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Presidents[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Parties

      Independent       Federalist       Democratic-Republican       Democratic       Whig       Republican

Presidency[n 1] President Took office Left office Party Vice President Term
1 Gilbert Stuart, George Washington (Lansdowne portrait, 1796).jpg George Washington
[1][2][3][4]
April 30, 1789 March 4, 1797 Independent John Adams 1
2
2 Adamstrumbull.jpg John Adams
[5][6][7][8]
March 4, 1797 March 4, 1801 Federalist Thomas Jefferson 3
3 Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg Thomas Jefferson
[9][10][11][12]
March 4, 1801 March 4, 1809 Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr 4
George Clinton 5
4 Jm4.gif James Madison
[13][14][15][16]
March 4, 1809 March 4, 1817 Democratic-Republican George Clinton[n 2]
March 4, 1809 – April 20, 1812
6
vacant[n 3]
April 20, 1812 – March 4, 1813
Elbridge Gerry[n 2]
March 4, 1813 – November 23, 1814
7
vacant [n 3]
November 23, 1814 – March 4, 1817
5 James Monroe White House portrait 1819.gif James Monroe
[17][18][19][20]
March 4, 1817 March 4, 1825 Democratic-Republican Daniel D. Tompkins 8
9
6 John Quincy Adams by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg John Quincy Adams
[21][22][23][24]
March 4, 1825 March 4, 1829 Democratic-Republican
National Republican
John C. Calhoun 10
7 Andrew jackson head.jpg Andrew Jackson
[25][26][27][28]
March 4, 1829 March 4, 1837 Democratic John C. Calhoun [n 4]
March 4, 1829 – December 28, 1832
11
vacant[n 3]
December 28, 1832 – March 4, 1833
Martin Van Buren 12
8 Martin Van Buren by George PA Healy, 1858.gif Martin Van Buren
[29][30][31][32]
March 4, 1837 March 4, 1841 Democratic Richard Mentor Johnson 13
9 William Henry Harrison by James Reid Lambdin, 1835.jpg William Henry Harrison
[33][34][35][36]
March 4, 1841 April 4, 1841[n 2] Whig John Tyler 14
10[n 5] WHOportTyler.jpg John Tyler
[37][38][39][40]
rowspan=2 Àdàkọ:Party shading/Whig| April 4, 1841 March 4, 1845 Àdàkọ:Party shading/Whig| Whig
April 4, 1841 – September 13, 1841
vacant [n 3]
Independent[n 6]
September 13, 1841 – March 4, 1845
11 James Knox Polk by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg James K. Polk
[41][42][43][44]
March 4, 1845 March 4, 1849 Democratic George M. Dallas 15
12 Zachary Taylor 2.jpg Zachary Taylor
[45][46][47][48]
March 4, 1849 July 9, 1850[n 2] Whig Millard Fillmore 16
13 Millard Fillmore White House portrait.png Millard Fillmore
[49][50][51][52]
July 9, 1850 March 4, 1853 Whig vacant [n 3]
14 Franklin Pierce by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg Franklin Pierce
[53][54][55][56]
March 4, 1853 March 4, 1857 Democratic William R. King[n 2]
March 4, 1853 – April 18, 1853
17
vacant [n 3]
April 18, 1853 – March 4, 1857
15 Jb15.gif James Buchanan
[57][58][59][60]
March 4, 1857 March 4, 1861 Democratic John C. Breckinridge 18
16 Abraham Lincoln by George Peter Alexander Healy.jpg Abraham Lincoln
[61][62][63][64]
March 4, 1861 April 15, 1865[n 7] Republican
National Union[n 8]
Hannibal Hamlin 19
Andrew Johnson 20
17 Andrew Johnson portrait.jpg Andrew Johnson
[65][66][67][68]
April 15, 1865 March 4, 1869 Democratic
National Union[n 8]
vacant [n 3]
National Union[n 8]
Independent[n 9]
18 Ulysses S. Grant.jpg Ulysses S. Grant
[69][70][71][72]
March 4, 1869 March 4, 1877 Republican Schuyler Colfax 21
Henry Wilson[n 2]
March 4, 1873 – November 22, 1875
22
vacant [n 3]
November 22, 1875 – March 4, 1877
19 Daniel Huntington - Rutherford Birchard Hayes - Google Art Project.jpg Rutherford B. Hayes
[73][74][75][76]
March 4, 1877 March 4, 1881 Republican William A. Wheeler 23
20 James Garfield portrait.jpg James A. Garfield
[77][78][79][80]
March 4, 1881 September 19, 1881[n 7] Republican Chester A. Arthur 24
21 Chester A Arthur by Daniel Huntington.jpeg Chester A. Arthur
[81][82][83][84]
September 19, 1881 March 4, 1885 Republican vacant [n 3]
22 Grover Cleveland portrait2.jpg Grover Cleveland
[85][86][87][88]
March 4, 1885 March 4, 1889 Democratic Thomas A. Hendricks[n 2]
March 4, 1885 – November 25, 1885
25
vacant [n 3]
November 25, 1885 – March 4, 1889
23 Bharrison.gif Benjamin Harrison
[89][90][91][92]
March 4, 1889 March 4, 1893 Republican Levi P. Morton 26
24 Grover Cleveland, painting by Anders Zorn.jpg Grover Cleveland
(second term)
[85][86][87][88]
March 4, 1893 March 4, 1897 Democratic Adlai E. Stevenson I 27
25 Official White House portrait of William McKinley.jpg William McKinley
[93][94][95][96]
March 4, 1897 September 14, 1901[n 7] Republican Garret Hobart[n 2]
March 4, 1897 – November 21, 1899
28
vacant [n 3]
November 21, 1899 – March 4, 1901
Theodore Roosevelt 29
26 TRSargent.jpg Theodore Roosevelt
[97][98][99][100]
September 14, 1901 March 4, 1909 Republican vacant [n 3]
Charles W. Fairbanks 30
27 TaftOfficial Portrait.jpg William Howard Taft
[101][102][103][104]
March 4, 1909 March 4, 1913 Republican James S. Sherman[n 2]
March 4, 1909 – October 30, 1912
31
vacant [n 3]
October 30, 1912 – March 4, 1913
28 Ww28.jpg Woodrow Wilson
[105][106][107][108]
March 4, 1913 March 4, 1921 Democratic Thomas R. Marshall 32
33
29 Wh29.gif Warren Harding
[109][110][111][112]
March 4, 1921 August 2, 1923[n 2] Republican Calvin Coolidge 34
30 CoolidgeWHPortrait.jpg Calvin Coolidge
[113][114][115][116]
August 2, 1923 March 4, 1929 Republican vacant [n 3]
Charles G. Dawes 35
31 Herbert Clark Hoover by Greene, 1956.jpg Herbert Hoover
[117][118][119][120]
March 4, 1929 March 4, 1933 Republican Charles Curtis 36
32 100px Franklin D. Roosevelt
[121][122][123][124]
March 4, 1933 April 12, 1945[n 2] Democratic John Nance Garner 37[n 10]
38
Henry A. Wallace 39
Harry S. Truman 40
33 HarryTruman.jpg Harry S. Truman
[125][126][127][128]
April 12, 1945 January 20, 1953 Democratic vacant [n 3]
Alben W. Barkley 41
34 Dwight D. Eisenhower, official Presidential portrait.jpg Dwight D. Eisenhower
[129][130][131][132]
