Kikan Jesu mo igi agbelebu

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Kristi ti a kàn (c 1632) nipasẹ Diego Velázquez. Museo del Prado, Madrid

Kíkan Jésu mọ́ àgbélébù wáyé ní ilẹ̀ Palestine, láàríń ọdún 30 ati 33 AD. A ṣẹ àpèjúùwé kíkan Jésù mó àgbélébù ninu awọn ìhìnrere mẹ́rin, tí a tọ́ka sí àwọn ìwé- ẹ̀rí ti Majẹmu Titun, ti awọn ẹlomiran atijọ ti jẹri, ti a si fi idi mulẹ gẹgẹbi itan iṣẹlẹ ti awọn orisun ti kii ṣe Kristiẹni jẹ, [1] biotilejepe ko si iyasọtọ laarin awọn onkowe lori awọn alaye gangan. [2] [3] [4]

Gẹ́gẹ́bíi awọn ìhìnrere ti inú bíbélì, a mú Jésù asì fi ẹ̀sùn kàń nípasẹ̀ àwọn Sanhedrin, lẹ́hìńnà ni Pọ́ntíù Pílátù ṣe ìdájọ́ rẹ̀ ní ẹ̀bi, awọn Romu sì kàn mọ́ agbelebu. [5] [6] [7] [8] Jésù yọ aṣọ rẹ kuro, o si fi ọti-waini ti a dàpọ mọ ojia, tabi ọti-waini lati mu lẹhin ti o sọ pe ongbẹ ngbẹ mi. Lẹhinna o ṣubu laarin awọn ọlọsọrọ meji ti o ni idajọ ati, ni ibamu si Ihinrere ti Marku, ku ni wakati mẹfa lẹhinna. Ni akoko yii, awọn ọmọ-ogun fi ami kan si ori oke agbelebu ti o sọ " <a href="./Jesus,_King_of_the_Jews" rel="mw:WikiLink" data-linkid="30" data-cx="{&quot;adapted&quot;:false,&quot;sourceTitle&quot;:{&quot;title&quot;:&quot;Jesus, King of the Jews&quot;,&quot;pagelanguage&quot;:&quot;en&quot;,&quot;thumbnail&quot;:{&quot;source&quot;:&quot;http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/43/Dirk_van_Baburen_-_Kroning_met_de_doornenkroon.jpg/80px-Dirk_van_Baburen_-_Kroning_met_de_doornenkroon.jpg&quot;,&quot;width&quot;:80,&quot;height&quot;:63},&quot;description&quot;:&quot;a title of Jesus Christ&quot;}}" class="cx-link" id="mwJQ" title="Jesus, King of the Jews">Jésù</a> ti Nasareti, Ọba awọn Ju " ti, gẹgẹbi Ihinrere ti Johanu, ni a kọ sinu awọn ede mẹta. Nwọn si pin awọn aṣọ rẹ laarin ara wọn wọn si ṣẹ keké fun ẹwu rẹ ti ko ni laini, ni ibamu si Ihinrere ti Johanu. Gẹgẹbi Ihinrere ti Johanu lẹhin ikú Jésù, ọkan jagun ẹgbẹ rẹ pẹlu ọkọ kan lati rii daju pe o ti ku, lẹhinna ẹjẹ ati omi ṣan lati ọgbẹ. Bibeli ṣe apejuwe awọn ọrọ meje ti Jésù ṣe nigbati o wa lori agbelebu, bakannaa ọpọlọpọ awọn iṣẹlẹ ti o koja ti o ṣẹlẹ.

Awọn ẹgbẹ ti a npe ni Igbẹhin, ijiya ati irapada Jésù iku nipa agbelebu ni aaye ti o jẹ ti ẹsin ti Kristiẹni nipa awọn ẹkọ igbala ati idariji.

Itan[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Agbelebu Jésù ti Nasareti, apejuwe igba atijọ lati Hortus deliciarum ti Herrad ti Landsberg (ọdun 12)
Iku lati Agbelebu, ti Rubens (1616-17)

Baptismu ti Jésù ati agbelebu rẹ ni a kà si meji awọn itan otitọ nipa Jésù. [9] [10] James Dunn sọ pe awọn "otitọ meji ninu igbesi-aye Jésù ti paṣẹ ni aṣẹ fun gbogbo aiye" ati pe "ni ipo ti o ga julọ lori" fere ṣe idiyele lati ṣe iyaniyan tabi kọ iṣiro awọn itan itan "pe wọn jẹ igba akọkọ ti o bẹrẹ fun iwadi ti itan Jésù. [9] Bart Ehrman sọ pe awọn agbelebu Jésù lori awọn aṣẹ ti Pontiu Pilatu jẹ ohun ti o daju julọ nipa rẹ. [11] John Dominic Crossan sọ pe agbelebu Jésù ni o daju bi eyikeyi itan itan le jẹ. [12] Eddy ati Boyd sọ pe o ti "ni idiwọ mulẹ" pe o wa ni idaniloju ti ko ni Kristiẹni ti agbelebu Jésù. [13] Craig Blomberg sọ pe ọpọlọpọ awọn ọjọgbọn ni ẹdun kẹta fun itan-itan Jésù ro pe a mọ agbelebu. [4] Christopher M. Tuckett sọ pe, biotilejepe awọn idi ti o ṣe pataki fun iku Jésù ni o rọrun lati mọ, ọkan ninu awọn otitọ ti ko daju nipa rẹ ni pe a kàn a mọ agbelebu. [14]

Lakoko ti awọn ọjọgbọn gbagbọ lori itan-mimọ ti agbelebu, wọn yatọ lori idi ati ipo fun rẹ. Fun apẹẹrẹ, awọn mejeeji EP Sanders ati Paula Fredriksen ṣe atilẹyin fun itan itanjẹ agbelebu sugbon o ṣe jiyan pe Jésù ko sọ asọtẹlẹ agbelebu rẹ ati pe asọtẹlẹ ti agbelebu jẹ "ẹda ẹda" (P.   126). [15] Geza Vermes tun wo ikun mọ agbelebu bi iṣẹlẹ itan ṣugbọn o pese alaye ti ara rẹ ati lẹhin rẹ. [15]

John P. Meier wo ikun agbelebu Jésù gẹgẹbi otitọ itan ati sọ pe, ti o da lori ami-ẹri ti itiju, awọn kristeni yoo ko ti ṣe irora iku ti olori wọn. [16] Meier sọ pe nọmba kan ti awọn iyasọtọ miiran, fun apẹẹrẹ, ami ti awọn iwe-ẹri ti o pọju (ie, idaniloju nipasẹ orisun diẹ ẹ sii) ati ami ti ifaramọ (ie, pe o baamu pẹlu awọn ero miiran itan) ran lati ṣe idiwọ agbelebu Jésù gẹgẹbi iṣẹlẹ itan. [17]

