je was the "Ile Agbelebu Mimo" ("Land of the Holy Cross"; Terra da Santa Cruz), sugbon awon awako-ojuomi ati oloja ara Europe unsaba pe lasan bi "Ile Brasil" ("Land of Brazil"; Terra do Brasil) nitori bukata igi brasil. Oruko yi lo gbajumo titi do ni to fi ropo oruko onibise. Bakanna awon awako ojuomi nibere pe ibe ni "Ïle àwon Odidere" ("Land of Parrots"; Terra di Papaga).

Ni ede Guarani, ti se ede onibise kan ni Paraguay, Brasil unje pipe ni "Pindorama". Oruko yi ni awon eniyan abinibi fun agbegbe yi, itumo re ni "ile awon igi ọ̀pẹ" ("land of the palm trees").

Ìtàn[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ìsọdibiàmúsìn Pọ́rtúgàl[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ìsìn Krístíánì àkọ́kọ́ ní Brasil, 1500

Ori ile ti a mo loni bi Brasil je gbigbesele latowo Portugal ni April 1500, nigba ti oko-ojuomi lati Portugal ti Pedro Álvares Cabral dari gunle.[23] Awon wonyi pade awon are ibe ti ede opo won je ti Tupi–Guarani. Botilejepe ilu abudo akoko je didasile ni 1532, imusin ko bere titi to fi di 1534, nigbati Oba Dom João 3k ile Portugal pin ibe si ile basorun ajogun mejila.[24][25]

Ìgúnlẹ̀ Pedro Álvares CabralPorto Seguro1500. Àwòrán tí Oscar Pereira da Silva yà (1904).

Eto yi ko ni yori i rere rara, bosi ti di odun 1549 oba yan Gomina Agba kan lati samojuto gbogbo ibe.[25][26] Awon eya abinibi bi melo kan je fifamora,[27] awon miran je kikoleru tabi piparun ninu ogun tabi pelu awon arun ti awon ara Europe ko ran won ti ara won ko ni ajesara si.[28][29] Nigba ti yio fi di arin orundun 16k, suga ti di oja okere pataki fun Brasil[30][31] nitori awon ara Portugal yi ko opo eru wa lati Afrika[32][33] lati fi won sise fun ibere oja suga to unpo si kariaye.[28][34]

Nipa gbigbogun ti awon ara Fransi, awon ara Portugal diedie fe ile won de guusuilaorun, won si gbesele ilu Rio de Janeiro ni 1567, ati de ariwaiwoorun, nibi ti won ti gbesele ilu São Luís ni 1615.[35] Won ran awon ologun losi igbo-aginju Amasoni won si bori awon ajagun Britani ati Holandi to wa nibe,[36] ki won o to bere sini da abule ati ile ologun sibe lati 1669.[37] Ni 1680 won de guusu nibi ti won da Sacramento sile si ni eba Rio de la Plata, ni agbegbe Etiomi Apailaorun region.[38]

Ni opin orundun 17k, oja suga ni okere bere si ni re sile[39] sugbon lati ibere awon odun 1690, iwari wura latowo awon oluwakiri ni agbegbe na to unje pipe ni Minas Gerais ni Mato Grosso ati Goiás loni, gba ibi amusin na la lowo iparun.[40] Kakiri lati Brasil, ati lati Portugal, egbeegberun eniyan tu wa si koto alumoni lati wa sise.[41] Awon ara Spein gbira lati dena awon ara Portugal lati fe ile won de ori ile to je ti won gegebi Adehun Tordesillas 1494, won si yori lati gbesele Etiomi apailaorun ni 1777. Sibesibe, asan ni eyi jasi gegebi Adehun San Ildefonso, ti won fowosi lodun kanna yi, sedaju ase Portugal lori gbogbo awon ile ti won ba gbesele, ati igba yi ni opo gbogbo bode Brasil loni ti wa.[42]

Ni 1808, ebi ile-oba Portugal ati opo awon ijoye Portugal, lati bo lowo awon ajagun Napoleon I lati Fransi ti won ungbogun ti Portugal ati gbogbo Arin Gbongan Europe, ko ara won lo si ilu Rio de Janeiro, to fi be di ibujoko gbogbo Ileobaluaye Portugal.[43] Ni 1815 Dom João 6k, gege bi aruobaje dipo iya re, gbe Brasil soke lati ibi amusin di alase Kingdom united with Portugal|Ileoba Asokan ile Portugal, Brasil ati awon Algarfe.[43] Ni 1809 awon ara Portugal na tun gbogun ti Guiana Fransi (ti won da pada fun Fransi ni 1817)[44] be sini ni 1816 won yi orunko Etiomi Apailaorun si Cisplatina.[45]

Ìlómìnira àti ilẹ̀ọba[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ìkéde ilómìnira Brasil látọwọ́ Ọba Dom Pedro 1k ní 7 September 1822.
Brazilian forces (in blue uniform) engage the Paraguayan army (some in red uniform and other shirtless) during the Paraguayan War.