January 20, 1953 January 20, 1961 Republican Richard Nixon 42
43
35 John F Kennedy Official Portrait.jpg John F. Kennedy
[133][134][135][136]
January 20, 1961 November 22, 1963[n 7] Democratic Lyndon B. Johnson 44
36 Lyndon B. Johnson.jpg Lyndon B. Johnson
[137][138][139][140]
November 22, 1963 January 20, 1969 Democratic vacant [n 3]
Hubert Humphrey 45
37 Rn37.jpeg Richard Nixon
[141][142][143][144]
January 20, 1969 August 9, 1974[n 4] Republican Spiro Agnew[n 4]
January 20, 1969 – October 10, 1973
46
47
vacant [n 3]
October 10, 1973 – December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974
38 Gerald Ford.jpg Gerald Ford
[145][146][147][148]
August 9, 1974 January 20, 1977 Republican vacant [n 3]
August 9, 1974 – December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974 – January 20, 1977
39 James E. Carter - portrait.jpg Jimmy Carter
[149][150][151][152]
January 20, 1977 January 20, 1981 Democratic Walter Mondale 48
40 Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg Ronald Reagan
[153][154][155][156]
January 20, 1981 January 20, 1989 Republican George H. W. Bush 49
50
41 100px George H. W. Bush
[157][158][159][160]
January 20, 1989 January 20, 1993 Republican Dan Quayle 51
42 100px Bill Clinton
[161][162][163][164]
January 20, 1993 January 20, 2001 Democratic Al Gore 52
53
43 George-W-Bush.jpeg George W. Bush
[165][166][167][168]
January 20, 2001 January 20, 2009 Republican Dick Cheney 54
55
44 Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg Barack Obama
[169][170][171][172]
January 20, 2009 Incumbent   Democratic   Joe Biden 56


Akoye[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. A presidency is defined as consecutive time in office served by a single person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Gerald Ford assumed the presidency after the resignation of Richard Nixon, serving out the remainder of what would have been Nixon's second term. The fact that Ford was not voted into office does not affect the numbering, which makes him the 38th president. In addition, under this numbering, Grover Cleveland is counted as having two separate presidencies, having served two non-consecutive terms.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 Died in office of natural causes.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1967, there was no provision for filling a vacancy in the Vice Presidency. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill such a vacancy under the provisions of the Twenty-fifth Amendment when he appointed Gerald Ford. Ford later became the second president to fill a vice presidential vacancy when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Resigned.
  5. Being the first vice president to assume the presidency, Tyler set a precedent that a vice president who assumes the office of president becomes a fully functioning president who has his own presidency, as opposed to just a caretaker president. His political opponents attempted to refer to him as "Acting President", but he refused to allow that. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution put Tyler's precedent into the Constitution.
  6. Former Democrat who ran for Vice President on Whig ticket. Clashed with Whig congressional leaders and was expelled from the Whig party in 1841.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Assassinated.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were, respectively, a Republican and a Democrat who ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.
  9. Andrew Johnson did not identify with the two main parties while president and tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union label. His failure to build a true National Union Party made Johnson without a party.
  10. This term was shortened by 43 days due to the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution going into effect, moving inauguration day from March 4 to January 20.

Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. The White House (March 12, 2007). "Biography of George Washington". Whitehouse.gov. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewashington/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  2. "The First President: 1789–1797 George Washington "Father of his Country"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/washington_george.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  3. "George Washington – Independent Party – 1st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/washington. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  4. "George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/gwashington.asp. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  5. "Biography of John Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnadams/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  6. "The Second President: 1797–1801 John Adams "Following in the Footsteps"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/adams_john.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  7. "John Adams – Federalist Party – 2nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/adams. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  8. "John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=2. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  9. "Biography of Thomas Jefferson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/thomasjefferson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  10. "The Third President: 1801–1809 Thomas Jefferson "The Renaissance Leader"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/jefferson_thomas.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  11. "Thomas Jefferson – Democratic-Republican Party – 3rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/jefferson. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  12. "Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=3. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  13. "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesmadison/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  14. "The Fourth President: 1809–1817 James Madison "The Nation Builder"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/madison_james.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  15. "James Madison – Democratic-Republican Party – 4th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/madison. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  16. "James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=4. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  17. "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesmonroe/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  18. "The Fifth President: 1817–1825 James Monroe "The Era of Good Feelings"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/monroe_james.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  19. "James Monroe – Democratic-Republican Party – 5th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/monroe. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  20. "James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=5. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  21. "Biography of John Quincy Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnquincyadams/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  22. "The Sixth President: 1825–1829 John Quincy Adams "Born to Lead"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/adams_johnquincy.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  23. "John Quincy Adams – Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, WHIG Party – 6th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/johnqadams. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  24. "John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=6. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  25. "Biography of Andrew Jackson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/andrewjackson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  26. "The Seventh President: 1829–1837 Andrew Jackson "Old Hickory"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/jackson_andrew.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  27. "Andrew Jackson – Democratic-Republican Party – 7th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/jackson. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  28. "Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=7. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  29. "Biography of Martin Van Buren". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/martinvanburen/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  30. "The Eighth President: 1837–1841 Martin Van Buren "The Red Fox"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/vanburen_martin.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  31. "Martin Van Buren – Democratic-Republican, Democratic, and Free Soil Party – 8th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/vanburen. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  32. "Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=8. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  33. "Biography of William Henry Harrison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamhenryharrison/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  34. "The Ninth President: 1841–1841 William Henry Harrison "Old Tippecanoe"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/harrison_william.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  35. "William Henry Harrison – WHIG Party – 9th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/williamhenryharrison. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  36. "William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=9. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  37. "Biography of John Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johntyler/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  38. "The Tenth President: 1841–1845 John Tyler "His Accidency"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/tyler_john.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  39. "John Tyler – No Party – 10th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/tyler. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  40. "John Tyler (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=10. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  41. "Biography of James Polk". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamespolk/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  42. "The Eleventh President: 1845–1849 James Knox Polk "The Dark Horse"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/polk_james.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  43. "James Polk – Democratic Party – 11th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/polk. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  44. "James K. Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=11. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  45. "Biography of Zachary Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/zacharytaylor/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  46. "The Twelfth President: 1849–1850 Zachary Taylor "Old Rough-and-Ready"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/taylor_zachary.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  47. "Zachary Taylor – WHIG Party – 12th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/taylor. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  48. "Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=12. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  49. "Biography of Millard Fillmore". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/millardfillmore/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  50. "The Thirteenth President: 1850–1853 Millard Fillmore "Forgotten Leader"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/fillmore_millard.