Biotilejepe fere gbogbo awọn orisun ti atijọ ti o ni mọ agbelebu jẹ iwe-kikọ, iwadi ti archeological 1968 ti o wa ni ila-oorun ti Jerusalemu ti ara ti a kan mọ agbelebu ti o wa titi di ọgọrun ọdun ni o funni ni ẹri ti o daju pe awọn agbelebu waye ni akoko Romu gẹgẹbi ọna ti agbelebu Jésù ti wa ni apejuwe ninu awọn ihinrere. [18] A mọ ọkunrin ti a mọ agbelebu bi Jehohanan Ben Hagkol ati boya o ti kú ni ọdun 70 AD, ni ayika akoko atako ti Juu lodi si Rome. Awọn atupale ni Ile -Ile Iṣoogun Hadassah ti pinnu pe o ku ni ọdun 20 rẹ. Iwadi miiran ti o yẹ ti o wa, eyiti o tun wa si ọdun kini AD, jẹ egungun heeli ti a ko mọ ti o ni ẹhin kan ti o wa ni ibi isinmi Jerusalemu, eyiti o wa ni igbimọ Israeli Antiquities Authority ati ti o fihan ni Ile-Ile Israeli. [19] [20]

Alaye ti Majẹmu Titun[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

The earliest alaye àpamọ ti iku ti Jésù ti wa ni o wa ninu awọn mẹrin oṣuwọn ilana ihinrere. Awọn ẹlomiran wa, diẹ sii awọn ifarahan ti ko han ni awọn iwe-kikọ ti Majẹmu Titun. Ninu awọn ihinrere synqptiki, Jésù sọtẹlẹ iku rẹ ni awọn ibi ọtọtọ mẹta. [21] Gbogbo awọn ihinrere mẹrin pẹlu ipinnu ti o gbooro sii ti imuni Jésù, idanwo akọkọ ni Sanhedrin ati idajọ ikẹjọ ni ile-ẹjọ Pilatu, nibiti wọn ti nà Jésù, ti a dajọ si iku, a mu wọn lọ si ibi ti a kàn mọ agbelebu ni akọkọ gbe agbelebu rẹ ṣaaju ki awọn ọmọ Romu mu Saimon ti Cyrene lati gbe e, lẹhinna wọn kàn Jésù mọ agbelebu, ti a tẹlu, ati ti ajinde kuro ninu oku. Iku rẹ ti wa ni apejuwe bi ẹbọ ninu awọn Ihinrere ati awọn miiran awọn iwe ti Majẹmu Titun. [22] Ninu Ihinrere kọọkan wọnyi awọn iṣẹlẹ marun ni igbesi-aye Jésù ni a ṣe ayẹwo pẹlu awọn alaye ti o lagbara ju ipin miiran lọ ti ihinrere Ihinrere lọ. Awọn akọsilẹ oluwadi ṣe akiyesi pe oluka gba iwe ti o fẹrẹrẹ wakati kan nipa ohun ti n ṣẹlẹ. [23] :p.91

Lẹyìn tí wọn dé Gọlgọta, wọn fún Jésù ní ọti-waini ti a ṣọkan pọ pẹlu ojia tabi gall lati mu. Matteu Matteu ati Marku ti kọwe pe o kọ eyi. Lẹhinna a kàn a mọ agbelebu ati pe o ṣubu laarin awọn olè meji ti o jẹ idajọ. Gẹgẹbi diẹ ninu awọn itumọ ti Giriki atilẹba, awọn ọlọsà le jẹ awọn ọlọtẹ tabi awọn ọlọtẹ Juu. [24] Gẹgẹbi Ihinrere ti Marku, o farada ipọnju ti a kàn mọ agbelebu fun wakati mẹfa lati wakati kẹta, ni iwọn 9 am, [25] titi o fi kú ni wakati kẹsan, ti o to iwọn 3 pm. [26] Awọn ọmọ-ogun fi ami kan silẹ lori ori rẹ ti n sọ ni "Jésù ti Nasareti, Ọba awọn Ju" ti, gẹgẹbi Ihinrere ti Johanu, wa ni awọn ede mẹta, lẹhinna pin awọn aṣọ rẹ ya, wọn si ṣẹ keké fun aṣọ ẹwu rẹ. Gẹgẹbi Ihinrere ti Johanu, awọn ọmọ-ogun Romu ko fa ẹsẹ Jésù, bi nwọn ṣe si awọn olè meji ti a kàn mọ (fifa awọn ẹsẹ ti yara ni ibẹrẹ iku), bi Jésù ti kú tẹlẹ. Ihinrere kọọkan ni iroyin ti ara rẹ nipa awọn ọrọ ikẹhin Jésù, awọn ọrọ meje ni apapọ. [27] Ninu awọn Ihinrere Synkittiki, awọn iṣẹlẹ ti o jina ti o pọju lọ tẹle agbelebu, pẹlu òkunkun, ìṣẹlẹ, ati (ninu Matteu) ajinde awọn eniyan mimọ. Lẹhin ikú Jésù, ara Josẹfu ti Arimatea kuro ninu agbelebu o si sin sinu ibojì apata, pẹlu Nikodemu iranlọwọ.

Agbelebu. Kristi lori Agbelebu laarin awọn olè meji. Itanna lati Vals Passional, 16th orundun
Bronzino 's depiction of the Crucifixion with 3 nails, no cords, and a hypopodium support stand, c. 1545.

Gẹgẹbi gbogbo awọn ihinrere mẹrin, a mu Jésù wá si " Ibi Agbọnri " [28] ati pe a kàn mọ agbelebu pẹlu awọn olè meji, [29] pẹlu ẹri ti wi pe o jẹ " Ọba awọn Ju ", [30] aṣọ rẹ [31] ṣaaju ki o tẹ ori rẹ ba o ku. [32] Lẹhin ikú rẹ, Josefu ti Arimatea beere fun ara lati Pilatu, [33] eyi ti Josẹfu gbe sinu ibojì ọgba titun kan. [34]

Awọn iwe ihinrere mẹta ti Synoptic tun ṣe apejuwe Simoni ti Cyrini ti o nru agbelebu, [35] ọpọlọpọ enia ti n fi Jésù ṣe ẹlẹrin [36] pẹlu awọn olè / ọlọpa / ọlọtẹ, [37] òkunkun lati ọdun 6 si 9 wakati, [38] tẹmpili ibori jẹ ya lati oke de isalẹ. [39] Awọn ihinrere Synoptic tun darukọ awọn ẹlẹri pupọ, pẹlu ọgọrun kan, [40] ati ọpọlọpọ awọn obinrin ti o nwo lati ọna jijin [41] meji ninu wọn wa ni akoko isinku. [42]

Luku jẹ nikan ni onkqwe onkqwe lati fi ijuwe awqn awqn ipara waini ti a fi rubọ si Jésù lori ika, [43] nikan nikan Marku ati Johanu ṣe apejuwe Josefu ti o mu ara naa kuro lori agbelebu. [44]

