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Àwọn Ìdíje Òlímpíkì Ìgbà Oru 2004

Lát'ọwọ́ Wikipedia, ìwé ìmọ̀ ọ̀fẹ́
Àwọn Ìdíje Òlímpíàdì XXVIII
Ìlú agbàlejòAthens, Greece
MottoWelcome Home
Iye àwọn orílẹ̀-èdè akópa201[1]
Iye àwọn eléré ìdárayá akópa10,625[1]
Iye àwọn ìdíje301 in 28 sports
Àjọyọ̀ ìbẹ̀rẹ̀August 13
Àjọyọ̀ ìparíAugust 29
Ẹni tó ṣíiÀàrẹ Konstantinos Stephanopoulos
Ìbúra eléré ìdárayáZoi Dimoschaki
Ìbúra Adájọ́Lazaros Voreadis
Ògùnṣọ̀ ÒlímpíkìNikolaos Kaklamanakis
Pápá ÌṣeréOlympic Stadium
The ceremony for the lighting of the flame is arranged as a pagan pageant, with "priestesses" dancing.

Àwọn Ìdíje Òlímpíkì Ìgbà Oru 2004, lonibise bi Awon Idije Olimpiadi 28k, je idije pataki akariaye oniere-idaraya pupo to waye ni Athens, Greece lati August 13 de August 29, 2004 pelu motto Welcome Home. Awon elere-idaraya 10,625 ni won kopa nibe,[1] eyi fi 600 ju iye ti won reti lo, awonn wonyi je titele leyin pelu awon osise egbe 5,501 lati orile-ede 201.[1] Idije 301 fun eso waye ninu awon ere-idaraya 28.[1] Athens odun 2004 ni igba akoko lati igba Awon Idije Olimpiki Igba Oru 1996 ti gbogbo awo orile-ede ti won ni Igbimo Olorile-ede Olimpiki kopa. Bakanna o tun je igba akoko lati odun 1896 (leyin Idije 1906 to ti je riresile latigba na) ti awon Idije Olimpiki waye ni Girisi.

Athens je yiyan gegebi ilu agbalejo ninu Ipade 106k IOC to waye ni Lausanne ni September 5, 1997. Athens ti kuna idu re lodun meje seyin ni September 18, 1990 ninu Ipade 96k IOC ni Tokyo lati gbalejo Awon Idije Igba Oru 1996 eyi to sele ni Atlanta. abe idari Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki, Athens mura fun idu miran, nigba yi fun eto lati gbalejo Awon Idije Igba Oru 2004. Iyorisirere ilu Athens lati gba awon Idije 2004 da lori ibebe Athens si itan Olimpiki ati itenu re mo ipa pataki ti orile-ede Girisi ati ilu Athens le ko nipa pipolongo iwa Olimpiki ati Isunkankan Olimpiki. Bakanna, ko ri bi idu won fun awon Idije 1996 to je fifi abuku kan fun ailojutu ati iyaju re - nibi ti idu na ko ni unkankan pato, to kan je pe o gbokan le itara ati ero okan pe eto ilu Athens ni lati gbalejo awon Idije ti ogorun odun;[2] idu fun awon Idije 2004 je yiyin fun inirewesi ati ooto re, iranse re to lojutu, ati ekunrere eto idu re.[3] Idu ti 2004 yanju awon isoro ti ti 1996 ko le yanju - pataki imura ilu Athens, idibaje afefeayika re, isuna re, ati ifoselu se ipalemo awon Idije.[4] Iyorisirere Athens nigba to gbalejo Idije-eye Agbaye Ere Ori Papa 1997 losu kan ki idiboyan ilu agbalejo o to waye na tun se pataki nipa imura re lati gbalejo ere-idaraya akariaye.[5] Eyi to tun fa ti won fi yyan ilu Athens ni itara larin awon omo egbe IOC lati da ogo Olimpiki pada si awon Idije, eyi ni won ro pe o sonu nigba Awon Idije Atlanta 1996 ti won fi abuku kan pe o ti je siseju lokowo.[6] Nitorie, iyan Athens je bi ero pe yio yato si awon Idije 1996.[6]

