Ìtàn ilẹ̀ Nàìjíríà

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Ìtàn ilẹ̀ Nàìjíríà ni a lè tọpa rẹ̀ sí nkan bí ẹgbẹ̀rún ọdún kan ó lé ọgórùún ọdún sẹ́yìn káàkiri àwọn abúlé, ìletò àti àwọn ìlú káàkiri Àrin gbùngbùn ìlà-Oòrùn àti gbogbo ilẹ̀ Áfíríkà pátá (1100 BC). Ọ̀gọ̀rọ̀ àwọn ìlú jànkàn jànkàn ìgbà láé láé tí wọ́n ti lajú tínwọ́n sì ti ń ṣèjọba ara wọn ṣáájú ọ̀làjú ayé òde òní ni wọ́n ti wà tí wọ́n sì para pọ̀ láti orílẹ̀-èdè kan ṣoṣo. Lára àwọn ìlú bẹ́ẹ̀ ni a ti rí Ilẹ̀ Ọba Bìní, Ilẹ̀ Ọba ti Ọ̀yọ́ àti Ilẹ̀ Ọba ti Ńri ti àwọn ẹ̀yà Ìgbò. Ẹ̀sìn Ìmàle wọ orílẹ̀-èdè Nàìjíríà láti apá Àríwá pàá pàá jùlọ ilẹ̀ Ọba Bọ̀nú láàrín ọdún (1068 Ad) [1][2][3][4] Nígbà tí ẹ̀sìn ìgbàgbọ́ wọ àárín àwọn ènìyàn ilẹ̀ Nàìjíríà láti ọwọ́ ọ̀gbẹ́ni Augustinian àti Capunchin tí wọ́n jẹ́ olùṣọ́ àgùtàn láti orílẹ̀-èdè Potogí ní ọ̀rùndún kẹèédógún 15th century. ilé Ọba Songhai mú díẹ̀ lára ilẹ̀ Nàìjíríà.[5]

Ipa tí òwò-ẹrù nínú ìtàn orílẹ̀-èdè !Nàìjíríà kò kéré rárá,[6] òwò-ẹrù tí ó bẹ̀rẹ̀ lẹ́yìn ọ̀rùndún kẹẹ̀ẹ́dógún tí àwọn ará Potogí mú ẹ̀sìn [[ìgbagbọ́ wọ orílẹ̀-èdè Nàìjíríà. Àwọn olówò-ẹrú yí tí wọ́n jẹ́ ará ilẹ̀ Yúróòpù tí wọ́n ń pàgọ́ sí etí òkun. Ibi tí wọ́n àwọn olówò-ẹrú Potogí àti Brítènì]] kọ́kọ́ fojú sùn tí wọ́n sì kọ́ ilé òwò-ẹrù wọn sí ní orílẹ̀-èdè Nàìjíríà ni ìlú Àgbádárìgì, tí ó jẹ́ ìlú tí wà létí alagba-lúgbú omi[7] Ní ìlú yí, àwọn ojúkò tí wọ́n ma ń lò láti fi so àwọn tí wọ́n bá kó lẹ́rú sí ni ó ṣì wà níbẹ̀ títí di ọ̀là. Lẹ́yìn èyí ni.wọ́n bẹ̀rẹ̀ sí ní lo àwọn alàgata láti báwọn wá àwọn ènìyàn tí wọn yóò fi ṣẹrú ní ìlú wọn. Ìgbésẹ̀ àwọn òyìnbó olówò-ẹrú yí mú ìtàpórógan tí ó dá ìjà gidi kalẹ̀ láàrín àwọn ẹ̀yà ilẹ̀ Nàìjíríà lóriṣiríṣi tí ó sì ba òwò ati kárà-kátà gbogbo tí ó ń wáyé ní etí òkun jẹ́. [8]

Àwọn ọmọ ogun Gẹ̀ẹ́sì ará ilẹ̀ Brítènì kọlu ìlú Èkó ọdún 1851 tí wọ́n sì sọ ú Èkó di ìlú amónà ilẹ̀ Brítènì ní ọdún 1865.[9] orílẹ̀-èdè Nàìjíríà ti ìlú tí ó gbọ́dò tẹ̀lé àṣẹ pẹ́lú ìlànà ìlú alágbára tí ó ń dáàbò bòó lọ́wọ́ ìkọlù àwọn ìlú alágbára mìíran ní ọdún 1901, nígbà tí wọ́n jẹ gàba lé orílẹ̀-èdè Nàìjíríà lórí títí di ọdún 1960, nígbà tí àwọn ọmọ orílẹ̀-èdè náà ja ìjà-n-gbara kúrò lọ́ àwọn Gẹ̀ẹ́sì àmúnisìn.[10]