Awọn alaye pupọ wa ti a ri nikan ninu ọkan ninu awọn iroyin ihinrere. Fun apeere, nikan ni ihinrere Matteu kan sọ iwariri kan, awọn eniyan mimọ ti o jinde ti o lọ si ilu ati pe awọn ọmọ-ogun Romu ni a yàn lati dabobo ibojì, [45] lakoko ti Marku jẹ ọkanṣoṣo lati sọ akoko gangan ti agbelebu (wakati kẹta, tabi 9   mi) ati ijabọ ọgọgun ti iku Jésù. [46] Ihinrere ti awọn ẹda Luku ti o ṣe pataki si alaye naa ni ọrọ Jésù si awọn obinrin ti o nfọfọ, ibawi ọdaràn ti ẹlomiran, iyipada ti awọn eniyan ti o fi silẹ "lilu awọn ọmu wọn", ati awọn obirin ti n pese awọn turari ati awọn olun ṣaaju ki o to. simi lori Ọjọ isimi. [47] Johannu nikan ni ọkan lati tọka si ibere naa pe awọn ẹsẹ jẹ ṣẹ ati lilu ọmọ ogun ti ẹgbẹ Jésù (gẹgẹbi asotele ti asotele ti Lailai), ati pe Nikodemu ṣe iranlọwọ fun Josefu ni isinku. [48]

Gẹgẹ bi Episteli Akini si awọn Korinti (1 Korinti 15: 4), a jinde Jésù kuro ninu okú ("ni ọjọ kẹta" kika ọjọ ti a kàn mọ agbelebu gẹgẹbi akọkọ) ati gẹgẹbi awọn Ihinrere ti ihinrere, han si awọn ọmọ ẹhin rẹ lori awọn ọna oriṣiriṣi ṣaaju ki o to goke lọ si ọrun. [49] Iroyin ti a fun ni Awọn Aposteli ti awọn Aposteli sọ pe Jésù wà pẹlu awọn aposteli fun ogoji ọjọ, nigbati akọsilẹ ninu Ihinrere Luku ko ṣe iyatọ ti o yatọ laarin awọn iṣẹlẹ ti Ọjọ Ọjọ Ọjọ Ọjọ Ọjọ Ọjọ Ọjọ Ajinde ati Ọgọrun. [50] [51] Sibẹsibẹ, ọpọlọpọ awọn ọjọgbọn ti Bibeli gba pe St Luke tun kọ awọn Iṣe Awọn Aposteli gẹgẹbi iwọn-tẹle si iwe iroyin Ihinrere rẹ, ati awọn iṣẹ meji naa gbọdọ wa ni apejuwe. [52]

Ni Marku, wọn kàn Jésù mọ agbelebu pẹlu awọn ọlọtẹ meji, oorun si ṣokunkun tabi o bamu fun wakati mẹta. [53] Jésù kigbe si Ọlọhun, lẹhinna o kigbe o si ku. [53] Aṣọ ti tẹmpili ti ya ni meji. [53] Matteu ti n tẹriba Marku, ṣugbọn o sọ nipa iwariri kan ati ajinde awọn eniyan mimọ. [54] Luku tun tẹle Marku, biotilejepe o ṣe apejuwe awọn ọlọtẹ gẹgẹbi awọn ọdaràn ti o wọpọ, ọkan ninu awọn ti o da Jésù lo, ẹniti o tun ṣe ileri pe oun (Jésù) ati ẹni-ọdaràn yoo wa ni paradise. [55] Luku fi apejuwe Jésù han bi o ti jẹ ojuju ni oju agbelebu rẹ. [56] John pẹlu ọpọlọpọ awọn ẹya kanna ti awọn ti a ri ninu Marku, biotilejepe wọn ṣe itọju yatọ. [57]

Awọn iroyin miiran ati awọn itọkasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Agbelebu, lati Buhl Altarpiece, epo pataki Gothic kan lori kikun ti awọn eniyan lati awọn 1490s.

Ibẹrẹ ti kii ṣe Kristiẹni ti a kàn mọ agbelebu Jésù ni o le jẹ lẹta Mara Bar-Serapion si ọmọ rẹ, kọ diẹ ninu akoko lẹhin AD 73 ṣugbọn ṣaaju ki o to ọdun 3rd AD. [58] [5] [59] Lẹta naa ko pẹlu awọn akori Kristiẹni ati pe onkọwe ni a ṣe kà pe ki nṣe Juu tabi Kristiani. [58] [5] [60] Lẹta naa tọka si awọn ipinnu ti o tẹle itọju alailẹtan awọn ọlọgbọn mẹta: Socrates, Pythagoras, ati "ọba ọlọgbọn" ti awọn Ju. [58] [59] Diẹ ninu awọn ọjọgbọn ṣiyemeji pe ifọkasi si ipaniyan " ọba awọn Ju " ni o ni nipa agbelebu Jésù, nigba ti awọn miran gbe iye ti o kere ju ninu lẹta naa, ti o jẹ ki iṣoro ni itọkasi. [60] [61]

Ninu awọn Antiquities ti awọn Ju (kọwe nipa 93 AD) akọwe Juu kan Josephus sọ ( Ant 18.3 ) pe Jésù ti kàn mọ agbelebu nipasẹ Pilatu, kikọ pe: [62]

Bayi ni o wa nipa akoko yi Jesu, ọkunrin ọlọgbọn,  . .. O si mu ọpọlọpọ awọn Ju ati ọpọlọpọ awọn Keferi tọ ọ lọ  . .. Ati nigbati Pilatu, ni imọran awọn ọkunrin pataki ninu wa, ti da a lẹbi agbelebu  . ..

Ọpọlọpọ awọn ọjọgbọn igbalode gbagbọ pe lakoko eyi ti a npe ni Josephus (ti a npe ni Testimonium Flavianum ) pẹlu diẹ ninu awọn kikọpọ ti o tẹle, akọkọ ni o wa ni ipilẹ gidi pẹlu itọka si pipa Jésù nipa Pilatu. [6] [7] [8] James Dunn sọ pe awọn ọlọgbọn ni "ifọkanbalẹ gbigboro" nipa irufẹ itọkasi gangan si agbelebu Jésù ni Testimonium. [63] Ni ibẹrẹ ọdun kejila ọrọ miran ti o tọka si agbelebu ti Jésù ni Tacitus ṣe, ni gbogbo igba kà ọkan ninu awọn oniye itanran nla Roman. [64] [65] Kikọ ni Awọn Awọn Akọsilẹ ( c 116 AD), Tacitus ti sọ pe inunibini ti awọn kristeni nipasẹ Nero ati sọ ( Akọsilẹ 15.44 ) pe Pilatu paṣẹ pe ki a pa Jésù: [62] [66]

Nero ṣe idajọ ẹbi naa o si fi awọn ẹbi ti o dara julọ julọ ṣe lori ẹgbẹ kan ti o korira nitori ohun irira wọn, ti a pe ni kristeni nipasẹ awọn eniyan. Christus, ẹniti orukọ rẹ ti ni ibẹrẹ rẹ, jiya ijiya nla ni akoko Tiberius ni ọwọ ọkan ninu awọn alakoso wa, Pontius Pilatus.