Leyin to ti lewaju ninu gbogbo awon iyipo idibo, Athens segun Rome laini inira nini ibo 5k to dopin. Cape Town, Stockholm, ati Buenos Aires, awon ilu meta miran ti won bo sinu iwe-kukuru IOC, je lile kuro ninu awon iyipo idibo seyin. Awon ilu mefa miran na tun se itoro, sugbon idu won je fifisile latowo IOC ni 1996. Awon ilu na ni Istanbul, Lille, Rio de Janeiro, San Juan, Seville, ati Saint Petersburg.[7]

2004 Ìdìbòyàn Ìlú Agbàlejò — èsi ìbò
Ìlú Orílẹ̀-èdè (NOC) Round 1 Run-off Round 2 Round 3 Round 4
Athens  Greece 32 38 52 66
Rome  Italy 23 28 35 41
Cape Town  South Africa 16 62 22 20
Stockholm  Sweden 20 19
Buenos Aires  Argentina 16 44

Ni November 13, 2004, ile-ise isoju Greek sediye iye owo ti igbalejo Olimpiki yio na pe o je egbegberunkeji 8.954 (to to egbegberunkeji $11.2 ni 2004) lai ni iye owo ikole ti won ba se nitori awon Idije, sugbon to ni egbegberunkeji 1.08 Euros ($1.35 billion) fun eto abo.[8] NBC Universal san egbegberun $793 fun IOC fun awon eto igbehansode ni Amerika,[9] iye topojulo ti enikan san fun eto igbehansode orile-ede.

Leyin isele adaniloro Osu kesan 2001 ideru waye nipa [terrorism|isdaniloro]]. Girisi safikun si iye ti wo na lori abo Olimpiki de egbegberun €970 (US$1.2 billion). Bii awon olopa to to 70,000 ni won so ilu Athens ati awon ibi idije nigba Olimpiki. NATO ati Isokan ara Europe na tun se itoleyin die, leyin igba ti Athens ti toro ifowosowopo lodo won.

Nigba ti Igbimo Olimpiki Akariaye fi expressed its concern over the progress of construction work of the new Olympic venues, a new Organizing Committee was formed in 2000 under President Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki. In the years leading up to the Games, Athens was transformed into a city that used state-of-the-art technology in transportation and urban development. Some of the most modern sporting venues in the world at the time were built to host the 2004 Olympic Games.

The general cost of the games was estimated to be 7.2 billion euros.[8]

By late March 2004, some Olympic projects were still behind schedule, and Greek authorities announced that a roof it had initially proposed as an optional, non-vital addition to the Aquatics Center would no longer be built. The main Olympic Stadium, the designated facility for the opening and closing ceremonies, was completed only two months before the games opened. This stadium was completed with a retractable glass roof designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava. The same architect also designed the Velodrome and other facilities.

Infrastructure, such as the tram line linking venues in southern Athens with the city proper, and numerous venues were considerably behind schedule just two months before the games. The subsequent pace of preparation, however, made the rush to finish the Athens venues one of the tightest in Olympics history. The Greeks, unperturbed, maintained that they would make it all along. By July/August 2004, all venues were delivered: in August, the Olympic Stadium was officially completed and opened, joined or preceded by the official completion and openings of other venues within the Athens Olympic Sports Complex (OAKA), and the sports complexes in Faliro and Helliniko.

The OAKA Plaza and Arch adjacent to the Olympic Stadium

Late July and early August witnessed the Athens Tram and Light Rail become operational, and these two systems provided additional connections to those already existing between Athens and its waterfront communities along the Saronic Gulf. These communities included the port city of Piraeus, Agios Kosmas (site of the sailing venue), Helliniko (the site of the old international airport which now contained the fencing venue, the canoe/kayak slalom course, the 15,000-seat Helliniko Olympic Basketball Arena, and the softball and baseball stadia), and the Faliro Coastal Zone Olympic Complex (site of the taekwondo, handball, indoor volleyball, and beach volleyball venues, as well as the newly-reconstructed Karaiskaki Stadium for football). The upgrades to the Athens Ring Road were also delivered just in time, as were the expressway upgrades connecting Athens proper with peripheral areas such as Markopoulo (site of the shooting and equestrian venues), the newly constructed Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport, Schinias (site of the rowing venue), Maroussi (site of the OAKA), Parnitha (site of the Olympic Village), Galatsi (site of the rhythmic gymnastics and table tennis venue), and Vouliagmeni (site of the triathlon venue). The upgrades to the Athens Metro were also completed, and the new lines became operational by mid-summer.