After the Portuguese military had successfully repelled Napoleon's invasion, João VI returned to Europe in April 1821, leaving his elder son Prince Pedro de Alcântara as regent to rule Brazil.[46] The Portuguese government, guided by the new political regime imposed by the Liberal Revolution of 1820, attempted to turn Brazil into a colony once again, thus depriving it of its achievements since 1808.[47] The Brazilians refused to yield and Prince Pedro stood by them declaring the country's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822.[48]

On 12 October 1822, he was declared the first Emperor of Brazil and crowned Dom Pedro I on 1 December 1822.[49] At that time most Brazilians were in favour of a monarchy and republicanism had little support.[50][51] The subsequent Brazilian War of Independence spread through almost the entire territory, with battles in the northern, northeastern, and southern regions.[52] The last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on 8 March 1824[53] and independence was recognized by Portugal on 29 August 1825.[54]

Pedro I abdicated on 7 April 1831 and went to Europe to reclaim his daughter’s crown which had been usurped by his brother, leaving behind his five year old son and heir, who became Dom Pedro II.[55] As the new emperor could not exert his constitutional powers until he reached maturity, a regency was created.[56] Disputes between political factions led to rebellions and an unstable, almost anarchical, regency.[57] The rebellious factions, however, were not in revolt against the monarchy,[58][59] even though some declared the secession of the provinces as independent republics, but only so long as Pedro II was a minor.[60] Because of this, he was prematurely declared of age and "Brazil was to enjoy nearly half a century of internal peace and rapid material progress."[61]

Despite the loss of Cisplatina in 1828 when it became an independent nation known as Uruguay,[62] Brazil won three international wars during the 58-year reign of Pedro II (the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the Paraguayan War)[63] and witnessed the consolidation of representative democracy, mainly due to successive elections and unrestricted freedom of the press.[64] Most importantly, slavery was extinguished after a slow but steady process that began with the end of the international traffic in slaves in 1850[65] and ended with the complete abolition of slavery in 1888.[66] The slave population had been in decline since Brazil's independence: in 1823, 29% of the Brazilian population were slaves but by 1887 this had fallen to 5%.[67]

When the monarchy was overthrown on 15 November 1889[68] there was little desire in Brazil to change the form of government[69] and Pedro II was at the height of his popularity among his subjects.[70][71] However, he "bore prime, perhaps sole, responsibility for his own overthrow."[72] After the death of his two sons, the Emperor believed that "the imperial regime was destined to end with him."[73] He cared little for the regime's fate[74][75] and so neither did anything, nor allowed anyone else to do anything, to prevent the military coup, backed by former slave owners who resented the abolition of slavery.[76][77][78]


Jẹ́ọ́gráfì[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ìjọba àti ìṣèlú[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Awon ipinle ati ibile[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Òkòwò[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Irúọmọilú[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Àṣà[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]




Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. "Demographics". Brazilian Government. 2011. http://www.brasil.gov.br/sobre/brazil/brazil-in-numbers/demographics. Retrieved 2011-10-08.  (Gẹ̀ẹ́sì)
  2. "Caracteristicas da População e dos Domicílios do Censo Demográfico 2010 — Cor ou raça" (PDF). http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/censo2010/caracteristicas_da_populacao/tabelas_pdf/tab3.pdf. Retrieved 2012-04-07. 
  3. IBGE. Censo 2010: população do Brasil é de 190.732.694 pessoas.
  4. 4.0 4.1 IBGE. 2011 Population Projection
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Brazil". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=48&pr.y=11&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=223&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2012-04-17. 
  6. Country Comparison to the World: Gini Index – Brazil The World Factbook. Retrieved on 2012-04-03.
  7. UNDP Human Development Report 2011. "Table 1: Human development index 2011 and its components" (PDF). UNDP. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Table1.pdf. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  8. The European Portuguese pronunciation is IPA: [bɾɐˈziɫ]
  9. As on for example the national website.
  10. Mugnier, Clifford (January 2009). Grids & Datums – Federative Republic of Brazil. Archived from the original on 2009-06-21. http://web.archive.org/web/20090621192851/http://www.asprs.org/resources/grids/01-2009-brazil.pdf. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 "Geography of Brazil". Central Intelligence Agency. 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Introduction of Brazil". Central Intelligence Agency. 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Brazilian Federal Constitution" (in Portuguese). Presidency of the Republic. 1988. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Constituicao/Constituiçao.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-03.  "Brazilian Federal Constitution". v-brazil.com. 2007. http://www.v-brazil.com/government/laws/titleI.html. Retrieved 2008-06-03. "Unofficial translate" 
  14. "Territorial units of the municipality level" (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 2008. http://www.sidra.ibge.gov.br/bda/territorio/tabunit.asp?n=6&t=2&z=t&o=4. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  15. "World Development Indicators database" (PDF file), World Bank, 7 October 2009.
  16. "CIA – The World Factbook – Country Comparisons – GDP (purchasing power parity)". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2001rank.html. Retrieved 25 January 2011. 
  17. Clendenning, Alan (2008-04-17). "Booming Brazil could be world power soon". USA Today – The Associated Press. p. 2. http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2008-04-17-310212789_x.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-12. 
  18. "Brazil sees traces of more isolated Amazon tribes", Reuters
  19. CNRTL – Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales Àdàkọ:Fr
  20. Michaelis – Moderno Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa (Potogí)
  21. iDicionário Aulete (Potogí)
  22. (Potogí) Eduardo Bueno, Brasil: uma História (São Paulo: Ática, 2003; ISBN 85-08-08213-4), p.36.
  23. Boxer, p. 98.
  24. Boxer, pp. 100–101.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Skidmore, p. 27.
  26. Boxer, p. 101.
  27. Boxer, p. 108
  28. 28.0 28.1 Boxer, p. 102.
  29. Skidmore, pp. 30, 32.
  30. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Boxer.2C_p..C2.A0100
  31. Skidmore, p. 36.
  32. Boxer, p. 110
  33. Skidmore, p. 34.
  34. Skidmore, pp. 32–33.
  35. Bueno, pp. 80–81.
  36. Facsimiles of multiple original documents relating about the events in Brazil in the 17th century that led to a Dutch influence and their final defeat
  37. Calmon, p. 294.
  38. Bueno, p. 86.
  39. Boxer, p. 164.
  40. Boxer, pp. 168, 170.
  41. Boxer, p. 169.
  42. Boxer, p. 207.
  43. 43.0 43.1 Boxer, p. 213.
  44. Bueno, p. 145.
  45. Calmon (2002), p. 191.
  46. Lustosa, pp. 109–110
  47. Lustosa, pp. 117–119
  48. Lustosa, pp. 150–153
  49. Vianna, p. 418
  50. Hendrik Kraay apud Lorenzo Aldé, Revista de História da Biblioteca Nacional, issue 50, year 5 (Rio de Janeiro: SABIN, 2009), p. 20
  51. Sérgio Buarque de Holanda, O Brasil Monárquico: o processo de emancipação, 4th ed. (São Paulo: Difusão Européia do Livro, 1976), p. 403
  52. Diégues 2004, pp. 168, 164, 178
  53. Diégues 2004, pp. 179–180
  54. Lustosa, p. 208
  55. Lyra (v.1), p. 17
  56. Carvalho 2007, p. 21
  57. Miriam Dohlnikoff, Pacto imperial: origens do federalismo no Brasil do século XIX (São Paulo: Globo, 2005), p. 206
  58. Carvalho (2007), p. 43
  59. Souza, p. 326
  60. Janotti, pp. 171–172
  61. Munro, p. 273
  62. Barman (1999), pp.18, 27
  63. Lyra (v.1), pp. 164, 225, 272
  64. Carvalho (2007), pp. 9, 222
  65. Lyra (v.1), p. 166
  66. Lyra (v.3), p. 62
  67. Vainfas, p. 18
  68. Munro, p.280
  69. George Ermakoff, Rio de Janeiro – 1840–1900 – Uma crônica fotográfica (Rio de Janeiro: G. Ermakoff Casa Editorial, 2006), p. 189
  70. Schwarcz, p. 444
  71. Vainfas, p. 201
  72. Barman (1999), p. 399
  73. Barman (1999), p. 130
  74. Lyra (v.3), p. 126
  75. Barman (1999), p. 361
  76. Ricardo Salles, Nostalgia Imperial (Rio de Janeiro: Topbooks, 1996), p. 194 – However, the monarchist reaction after the fall of the empire and the subsequent exile of the Imperial Family "was not small and even less was its repression".
  77. Lyra (v.3), p. 99
  78. Schwarcz, pp. 450, 457