Awọn oluwadi nigbagbogbo ronu Tacitus ti o tọka si ipaniyan Jésù nipa Pilatu lati jẹ otitọ, ati ti itan itan bi orisun orisun Romu kan. [64] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] Eddy ati Boyd sọ pe o ti "ni idiwọ mulẹ" pe Tacitus funni ni idaniloju ti kristeni kan ti a mọ agbelebu Jésù. [13]

Miran ti o le ṣe afiwe si agbelebu ( "adiye" cf. Luke 23:39 ; Galatians 3:13 ) ni a ri ninu Talmud Babiloni: Àdàkọ:Quote Biotilẹjẹpe awọn ibeere ti awọn idi ti awọn idanimọ ti Yeshu ati Jésù ti wa ni igba diẹ ni ariyanjiyan, ọpọlọpọ awọn onkqwe gba pe igbesi aye ti o wa lokekeji ni o fẹ jẹ nipa Jésù, Peteru Schäfer sọ pe ko le ṣe iyemeji pe alaye yii ipaniyan ni Talmud n tọka si Jésù ti Nasareti. [72] Robert Van Voorst sọ pe ipinnu Sanhedrin 43a fun Jésù ni a le fi idi rẹ mulẹ ko nikan lati itọkasi funrararẹ, ṣugbọn lati ibi ti o yika ka. [73]

Awọn Musulumi ntẹnumọ pe a ko kàn Jésù mọ agbelebu ati wipe awọn ti o ro pe wọn ti pa a ti ṣe aṣiṣe pa Judas Iskariotu, Simoni ti Cyrini, tabi ẹnikan ti o wa ni ipo rẹ. [74] Wọn gba igbagbọ yii da lori awọn itumọ ti Al-Qur'an , eyi ti o sọ pe: "Nwọn ko pa a, tabi kàn a mọ agbelebu, ṣugbọn bẹẹni a ṣe lati farahan wọn (tabi o han si wọn),  . .. Rara, Allah ni i dide fun ara Rẹ ". [74]

Diẹ ninu awọn Kristiani Gnostic igba akọkọ ti nṣe ipinnu, gbigbagbọ pe Jésù ko ni ohun ti ara, sẹ pe a kàn a mọ agbelebu. [75] [76] Ni idahun, Ignatius ti Antioku jẹwọ pe a bi Jésù nitõtọ ati pe a kàn mọ agbelebu nitõtọ o si kọwe pe awọn ti o pe pe Jésù nikan dabi pe o jiya nikan ti o dabi pe Onigbagbọ ni. [77] [78]

Agbelebu[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Chronology[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ko si ifọkanbalẹ kan nipa ọjọ gangan ti a kàn mọ agbelebu Jésù, biotilejepe awọn alakoso Bibeli ni gbogbogbo gba pe o wa ni Ọjọ Jimọ lori tabi ajọ irekọja ( Nisan 15), lakoko igbakeji Pontiu Pilatu (ẹniti o jọba AD 26-36 ). [79] Awọn oluwadi ti pese awọn nkanro fun ọdun ti a kàn mọ agbelebu ni ibiti o wa ni iwọn 30-33 AD, [80] [81] [82] pẹlu Rainer Riesner sọ pe "Ẹkẹrinla ọjọ Nisan (7 Kẹrin) ọdun AD 30, ero ti ọpọlọpọ ninu awọn ọjọgbọn ọjọgbọn, jina ati kuro ni ọjọ ti o jẹ julọ ti a kàn mọ agbelebu Jésù. " [83] Ọjọ miiran ti o fẹ ju laarin awọn ọjọgbọn jẹ Ọjọ Ẹtì, Ọjọ Kẹrin Ọjọ 3, 33 AD. [84] [85]

Niwọn igba ti a ti lo kalẹnda ti o ṣe ayẹwo ni akoko Jésù, pẹlu eyiti o ṣe akiyesi oṣupa tuntun ati ti ngba ikore ọkà-barle, ọjọ gangan tabi oṣu fun Ìrékọjá ni ọdun kan ti o ni ibamu si ifarahan. [86] [87]   Awọn ọna ti o yatọ ni a ti lo lati ṣe apejuwe odun ti a kàn mọ agbelebu, pẹlu awọn Ihinrere Ikunrere, awọn akosile ti igbesi aye Paulu, ati awọn awoṣe ti o yatọ si astronomical.

Igbẹkẹgbẹ ti sikolashipu ni pe awọn akọsilẹ ti Majẹmu Titun n ṣe apejuwe agbelebu kan ni Ọjọ Jimo, ṣugbọn a ti dabaa fun Ọrun tabi Ọkọrẹ a mọ agbelebu. [88] [89] Awọn ọjọgbọn kan sọ ni Ojobo kan mọ agbelebu ti o da lori "isinmi meji" ti o jẹ ki ọsẹ Isinmi ti o ti kọja ni ojo Ojobo titi di ọsan Friday, niwaju ọjọ isimi ti Osu. [88] [90] Diẹ ninu awọn ti jiyan pe a kàn Jésù mọ agbelebu ni PANA, kii ṣe Ọjọ Ẹtì, ni aaye ti a sọ "ọjọ mẹta ati oru mẹta" ni  Matthew ṣaaju ajinde rẹ, ti a ṣe ni ọjọ isimi. Awọn ẹlomiran ti ni idaamu nipa sisọ pe eyi ko kọ awọn ọrọ Juu ti eyiti "ọjọ ati oru" le tọka si eyikeyi apakan ninu wakati wakati 24, pe ọrọ ti o wa ninu Matteu jẹ asọtẹlẹ, kii ṣe ọrọ kan pe Jésù wa ni wakati 72 ni ibojì, ati pe awọn ọpọlọpọ awọn apejuwe si ajinde lori ọjọ kẹta ko nilo awọn akọle gangan mẹta. [88] [91]

Ni Marku 15:25 a kàn mọ agbelebu ni wakati kẹta (9 am) ati iku Jésù ni wakati kẹsan (wakati kẹsan ọjọ mẹta) ). [92] Sibẹsibẹ, ninu Johannu 19:14 Jésù jẹ ṣiwaju Pilatu ni wakati kẹfa. [93] Awọn oluwadi ti gbe ọpọlọpọ awọn ariyanjiyan lati ṣe ayẹwo ọrọ naa, diẹ ninu awọn ti ṣe iyanju iṣeduro, fun apẹẹrẹ, da lori lilo lilo akoko Romu ni Johanu ṣugbọn kii ṣe ninu Marku, sibẹ awọn miran ti kọ awọn ariyanjiyan naa. [93] [94] [95] Ọpọlọpọ awọn ọjọgbọn ti ṣe ariyanjiyan pe o yẹ ki a ka awọn akọọlẹ ti awọn akọọlẹ awọn iroyin, ti a kọ ni akoko kan nigba ti ko si atunṣe ti awọn akoko, tabi igbasilẹ gangan ti awọn wakati ati awọn iṣẹju ni o wa, ati akoko ni igba diẹ si akoko ti o sunmọ to wakati mẹta. [93] [96]

Ona si agbelebu[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Andrea di Bartolo, Ọna si Kalfari, c. 1400. Awọn iṣupọ ti halos ni osi wa ni Virgin Mary ni iwaju, pẹlu awọn mẹta Marys.