EMI released Unity, the official pop album of the Athens Olympics, in the leadup to the Olympics.[10] It features contributions from Sting, Lenny Kravitz, Moby, Destiny's Child, and Avril Lavigne.[10] EMI has pledged to donate US$180,000 from the album to UNICEF's HIV/AIDS program in Sub-Saharan Africa.[10]

At least 14 people died during the work on the facilities. Most of these people were not from Greece.[11]

Before the games, Greek hotel staff staged a series of one-day strikes over wage disputes. They had been asking for a significant raise for the period covering the event being staged. Paramedics and ambulance drivers also protested. They claimed to have the right to the same Olympic bonuses promised to their security force counterparts.

For the first time the Olympic Flame toured the world

The lighting ceremony of the Olympic flame took place on March 25 in Ancient Olympia. For the first time ever, the flame travelled around the world in a relay to former Olympic cities and other large cities, before returning to Greece.

The mascots were based on this clay model at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens
Fáìlì:Athens athena toy.jpg
A plush mascot

Mascots have been a tradition at the Olympic Games since the 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France. The Athens games had two official mascots: Athiná and Phévos (pronounced in Greek, Athina and Fivos). The sister and brother were named after Athena, the goddess of wisdom, strategy and war, and Phoebus, the god of light and music, respectively. They were inspired by the ancient daidala, which were dolls that had religious connotations as well as being toys.

View of the ATHOC Technology Operations Center during the Games.

As with any enterprise, the Organizing Committee and everyone involved with it relied heavily on technology in order to deliver a successful event. ATHOC maintained two separate data networks, one for the preparation of the Games (known as the Administrative network) and one for the Games themselves (Games Network). The technical infrastructure involved more than 11,000 computers, over 600 servers, 2,000 printers, 23,000 fixed-line telephone devices, 9,000 mobile phones, 12,000 TETRA devices, 16,000 TV and video devices and 17 Video Walls interconnected by more than 6,000 kilometers of cabling (both optical fiber and twisted pair).

This infrastructure was created and maintained to serve directly more than 150,000 ATHOC Staff, Volunteers, Olympic family members (IOC, NOCs, Federations), Partners & Sponsors and Media. It also kept the information flowing for all spectators, TV viewers, Website visitors and news readers around the world, prior and during the Games. The Media Center was located inside the Zappeion which is a Greek national exhibition center.

Between June and August 2004, the technology staff worked in the Technology Operations Center (TOC) from where it could centrally monitor and manage all the devices and flow of information, as well as handle any problems that occurred during the Games. The TOC was organized in teams (e.g. Systems, Telecommunications, Information Security, Data Network, Staffing, etc.) under a TOC Director and corresponding team leaders (Shift Managers). The TOC operated on a 24x7 basis with personnel organized into 12-hour shifts.

The Olympic Flame at the Opening Ceremony

The widely praised Opening Ceremony by avant garde choreographer Dimitris Papaioannou held on August 13, 2004 began with a twenty eight (the number of the Olympiads up to then) second countdown paced by the sounds of an amplified heartbeat.[12] As the countdown was completed, fireworks rumbled and illuminated the skies overhead. After a drum corps and bouzouki players joined in an opening march, the video screen showed images of flight, crossing southwest from Athens over the Greek countryside to ancient Olympia. Then, a single drummer in the ancient stadium joined in a drum duet with a single drummer in the main stadium in Athens, joining the original ancient Olympic games with the modern ones in symbolism. At the end of the drum duet, a single flaming arrow was launched from the video screen (symbolically from ancient Olympia) and into the reflecting pool, which resulted in fire erupting in the middle of the stadium creating a burning image of the Olympic rings rising from the pool. The Opening Ceremony was a pageant of traditional Greek culture and history hearkening back to its mythological beginnings. The program began as a young Greek boy sailed into the stadium on a 'paper-ship' waving the host nation's flag to aethereal music by Hadjidakis and then a centaur appeared, followed by a gigantic head of a cycladic figurine which eventually broke into many pieces symbolising the Greek islands. Underneath the cycladic head was a Hellenistic representation of the human body, reflecting the concept and belief in perfection reflected in Greek art. A man was seen balancing on a hovering cube symbolising man's eternal 'split' between passion and reason followed by a couple of young lovers playfully chasing each other while the god Eros was hovering above them. There followed a very colourful float parade chronicling Greek history from the ancient Minoan civilization to modern times.