Orílẹ̀-èdè Nàìjíríà di orílẹ̀-èdè tí ó ń ṣèjọba ara rẹ̀ ní ọdún 1963, àmọ́ ìjọba rẹ̀ bọ́ sọ́wọ́ àwọn ológun tí wọ́n sì lo ọdún mẹ́ta gbáko. Lẹ́yìn ìdìtẹ̀ gbajọba ọdún 1966, àwọn ẹ̀yà Ìgbò kéde wípé àwọn ya kúrò lára ìjọba orílẹ̀-èdè Nàìjíríà àwọn sì ti dá ìjọba ẹkùn tiwọn sílẹ̀ tí wọ́n pè ní Bifra ní ọdún 1967, rògbòdìyàn yí náà tún dá ogun abẹ́lé sílẹ̀ ní orílẹ̀-èdè Nàìjíríà fún odidi ọdún mẹ́ta mìíràn. [11] Ìjọba àwa-arawa ẹlẹ́kejì tún bẹ̀rẹ̀ lẹ́yìn tí wọ́n ṣe àpérò àti àtúnṣe sí òfin orílẹ̀-èdè Nàìjíríà í ọdún 1979. Bí ó tilẹ̀ jè pé, ìjọba náà kò pẹ́ lọ títí kí àwọn ológun tún tó dìtẹ̀ gba ìj9ba náà ní ọdún 1983 sí ọdún 1987 tí ó jẹ́ ọdún mẹrin gbáko. Lẹ́yìn èyí ni wọ́n tún gbèrò láti gbé ìjọba àwa-arawa mìíràn kalẹ̀ ní ọdún 1993, àmọ́ Ààrẹ ológun apàṣẹ wàá Sani Abacha kọ̀ láti gbé ìjọba kalẹ̀ títí Nigeria became a republic once again after a new constitution was written in 1979. However, the republic was short-lived, when the military seized power again for another four years. A new republic was planned to be established in 1993, but was aborted by General Sani Abacha. Abacha died in 1998 and a fourth republic was later established the following year, which ended three decades of intermittent military rule.[12][13]

Photo Showing States in Nigeria by Geography
Photo Showing States in Nigeria by Geography

Early history[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Archaeological research, pioneered by Charles Thurstan Shaw has shown that people were already living in south-eastern Nigeria (specifically Igbo Ukwu, Nsukka, Afikpo and Ugwuele) 100,000 years ago. Excavations in Ugwuele, Afikpo and Nsukka show evidence of long habitations as early as 6,000 BC. However, by the 9th Century AD, it seemed clear that the Igbos had settled in Igboland.[14] Shaw's excavations at Igbo-Ukwu, Nigeria revealed a 9th-century indigenous culture that created highly sophisticated work in bronze metalworking, independent of any Arab or European influence and centuries before other sites that were better known at the time of discovery.

The earliest known example of a fossil human skeleton found anywhere in West Africa, which is 13,000 years old, was found at Iwo-Eleru in Isarun, western Nigeria and attests to the antiquity of habitation in the region.[15]

The Dufuna canoe was discovered in 1987 a few kilometers from the village of Dufuna, not far from the Komadugu Gana River, in Yobe State, Nigeria.[16][17] Radiocarbon dating of a sample of charcoal found near the site dates the canoe at 8500 to 8000 years old, linking the site to Lake Mega Chad.[18] It is the oldest boat to be discovered in Africa, and the second oldest known worldwide.[19]

Microlithic and ceramic industries were also established by savanna pastoralists from at least the 4th millennium BC and were continued by subsequent agricultural communities. In the south, hunting and gathering gave way to subsistence farming around the same time, relying more on the indigenous yam and oil palm than on the cereals important in the North.

The stone axe heads, imported in great quantities from the north and used in opening the forest for agricultural development, were venerated by the Yoruba descendants of Neolithic pioneers as "thunderbolts" hurled to earth by the gods.[15]

The Nok culture thrived from approximately 1,500 BC to about 200 AD on the Jos Plateau in north and central Nigeria and produced life-sized terracotta figures that include human heads, human figures, and animals[20].[21] Iron smelting furnaces at Taruga, a Nok site, date from around 600 BC. The Nok culture is thought to have begun smelting iron by 600-500 BC and possibly some centuries earlier.[22] Kainji Dam excavations revealed iron-working by the 2nd century BC. Evidence of iron smelting has also been excavated at sites in the Nsukka region of southeast Nigeria in what is now Igboland: dating to 2,000 BC at the site of Lejja (Uzomaka 2009)[23][24] and to 750 BC and at the site of Opi (Holl 2009).[24] The transition from Neolithic times to the Iron Age apparently was achieved indigenously without intermediate bronze production. Others have suggested that the technology moved west from the Nile Valley, although the Iron Age in the Niger River valley and the forest region appears to predate the introduction of metallurgy in the upper savanna by more than 800 years. The earliest iron technology in West Africa has also been found to be contemporary with or predate that of the Nile valley and North Africa, and some archaeologists believe that iron metallurgy was likely developed independently in sub-Saharan West Africa.[25][24]