Awọn Ihinrere mẹta Synopptiki n tọka si ọkunrin kan ti a npè ni Simoni ti Cyrene ti awọn ọmọ-ogun Romu paṣẹ lati gbe agbelebu lẹhin ti Jésù bẹrẹ ni iṣaju rẹ ṣugbọn lẹhinna ṣubu, [97] nigba ti Ihinrere Johanu sọ pe Jésù "mu" agbelebu rẹ. [ Jn. 19:17 ]

Luku Luku sọ apejuwe awọn ibaraẹnisọrọ laarin Jésù ati awọn obirin ninu awujọ ti awọn aladun ti ntọ ọ lẹhin, n sọ Jésù pe "Awọn ọmọbinrin Jerusalemu, ẹ má sọkun fun mi, ṣugbọn ẹ sọkun fun ara nyin ati fun awọn ọmọ nyin: Nitori kiyesi i, ọjọ mbọ nigbati nwọn ba wipe, Alabukún-fun li awọn alade ati awọn obinrin ti kò bí, ati awọn ọmú ti a kò mu. Nigbana ni nwọn o bẹrẹ si wi fun awọn oke-nla pe, Ẹ ṣubu lù wa, ati si awọn oke kékèké pe, Ẹ bo wa. Fun ti wọn ba ṣe nkan wọnyi nigbati igi jẹ alawọ ewe, kini yoo ṣẹlẹ nigbati o gbẹ? " [ Lk. 23: 28-31 ]

Ihinrere ti Luku Jésù pe awọn obirin wọnyi gẹgẹ bi "awọn ọmọbinrin Jerusalemu", o si ṣe iyatọ wọn lati awọn obinrin ti ihinrere kanna ṣe apejuwe gẹgẹbi "awọn obinrin ti o tẹle e lati Galili" ati awọn ti o wa nibẹ ni agbelebu rẹ. [98]

Ni aṣa, ọna ti Jésù mu ni a npe ni Nipasẹ Dolorosa ( Latin fun "Ọna Inunibinu" tabi "Ọna Inira") ati pe o jẹ ita ni ilu atijọ ti Jerusalemu. O ti samisi nipasẹ mẹsan ninu awọn Stations mẹrinla ti Cross. O kọja Ijo Ecce Homo ati awọn ibudo marun ti o kẹhin jẹ inu ile- ijọsin ti Sepulcher Mimọ.

Ko si itọkasi fun obirin kan ti a npe ni Feronika [99] ninu awọn Ihinrere, ṣugbọn awọn orisun gẹgẹbi Acta Sanctorum ṣe apejuwe rẹ gẹgẹbi obirin oloootọ ti Jerusalemu ti o ni iyọnu gẹgẹbi Jésù gbe agbelebu rẹ lọ si Golgọta, fun u ni iboju rẹ ki o le pa iwaju rẹ kuro. [100] [101] [102] [103]

Ipo[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Aworan kan ti Ijo ti Ibi-isinmi Mimọ ati aaye ayelujara itan

Ni ipo gangan ti a kàn mọ agbelebu jẹ ọrọ ti itumọ, ṣugbọn awọn iwe-mimọ Bibeli fihan pe o wa lẹhin odi odi ilu Jerusalemu, [ Jn. 19:20 ] [ Heb. 13:12 ] wiwọle si awọn olutọju-nipasẹ [ Mt. 27:39 ] [ Mii. 15: 21,29-30 ] ati ki o ṣe akiyesi lati diẹ ninu awọn ijinna kuro. [ Mii. 15:40 ] Eusebius mọ ipo rẹ nikan bi iha ariwa Oke Sioni, [104] eyiti o ni ibamu pẹlu awọn aaye imọran ti o ni imọran julọ julọ ti igbalode.

Kalfari gẹgẹbi orukọ Gẹẹsi fun ibi ti a ni lati inu ọrọ Latin fun timole ( calvaria ), eyi ti a lo ninu translation Vulgate "ibi ti agbọn", alaye ti a fun ni gbogbo ihinrere mẹrin ti ọrọ Aramaic Gûlgalt ((transliterated into Giriki bi Γολγοθᾶ (Golgotha)) ti o jẹ orukọ ibi ti a ti kàn Jésù mọ agbelebu. [105] Ọrọ naa ko ṣe afihan idi ti a fi sọ bayi, ṣugbọn ọpọlọpọ awọn ẹkọ ni a ti fi siwaju. Ọkan jẹ pe bi ibi ipaniyan gbangba, Kalifari le ti wa pẹlu awọn agbọn ti awọn olufaragba ti a fi silẹ (eyiti yoo jẹ lodi si awọn aṣa isinku Ju, ṣugbọn kii ṣe Roman). Omiiran ni pe Calvary ni orukọ lẹhin ibudo kan ti o wa nitosi (eyi ti o ni ibamu pẹlu awọn aaye ayelujara igbalode ti a pese). Ẹkẹta ni pe orukọ ti a ti gba lati inu apọn ti ara, eyi ti yoo ni ibamu pẹlu lilo ti ọrọ kanna, ie, ibi "agbọn". Nigba ti wọn n pe ni "Oke Calvary", o jẹ diẹ sii ni oke kekere kan tabi knoll. [106]

Aaye ibile, ninu eyiti ile ijọsin mimọ mimọ ti wa ni bayi ti tẹ lọwọlọwọ ni Ile- igbimọ Onigbagbumọ ti ilu atijọ, ti jẹ ẹri lati ọdun kẹrin. Aaye keji kan (ti a tọka si bi Calvary Gordon [107] ), ti o wa siwaju ariwa ti ilu atijọ ti o sunmọ ibi kan ti a pe ni Ọgbà Ọgbà, ti ni igbega niwon ọdun 19th.

Awọn eniyan wa[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Kristi oku pẹlu Virgin, John Ajihinrere ati Maria Magdalene. Oluya ti ko mọye ti ọdun 18th

Ihinrere ti Matteu apejuwe awọn obirin pupọ nigbati a kàn mọ agbelebu, diẹ ninu awọn ti wọn jẹ orukọ ninu awọn ihinrere. Yato si awọn obinrin wọnyi, awọn Ihinrere mẹta ti Synoppti sọ nipa awọn eniyan miran: "awọn olori alufa, pẹlu awọn akọwe ati awọn agbagba"; [108] awọn olè meji ti a kàn mọ agbelebu, ọkan ni ọwọ ọtun Jésù ati ọkan ninu osi rẹ, [109] ẹniti Ihinrere Luku ṣe apejuwe bi olutọpa ironupiwada ati olè alainibajẹ ; [110] "awọn ọmọ-ogun", [111] "ọgọgun ati awọn ti o wà pẹlu rẹ, ti n bojuto Jésù"; [112] olutọpa nipasẹ; [113] "awọn ti o duro", [114] "awọn enia ti o pejọ fun iṣọwo yii"; [115] ati "awọn ẹlẹgbẹ rẹ". [116]

Ihinrere ti Johanu tun sọ nipa awọn obirin ti o wa, ṣugbọn nikan nmẹnuba awọn ọmọ ogun [117] ati " ọmọ-ẹhin ti Jésù fẹ ". [118]

Awọn ihinrere tun sọ nipa dide, lẹhin ikú Jésù, ti Josefu ti Arimatea [119] ati ti Nikodemu. [120]

Ọna ati ona[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Agbelebu Jésù lori igi agbelebu meji, lati Sainte Bible (1866)
Igi okùn, igi ikun ti o rọrun kan. Aworan nipasẹ Justus Lipsius.