Although NBC in the United States presented the entire opening ceremony from start to finish, a topless Minoan priestess was shown only briefly, the breasts having been pixelated digitally in order to avoid controversy (as the "Nipplegate" incident was still fresh in viewer's minds at the time) and potential fines by the Federal Communications Commission. Also, lower frontal nudity of men dressed as ancient Greek statues was shown in such a way that the area below the waist was cut off by the bottom of the screen. In most other countries presenting the broadcast, there was no censorship of the ceremony.

Following the artistic performances, a parade of nations (staged by 5 time Olympic Choreographer Doug Jack) entered the stadium with over 10,500 athletes walking under the banners of 201 nations. The nations were arranged according to Greek alphabet making Finland, Fiji, Chile, and Hong Kong the last four to enter the stadium before the Greek delegation. On this occasion, in observance of the tradition that the delegation of Greece opens the parade and the host nation closes it, the Greek flag bearer opened the parade and all the Greek delegation closed it. Based on audience reaction, the emotional high point of the parade was the entrance of the delegation from Afghanistan which had been absent from the Olympics and had female competitors for the first time. The Iraqi delegation also stirred emotions. Also recognized was the symbolic unified march of athletes from North Korea and South Korea under the Korean Unification Flag. The country of Kiribati made a debut at these games and East Timor made a debut under its own flag. After the Parade of Nations, during which the Dutch DJ Tiësto provided the music, the Icelandic singer Björk performed the song Oceania, written specially for the event by her and the poet Sjón.

The Opening Ceremony culminated in the lighting of the Olympic Cauldron by 1996 Gold Medalist Windsurfer Nikolaos Kaklamanakis. Many key moments in the ceremony, including the lighting of the Olympic Cauldron, featured music composed and arranged by John Psathas[13] from New Zealand. The gigantic cauldron, which was styled after the Athens 2004 Olympic Torch, pivoted down to be lit by the 35 year-old, before slowly swinging up and lifting the flame high above the stadium. Kaklamanakis would later win his silver medal in the men's mistral behind Israeli windsurfer Gal Fridman. Following this, the stadium found itself at the centre of a rousing fireworks spectacular.

Awon orile-ede to kopa

[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]
Participating nations

All National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated in the Athens Games, as was the case in 1996. Two new NOCs had been created since 1996, and made their debut at these Games (Kiribati, and Timor-Leste), therefore along with the re-appearance of Afghanistan (missing the 2000 Summer Olympics) the total number of participating nations increased from 199 to 202. Also since 2000, Yugoslavia had changed its name to Serbia and Montenegro and its code from YUG to SCG. The number in parentheses indicates the number of participants that NOC contributed.

The sports featured at the 2004 Summer Olympics are listed below. Officially there were 28 sports as swimming, diving, synchronised swimming and water polo are classified by the IOC as disciplines within the sport of aquatics, and wheelchair racing was a demonstration sport. For the first time, the wrestling category featured women's wrestling and in the fencing competition women competed in the sabre. American Kristin Heaston, who led off the qualifying round of women's shotput became the first woman to compete at the ancient site of Olympia but Cuban Yumileidi Cumba became the first woman to win a gold medal there.

The demonstration sport of wheelchair racing was a joint Olympic/Paralympic event, allowing a Paralympic event to occur within the Olympics, and for the future, opening up the wheelchair race to the able-bodied. The 2004 Summer Paralympics were also held in Athens, from September 20 to 28.