  1. "Table content, Nigeria". country studies. 20 August 2001. 
  2. "Historic regions from 5th century BC to 20th century". History World. 29 May 2011. http://historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistoriesResponsive.asp?historyid=ad41. 
  3. "A short Nigerian history". Study country. 25 May 2010. https://www.studycountry.com/guide/NG-history.htm. 
  4. "About the Country Nigeria The History". Nigeria Government Federal Website. 1 October 2006. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 6 November 2019.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  5. "Songhai | World Civilization". courses.lumenlearning.com. Retrieved 2020-05-25. 
  6. https://rlp.hds.harvard.edu/for-educators/country-profiles/nigeria/historical-legacies
  7. "The Transatlantic Slave Trade". rlp.hds.harvard.edu (in Èdè Gẹ̀ẹ́sì). Retrieved 2020-05-27. 
  8. https://rlp.hds.harvard.edu/faq/transatlantic-slave-trade-nigeria
  9. Chioma, Unini (2020-02-01). "When I Remember Nigeria, I Remember Democracy! By Hameed Ajibola Jimoh Esq.". TheNigeriaLawyer (in Èdè Gẹ̀ẹ́sì). Retrieved 2020-05-27. 
  10. "Nigerian Diaspora and Remittances: Transparency and market development". Nigerian Diaspora and Remittances: Transparency and market development. Retrieved 2020-05-27. 
  11. Obasanjo, Olusegun (1980). My Command: an account of the Nigeria Civil War 1967-1970. Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0435902490. 
  12. "Nigeria's Fourth Republic and the Challenge of a Faltering Democratization". asq.africa.ufl.edu (in Èdè Gẹ̀ẹ́sì). Retrieved 2020-05-30. 
  13. "Nigeria's fourth republic and the challenge of a faltering democratization". ResearchGate (in Èdè Gẹ̀ẹ́sì). Retrieved 2020-05-30. 
  14. "The dark history of the Nigerian colonial town of Badagry, one of Africa's first slave ports". Face2Face Africa (in Èdè Gẹ̀ẹ́sì). 2018-07-19. Retrieved 2020-05-27. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Nigeria EARLY HISTORY Sourced from The Library of Congress Country Studies". Retrieved 2010-05-15. 
  16. Garba, Abubakar (1996). "The architecture and chemistry of a dug-out: the Dufuna Canoe in ethno-archaeological perspective". Berichte des Sonderforschungsbereichs 268 (8): 193–200. http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/oai/container/index/docId/1859. 
  17. Ujorha, Tadaferua O. (16 September 2002). "Nigeria: Dufuna Canoe: a Bridge Across 8,000 Years". Daily Trust (Abuja). https://allafrica.com/stories/200209170457.html. 
  18. Gumnior, Maren; Thiemeyer, Heinrich (2003). "Holocene fluvial dynamics in the NE Nigerian Savanna". Quaternary International 111: 54. doi:10.1016/s1040-6182(03)00014-4. 
  19. Trillo, Richard (2008) "The Rough Guide to West Africa" Penguin. Section: Nigeria Part 3:14.5 the north and northeast Maiduguri (pages unnumbered).
  20. "The Nok of Nigeria - Archaeology Magazine Archive". archive.archaeology.org. Retrieved 2020-05-27. 
  21. Breunig, Peter. 2014. Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context: p. 21.
  22. Eggert, Manfred (2014). "Early iron in West and Central Africa". In Breunig, P. Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context. Frankfurt, Germany: Africa Magna Verlag Press. pp. 53–54. ISBN 9783937248462. https://books.google.com/books?id=BBn1BQAAQBAJ&pg=PA38&dq=Nok+Breunig#v=onepage. 
  23. Eze–Uzomaka, Pamela. "Iron and its influence on the prehistoric site of Lejja". Academia.edu. University of Nigeria,Nsukka, Nigeria. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Holl, Augustin F. C. (6 November 2009). "Early West African Metallurgies: New Data and Old Orthodoxy". Journal of World Prehistory 22 (4): 415–438. doi:10.1007/s10963-009-9030-6. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00934690.2018.1479085. 
  25. Eggert, Manfred (2014). "Early iron in West and Central Africa". In Breunig, P. Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context. Frankfurt, Germany: Africa Magna Verlag Press. pp. 51–59.