Ko da julọ kristeni gbagbo awọn gibbet lori eyi ti Jésù ti pa wà ni ibile meji-beamed agbelebu, awọn Jehovah tọn lẹ mu awọn view ti a nikan ṣinṣin igi ti a lo. Awọn ọrọ Gẹẹsi ati Latin ti a lo ninu awọn iwe ẹsin Kristiẹni akọkọ jẹ iṣoro. Awọn ofin Giriki Koine ti a lo ninu Majẹmu Titun jẹ stauros ( σταυρός ) ati xylon ( ξύλον ). Igbẹhin tumọ si igi (igi gbigbe, igi tabi ohun ti a ṣe ninu igi); ninu awọn ẹhin Giriki ti tẹlẹ, ọrọ iṣaaju tumọ si igi pipe tabi ọpa, ṣugbọn ni Koine Giriki o tun lo tun tun tumọ si agbelebu. [121] Awọn ọrọ Latin ọrọ crux ni a tun ṣe si awọn nkan miiran ju agbelebu lọ. [122]

Sibẹsibẹ, awọn onkọwe Kristiani akọkọ ti o sọ nipa apẹrẹ ti awọn ohun elo ti o wa ni eyiti Jésù ku ku nigbagbogbo ṣe apejuwe rẹ bi nini igi-igi. Fun apeere, Episteli ti Banaba, eyi ti o daju ni iṣaaju ju 135, [123] ati pe o ti wa lati ọgọrun ọdun 1 AD, [124] akoko ti a kọwe awọn ihinrere ti iku Jésù, o fiwewe si lẹta naa T (lẹta Greek lẹta tau, ti o ni iye nọmba ti 300), [125] ati si ipo ti Mose gbe kalẹ ni Eksodu 17: 11-12. [126] Justin Martyr (100-165) sọ kedere pe agbelebu Kristi jẹ apẹrẹ meji: "Ọdọ-agutan na ti a paṣẹ pe ki a ni irun ni kikun jẹ ami ti awọn ijiya agbelebu ti Kristi yoo jiya. Fun ọdọ-agutan, eyi ti o ti ni sisun, ti wa ni sisun ati ki o wọ aṣọ ni ori agbelebu. Fun ọkan kan ni aarin ti o wa ni titọ lati inu awọn apa isalẹ titi de ori, ati ọkan kọja ẹhin, si eyi ti a fi awọn ẹsẹ ti ọdọ aguntan naa kun. " [127] Irenaeus, ẹniti o kú ni ayika opin orundun keji, sọrọ nipa agbelebu bi nini "iṣẹju marun, meji ni ipari, iwọn meji, ati ọkan ni arin, eyiti [eniyan] kẹhin ti o ni isinmi ti awọn eekan. " [128]

Ero ti lilo ti agbelebu meji ti o ni imọran ko mọ iye awọn eekanna ti a lo ninu agbelebu ati diẹ ninu awọn imọran ni imọran eekanna mẹta nigbati awọn miran daba eekanna mẹrin. [129] Sibẹsibẹ, ninu itan-akọọlẹ ọpọlọpọ awọn nọmba ti eekanna ti wa ni idaniloju, ni awọn igba bi giga to 14 eekanna. [130] Awọn iyatọ wọnyi tun wa ni awọn apejuwe awọn ọna ti agbelebu. [131] Ni Iha Iwọ-Oorun, ṣaaju ki Renaissance maa n fa eekanna mẹrin yoo jẹ afihan, pẹlu awọn ẹgbẹ ẹsẹ lẹgbẹẹ. Lẹhin ti Renaissance julọ awọn apejuwe lo eekanna mẹta, pẹlu ẹsẹ kan gbe lori miiran. [131] Awọn ẹiyẹ ti fẹrẹ han nigbagbogbo ninu aworan, biotilejepe awọn Romu ma n so awọn olufaragba naa si agbelebu. [131] Awọn atọwọdọwọ tun gbe lọ si apẹẹrẹ awọn Kristiani, fun apẹẹrẹ Jésùits lo awọn eekanna mẹta labẹ IHS monogram ati agbelebu kan lati ṣe afiwe agbelebu. [132]

Fifi awọn eekanna si ọwọ, tabi awọn ọwọ-ọwọ jẹ alaiwọnwọn. Diẹ ninu awọn imọran ni imọran pe ọrọ Giriki cheir (χειρ) fun ọwọ pẹlu ọwọ ati pe awọn Romu ni a ti kọ ni kikun lati ṣeto awọn eekanna nipasẹ aaye Destot (laarin awọn egungun capitate ati ọsan ) laisi fifọ eyikeyi egungun. [133] Igbẹnumọ miiran ni imọran pe ọrọ Giriki fun ọwọ tun ni awọn iwaju ati pe awọn eekanna ni a gbe leti radius ati ulna iwaju. [134] Ropes le tun ti lo lati ṣe ọwọ awọn ọwọ ni afikun si lilo awọn eekanna. [135]

Miiran ti ijakadi ti jẹ awọn lilo ti kan hypopodium bi a ipade to duro lati ṣe atilẹyin ẹsẹ, fun pe ọwọ le ko ti ni anfani lati ṣe atilẹyin awọn iwuwo. Ni orundun 17th Rasmus Bartholin ṣe apejuwe ọpọlọpọ awọn oju iṣẹlẹ ayẹwo ti koko-ọrọ naa. [130] Ni ọgọrun ọdun 20, oniwadi oniwadi oniwadi Frederick Zugibe ṣe ọpọlọpọ awọn idanwo ti a kàn mọ agbelebu nipa lilo awọn okùn lati gbe awọn olukọ eniyan ni oriṣi awọn igun ati awọn ipo ọwọ. [134] Awọn idanwo rẹ ṣe atilẹyin fun idaduro titiipa, ati igi agbelebu meji, ati boya diẹ ninu awọn atilẹyin ẹsẹ, ti fi fun ni pe ninu ọna ti a gbe nipo Aufbinden lati igi ti o tọ (gẹgẹbi awọn Nazis ti lo ni ibi idaniloju Dachau nigba Ogun Agbaye II ), iku wa kuku yarayara. [136]

Awọn ọrọ ti Jésù sọ lati ori agbelebu[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

James Tissot, Ohun ti Oluwa wa lati Agbelebu, c.1890, Ile ọnọ ọnọ Brooklyn

Awọn ihinrere ti ṣe apejuwe awọn "ọrọ ikẹhin" ti Jésù sọ lakoko agbelebu, [137] gẹgẹbi:

Samisi / Matteu

  • "Eli, Eli, ọmọ-ogun?" [ Mt. 27:46 ] [ Mii. 15:34 ] ( Aramaic fun "Ọlọrun mi, Ọlọrun mi, ẽṣe ti iwọ fi kọ mi silẹ?" ). Sibẹsibẹ, bi Aramaic linguist Steve Caruso of AramaicNT.org [138] salaye, Jésù seese sọ Galili Aramaic, eyi ti yoo mu awọn pronunciation ti awọn wọnyi ọrọ bi wọnyi: əlahí əlahí ləmáh šəvaqtáni. [139]