Àdàkọ:2004 Summer Olympics Calendar

  • Greek sprinters Konstantinos Kenteris and Ekaterini Thanou withdraw from the games after allegedly staging a motorcycle accident in order to avoid a drug test.
  • World record holder and strong favourite Paula Radcliffe crashes out of the women's marathon in spectacular fashion, leaving Mizuki Noguchi to win the gold.
  • While leading in the men's marathon with less than 10 kilometres to go, Brazilian runner Vanderlei de Lima is attacked by Irish priest Cornelius Horan and dragged into the crowd. De Lima recovered to take bronze, and was later awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal for sportsmanship.
  • British athlete Kelly Holmes wins gold in the 800 m and 1500 m.
  • Liu Xiang wins gold in the 110 m hurdles, equalling Colin Jackson's 1993 world record time of 12.91 seconds. This was China's first ever gold in men's track and field.
  • The Olympics saw Afghanistan's first return to the Games since 1999 (it was banned due to the Taliban's extremist attitudes towards women, but was reinstated in 2002).
  • Hicham El Guerrouj wins gold in the 1500 m and 5000 m. He is the first person to accomplish this feat at the Olympics since Paavo Nurmi in 1924.
  • Greek athlete Fani Halkia comes out of retirement to win the 400 m hurdles.
  • The US women's 4x200m swimming team of Natalie Coughlin, Carly Piper, Dana Vollmer and Kaitlin Sandeno win gold, smashing the long standing world record set by the German Democratic Republic in 1987.
  • The United States lost for the first time in Olympic men's basketball since NBA players were permitted to play in the Games. This defeat came at the hands of Puerto Rico 92-73.
  • Argentina wins a shocking victory over the United States in the semi-finals of men's basketball. They go on to beat Italy 84-69 in the final.
  • Windsurfer Gal Fridman wins Israel's first-ever gold medal.
  • Dominican athlete Félix Sánchez won the first ever gold medal for the Dominican Republic in the 400 m hurdles event.
  • German kayaker Birgit Fischer wins gold in the K-4 500 m and silver in the K-2 500 m. In so doing, she became the first woman in any sport to win gold medals at 6 different Olympics, the first woman to win gold 24 years apart and the first person in Olympic history to win two or more medals in five different Games.
  • Swimmer Michael Phelps wins 8 medals (6 gold and 2 bronze), becoming the first athlete to win 8 medals in non boycotted Olympics.
  • United States' gymnast Carly Patterson becomes only the second American woman to win the all-around gold medal.
  • Chilean Tennis players Nicolás Massu and Fernando Gonzalez won the gold medal in the Doubles Competition, while Massu won the gold and Gonzalez the bronze on the Singles competition. This were Chile's first-ever gold medals.
  • Anchored by Brazil, South America had its best Olympics, with nine Gold Medals.
Balloons falling at the Athens 2004 Olympics Closing ceremony

The Games were concluded on August 29, 2004. The closing ceremony was held at the Athens Olympic Stadium, where the Games had been opened 16 days earlier. Around 70,000 people gathered in the stadium to watch the ceremony.

The initial part of the ceremony interspersed the performances of various Greek singers, and featured traditional Greek dance performances from various regions of Greece (Crete, Pontos, Thessaly, etc.). The event was meant to highlight the pride of the Greeks in their culture and country for the world to see.

A significant part of the closing ceremony was the exchange of the Olympic flag of the Antwerp games between the mayor of Athens and the mayor of Beijing, host city of the next Olympic games. After the flag exchange a presentation from the Beijing delegation presented a glimpse into Chinese culture for the world to see. Beijing University students (who were at first incorrectly cited as the Twelve Girls Band) sang Mo Li Hua (Jasmine Flower) and the medal ceremony for the last event of the Olympics, the men's marathon, was conducted, with Stefano Baldini from Italy as the winner.

A flag-bearer from each nation's delegation then entered along the stage, followed by the competitors en masse on the floor.

Short speeches were presented by Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki, President of the Organising Committee, and by President Dr. Jacques Rogge of the IOC, in which he described the Athens Olympics as "unforgettable, dream Games".

Dr. Rogge had previously declared he would be breaking with tradition in his closing speech as President of the IOC and that he would never use the words of his predecessor Juan Antonio Samaranch, who used to always say 'these were the best ever games'. Dr. Rogge had described Salt Lake City 2002 as "superb games" and in turn would continue after Athens 2004 and describe Turin 2006 as "truly magnificent games."

The national anthems of Greece and China were played in a handover ceremony as both nations' flags were raised. The Mayor of Athens, Dora Bakoyianni, passed the Olympic Flag to the Mayor of Beijing, Wang Qishan. After a short cultural performance by Chinese actors, dancers, and musicians directed by eminent Chinese director Zhang Yimou, Rogge declared the 2004 Olympic Games closed. The Olympic flag was next raised again on February 10, 2006 during the opening ceremony of next Winter Olympic games in Torino.

A young Greek girl, Fotini Papaleonidopoulou, lit a symbolic lantern with the Olympic Flame and passed it on to other children before "extinguishing" the flame in the cauldron by blowing a puff of air. The ceremony ended with a variety of musical performances by Greek singers, including George Dalaras, Haris Alexiou, Anna Vissi, Sakis Rouvas, Eleftheria Arvanitaki, Alkistis Protopsalti, Antonis Remos, Mixalis Xatzigiannis, Marinella and Dimitra Galani, as thousands of athletes carried out symbolic displays on the stadium floor.