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  51. "Millard Filmore – WHIG Party – 13th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/fillmore. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  52. "Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=13. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  53. "Biography of Franklin Pierce". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklinpierce/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  54. "The Fourteenth President: 1853–1857 Franklin Pierce "Overwhelmed by Events"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/fillmore_millard.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  55. "Franklin Pierce – Democratic Party – 14th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/pierce. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  56. "Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=14. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  57. "Biography of James Buchanan". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesbuchanan/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  58. "The Fifteenth President: 1857–1861 James Buchanan "An American Hero"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/buchanan_james.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  59. "James Buchanan – Democratic Party – 15th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/buchanan. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  60. "James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=15. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  61. "Biography of Abraham Lincoln". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/abrahamlincoln/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  62. "The Sixteenth President: 1861–1865 Abraham Lincoln "The Great Emancipator"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/lincoln_abraham.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  63. "Abraham Lincoln – Republic, National Union Party – 16th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/lincoln. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  64. "Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=16. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  65. "Biography of Andrew Johnson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/andrewjohnson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  66. "The Seventeenth President: 1865–1869 Andrew Johnson "Between North and South"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/johnson_andrew.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  67. "Andrew Johnson – National Union Party – 17th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/andrewjohnson. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  68. "Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=17. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  69. "Biography of Ulysses S. Grant". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ulyssessgrant/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  70. "The Eighteenth President: 1869–1877 Ulysses Simpson Grant "The Hero as Politician"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/grant_ulysses.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  71. "Ulysses S. Grant – National Union Party – 18th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/grant. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  72. "Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=18. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  73. "Biography of Rutherford B. Hayes". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/rutherfordbhayes/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  74. "The Nineteenth President: 1877–1881 Rutherford Birchard Hayes "Striving For A Fresh Start"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/hayes_rutherford.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  75. "Rutherford B. Hayes – Republican Party – 19th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/hayes. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  76. "Rutherford B. Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=19. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  77. "Biography of James Garfield". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesgarfield/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  78. "The Twentieth President: 1881–1881 James Abram Garfield "The Preacher"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/garfield_james.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  79. "James Garfield – Republican Party – 20th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/garfield. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  80. "James A. Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=20. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  81. "Biography of Chester Arthur". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/chesterarthur/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  82. "The Twenty-First President: 1881–1885 Chester Alan Arthur "The Self-Reformer"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/garfield_james.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  83. "Chester A. Arthur – Republican Party – 21st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/arthur. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  84. "Chester A. Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=21. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  86. 86.0 86.1 "The Twenty-Second President: 1885–1889 The Twenty-Fourth President: 1893–1897 Grover Cleveland "The Law Man"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/cleveland_grover.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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