Awọn ọrọ ti Jésù nikan lori agbelebu ti a mẹnuba ninu awọn akọọlẹ Marku ati Matteu, eyi ni apejuwe ti Orin Dafidi 22. Niwon awọn ẹsẹ miiran ti Psalmu kanna kanna ni a tọka si ninu awọn alaye ti a kàn mọ agbelebu, diẹ ninu awọn onimọran ṣe akiyesi rẹ ni ẹda-iwe ati imọ-mimọ; sibẹsibẹ, Geza Vermes sọ pe ẹsẹ ti wa ni itọkasi ni Aramaic ju Heberu lọ ninu eyiti o maa n kaba, o si ni imọran pe ni akoko Jésù, gbolohun yii ti di ọrọ owe ni lilo wọpọ. [140] Ti a bawe si awọn iroyin ninu awọn Ihinrere miran, eyiti o ṣe apejuwe bi 'itumọ ti iṣeduro ati imudaniloju', o ka ọrọ yii 'airotẹlẹ, aibalẹ ati nitori idibajẹ diẹ sii'. [141] O ṣe apejuwe rẹ bi pe 'gbogbo awọn ifarahan ti ipọnwo gidi'. [142] Raymond Brown sọ pẹlu pe o ri 'ko si ariyanjiyan ariyanjiyan lodi si pe Jésù ti Marku / Matt ni ero ti iṣagbe ti a kọ silẹ ninu Orin Dafidi'. [143]

Luku

  • "Baba, dariji wọn, nitori nwọn ko mọ ohun ti wọn ṣe." [Awọn iwe afọwọkọ tuntun ko ni eyi] [ Lk. 23:34 ]
  • "Lõtọ, Mo wi fun ọ, loni iwọ yoo wa pẹlu mi ni Paradise." [ Lk. 23:43 ]
  • "Baba, si ọwọ rẹ ni mo fi ẹmi mi fun!" [ Lk. 23:46 ]

Ihinrere ti Luku ko ni ọrọ ti Jésù ti sọ tẹlẹ ninu Matteu ati Marku. [144]

Johannu

  • "Obinrin, wo o, ọmọ rẹ!" [ Jn. 19: 25-27 ]
  • "Mo ngbẹ". [ Jn. 19:28 ]
  • "O ti pari." [ Jn. 19:30 ]

Awọn ọrọ ti Jésù lori agbelebu, paapaa awọn ọrọ rẹ kẹhin, jẹ koko-ọrọ ti awọn ẹkọ ati awọn ẹkọ ikẹkọ ti Kristiẹni, ati ọpọlọpọ awọn onkọwe ti kọ awọn iwe pataki ti wọn sọtọ si awọn ọrọ ikẹhin Kristi. [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150]

Awọn iṣẹlẹ iṣẹlẹ ti o ṣe apejuwe[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Awọn iroyin synoptics orisirisi awọn iṣẹlẹ iyanu nigba agbelebu. [151] [152] Mark mẹnuba akoko ti òkunkun ni ọsan lakoko ti a kàn mọ agbelebu Jésù, ati tẹmpili ibori ti a ya ni meji nigbati Jésù ku. [53] Luku kọ Marku; [55] gẹgẹbi Matteu, ni afikun pe o kan ìṣẹlẹ ati ajinde awọn eniyan mimọ ti o ku. [54] Ko si darukọ eyikeyi ninu awọn wọnyi ninu John. [153]

Dudu[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Kristi lori Agbelebu, nipasẹ Carl Heinrich Bloch, ti n fihan awọn ọrun ṣokunkun

Ninu alaye synqptiki, nigbati Jésù gbele lori agbelebu, ọrun lori Judia (tabi gbogbo agbaye) "ṣokunkun fun wakati mẹta," lati ọjọ kẹfa si wakati kẹsan (wakati kẹsan si aarin ọsan). Ko si ifọkasi si òkunkun ninu Ihinrere ti John iroyin, ninu eyiti awọn agbelebu ko waye titi di ọjọ kẹfa. [154]

Diẹ ninu awọn onkọwe Kristi ṣe akiyesi pe awọn alakoso awọn alaigbagbọ le ti sọ apele yii, ti o nro o fun oṣupa-oorun - biotilejepe eyi yoo jẹ ti ko le ṣee ṣe nigba ajọ irekọja, eyiti o waye ni oṣupa ọsan. Onkọwe onigbagbọ ati onitanwe itan Sextus Julius Africanus ati Onigbagbo Onigbagbo Origen sọ fun akọwe Gẹẹsi Phlegon, ti o ngbe ni ọgọrun ọdun keji AD, gẹgẹ bi a ti kọ "nipa ti oṣupa ni akoko Tiberius Kesari, ni ijọba rẹ ti Jésù farahan ti a kàn mọ agbelebu, ati awọn iwariri nla ti lẹhinna ṣẹlẹ ". [155]

Sextus Julius Africanus siwaju sii nipa awọn iwe ti onkọwe Thallus : "Awọn okunkun Thallus, ninu iwe kẹta ti Itan rẹ, pe, bi o ṣe han fun mi lai idi idiyele, oṣupa ti oorun. Nítorí àwọn Heberu ṣe àjọyọ ìrékọjá ní ọjọ kẹrìnlá gẹgẹ bí òṣùpá, ìgbónú Olùgbàlà wa sì ṣubú ní ọjọ tí ó tó di àkókò ìrékọjá; ṣugbọn oṣupa oorun yoo waye nikan nigbati oṣupa ba wa labẹ oorun. " [156] Onigbagbẹnumọ Onigbagbọ Tertullian gbagbo pe iṣẹlẹ naa ni akọsilẹ ninu awọn ile-iwe Romu. [157]

Colin Humphreys ati WG Waddington ti Ile-ẹkọ Oxford ṣe akiyesi pe o rọrun pe oṣuwọn, ju oorun lọ, oṣupa le ti waye. [158] [159] Wọn pinnu pe iru oṣupa yii yoo ti han, fun ọgbọn iṣẹju, lati Jerusalemu o si daba pe itọkasi ọrọ ihinrere si oju oṣupa gangan jẹ abajade ti akọwe kan ti n ṣe atunṣe ọrọ kan laiṣe. Onkọwe David Henige ṣe akiyesi alaye yii gẹgẹbi 'ailagbara' [160] ati astronomer Bradley Schaefer ti ṣe akiyesi pe o ko ni han ni oju oṣupa gangan lakoko awọn wakati ọsan. [161] [162]

Iwe ẹkọ ẹkọ ode-ọjọ ti ode oni ṣe itọju akọọlẹ ninu awọn ihinrere synqptiki gẹgẹbi ohun kikọ silẹ nipasẹ onkọwe ti Marku Ihinrere, atunṣe ninu awọn akọọlẹ Luku ati Matteu, ti a pinnu lati ṣe afihan pataki ti ohun ti wọn ri gege bi iṣẹlẹ alailẹkọ, ati pe ko ṣe ipinnu lati jẹ ya gangan. [163] Aworan yi ti òkunkun biribiri lori ilẹ naa yoo ti ni oye nipa awọn onkawe si atijọ, ohun ti o jẹ aṣoju ni apejuwe iku awọn ọba ati awọn nọmba pataki miiran nipasẹ awọn akọwe bi Philo, Dio Cassius, Virgil, Plutarch ati Josephus. [164] Géza Vermes ṣe alaye apejuwe òkunkun gẹgẹbi aṣoju ti "awọn isọtẹlẹ ti awọn Juu ti ọjọ ọjọ Oluwa", o si sọ pe awọn ti o tumọ rẹ gẹgẹbi oṣupa isodidi "ti n pa igi ti ko tọ". [165]

Iboju tẹmpili, ìṣẹlẹ ati ajinde awọn eniyan mimọ ti o ku[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Awọn ihinrere synqptiki sọ pe iboju ti tẹmpili ti ya lati oke de isalẹ.