 Rank  Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 United States 35 39 29 103
2 [[Image:Àdàkọ:Country flag IOC alias CHN|22x20px|border|alt=|link=]] [[Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias CHN nínú àwọn Ìdíje Òlímpíkì 2004 Summer|Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias CHN]] 32 17 14 63
3 [[Image:Àdàkọ:Country flag IOC alias RUS|22x20px|border|alt=|link=]] [[Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias RUS nínú àwọn Ìdíje Òlímpíkì 2004 Summer|Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias RUS]] 28 26 38 92
4 Austrálíà 17 16 16 49
5 [[Image:Àdàkọ:Country flag IOC alias JPN|22x20px|border|alt=|link=]] [[Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias JPN nínú àwọn Ìdíje Òlímpíkì 2004 Summer|Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias JPN]] 16 9 12 37
6 [[Image:Àdàkọ:Country flag IOC alias GER|22x20px|border|alt=|link=]] [[Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias GER nínú àwọn Ìdíje Òlímpíkì 2004 Summer|Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias GER]] 13 16 20 49
7 [[Image:Àdàkọ:Country flag IOC alias FRA|22x20px|border|alt=|link=]] [[Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias FRA nínú àwọn Ìdíje Òlímpíkì 2004 Summer|Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias FRA]] 11 9 13 33
8 [[Image:Àdàkọ:Country flag IOC alias ITA|22x20px|border|alt=|link=]] [[Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias ITA nínú àwọn Ìdíje Òlímpíkì 2004 Summer|Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias ITA]] 10 11 11 32
9 [[Image:Àdàkọ:Country flag IOC alias KOR|22x20px|border|alt=|link=]] [[Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias KOR nínú àwọn Ìdíje Òlímpíkì 2004 Summer|Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias KOR]] 9 12 9 30
10 Brítáni Gbàngbà 9 9 13 31
15 [[Image:Àdàkọ:Country flag IOC alias GRE|22x20px|border|alt=|link=]] [[Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias GRE nínú àwọn Ìdíje Òlímpíkì 2004 Summer|Àdàkọ:Country IOC alias GRE]] 6 6 4 16

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "Athens 2004". International Olympic Committee. www.olympic.org. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  2. Weisman, Steven R. (1990-09-19). "Atlanta Selected Over Athens for 1996 Olympics". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/09/19/sports/atlanta-selected-over-athens-for-1996-olympics.html?sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2&pagewanted=print. Retrieved 2008-09-23. 
  3. Rowbottom, Mike (6 September 1997). "Athens wins 2004 Olympics". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/athens-wins-2004-olympics-1237761.html. 
  4. Longman, Jere (September 6, 1997). "Athens Wins a Vote for Tradition, and the 2004 Olympics". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/09/06/sports/athens-wins-a-vote-for-tradition-and-the-2004-olympics.html?pagewanted=print. 
  5. Longman, Jere (1997-08-03). "Athens Pins Olympic Bid to World Meet". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/08/03/sports/athens-pins-olympic-bid-to-world-meet.html?pagewanted=print. Retrieved 2008-09-23. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Anderson, Dave (September 7, 1997). "Athens Can Thank Atlanta for 2004 Games". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/09/07/sports/athens-can-thank-atlanta-for-2004-games.html. 
  7. "International Olympic Committee - Athens 2004 - Election". Olympic.org. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Cost of Athens 2004 Olympics". Embassy of Greece. 2004-11-13. Archived from the original on 2007-12-19. Retrieved 2011-07-09. 
  9. Crawford, Krysten (August 30, 2004). "NBC Universal rings in Athens profits". CNNMoney.com. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 "Unity Olympics Album". The Star Online eCentral. 2004. http://www.star-ecentral.com/music/sleeve/notes.asp?file=archives/sleeve/2004/5/26/26UnityOlymp&date=5/26/2004/2. Retrieved 2008-08-16. 
  11. "Workers in peril at Athens sites". BBC News. 2004-07-23. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3920919.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-16. 
  12. Associated Press (August 29, 2004). "Master of Olympic Pageantry Prepares One Final Blowout". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/29/sports/olympics/29closing.html?ex=1148788800&en=1c65a34c3766781c&ei=5070&pagewanted=print. 
  13. "SOUNZ - NZ composer - John Psathas". Archived from the original on 2009-01-06. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  14. Although they marched in the Parade of Nations, neither athlete competed.