Ihinrere ti Matteu darukọ iroyin ti awọn iwariri-ilẹ, awọn pipin awọn okuta, ati sisi awọn ibojì ti awọn eniyan mimú ati apejuwe bi awọn eniyan mimọ ti a jinde ti lọ sinu ilu mimọ ati ti o han si ọpọlọpọ awọn eniyan. [166]

Ni awọn Mark ati Matthew àpamọ, awọn balogun ọrún ni idiyele comments lori awọn iṣẹlẹ: "Lóòótọ ni ọkunrin yi Ọmọ Ọlọrun!" [ Mii. 15:39 ] tabi "Lõtọ eyi ni Ọmọ Ọlọhun !". [ Mt. 27:54 ] Ihinrere ti Luku kọ ọ pe, "Dajudaju ọkunrin yi jẹ alailẹṣẹ!" [ Lk. 23:47 ]

A ti ni ibigbogbo 6.3 iwariri ìṣẹlẹ ti a ti fi idi mulẹ pe o ti waye laarin ọdun 26-36 AD ni akoko Jésù. [167] Awọn onkọwe pari pe:

Awọn eto egbogi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ọpọlọpọ awọn ero lati ṣe alaye awọn ipo ti iku ti Jésù lori agbelebu ti a ti dabaa nipasẹ awọn onisegun ati awọn ọjọgbọn Bibeli. Ni ọdun 2006, Matthew W. Maslen ati Piers D. Mitchell ṣe atunyẹwo lori awọn agbejade 40 lori koko-ọrọ pẹlu awọn ero ti o wa lati inu ijakalẹ ọkàn si iṣan apọn. [168]

Ipinju Bronzino ti Kristi

Ni 1847, ti o da lori itọkasi ninu Ihinrere ti Johannu ( John 19:34 ) si ẹjẹ ati omi ti o jade nigbati a ti gun ọkọ Jésù pẹlu ọkọ kan, dọkita William Stroud dabaa ariyanjiyan okan ti ariyanjiyan ti iku iku Kristi eyiti o ni ipa nọmba kan ti awọn eniyan miiran. [169] [170]

Ẹkọ iṣan ti ẹjẹ inu ẹjẹ jẹ alaye ti o wọpọ ni igbalode ati imọran pe Jésù ku nipa ibanujẹ nla. Gẹgẹbi irọ yii, awọn ipalara, awọn ẹgun, ati gbigbe si agbelebu yoo ti fi Jésù silẹ ti o ṣaisan, alailera, ati aisan aisan ati pe eyi yoo ti fa ipalara ti ẹjẹ. [171] [172]

Kikọ ni Iwe Akosile ti Association Amẹrika ti Amẹrika, dọkita William Edwards ati awọn ẹlẹgbẹ rẹ ṣe atilẹyin fun idapọ iṣan inu ọkan (nipasẹ ibanujẹ hypovolemic ) ati awọn ariyanjiyan asphyxia ti o mu, ti o ro pe ṣiṣan omi lati ẹgbẹ Jésù ti a ṣalaye ninu Ihinrere ti Johanu [ 19 : 34 ] je omi ikunra. [173]

Ninu iwe rẹ The Crucifixion of Jésùs, oniwosan ati oniwosan oṣan- ara ẹni Frederick Zugibe ṣe iwadi awọn ipo ti o lewu fun iku Jésù ni awọn apejuwe. [174] [175] Zugibe ṣe awọn nọmba kan ti awọn igbadun lori ọdun pupọ lati ṣe idanwo awọn ero rẹ nigba ti o jẹ olutọju ilera. [176] Awọn ijinlẹ wọnyi wa awọn imudaniloju ti awọn oluranlowo pẹlu awọn iṣiro kan pato ti wa ni ara wọn ni awọn igun pato ati iye ti fifa ni ọwọ kọọkan ni a ṣe iwọn, ni awọn ibi ti awọn ẹsẹ ti ni idaniloju tabi rara. Ninu awọn iṣẹlẹ wọnyi iye iye ti fa ati irora ti o baamu ni a ri lati ṣe pataki. [176]

Pierre Barbet, aṣogun Faranse kan, ati alakikan giga ni Saint Joseph's Hospital ni Paris, [177] ṣe idaniloju pe Jésù yoo ni lati ni isinmi awọn iṣan rẹ lati gba air to ga lati sọ awọn ọrọ rẹ kẹhin, ni oju ti asphyxia ti npa. [178] Diẹ ninu awọn ero ti Barbet, fun apẹẹrẹ, ibi ti eekanna, Zugibe ni ariyanjiyan.

Oṣuwọn Àpẹẹrẹ Orthopedic Keith Maxwell ko ṣe ayẹwo awọn aaye ilera ti a kàn mọ agbelebu nikan, ṣugbọn o tun wo pada ni bi Jésù ṣe le gbe agbelebu kọja ni ọna Nipasẹ Dolorosa. [179] [180]

Ni ọdun 2003, awọn onkumọ FP Retief ati L. Cilliers ṣe atunyẹwo itan ati awọn itọju ti a kàn mọ agbelebu gẹgẹbi awọn ara Romu ṣe, o si daba pe idi ti iku jẹ igbagbogbo awọn nkan. Wọn tun sọ pe awọn alaṣọ Romu ni wọn ko ni idena lati lọ kuro ni ibi-iṣẹlẹ titi ikú yoo fi waye. [181]

Awọn onigbagbọ gbagbọ pe iku Jésù jẹ ohun elo lati ṣe atunṣe ẹda eniyan si ibasepọ pẹlu Ọlọrun. [182] [183] Awọn Kristiani gbagbo pe nipasẹ igbagbọ ninu iku iku ti Jésù (laarin awọn imọran oye miiran ti o wa ni isalẹ) ati ajinde ilọsiwaju [184] [185] eniyan tun wa ni ajọpọ pẹlu Ọlọrun ati ki o gba ayo ati agbara titun ni aye yii pẹlu iye ainipẹkun ni ọrun lẹhin iku ara. Bayi ni agbelebu Jésù pẹlu pẹlu ajinde rẹ tun mu aaye wọle si iriri iriri ti ifarahan Ọlọrun, ifẹ ati ore-ọfẹ ati igbekele ti iye ainipẹkun. [186]

Awọn iroyin ti a kàn mọ agbelebu ati ajinde Jésù ti o tẹle lẹhin jẹ ipilẹ imọran fun imọran ti Kristi, lati inu Ihinrere ti o wa ni ẹhin si awọn iwe Pauline. [187] Awọn Kristiani gbagbo pe awọn ijiya Jésù ni a sọ tẹlẹ ninu Bibeli Heberu, gẹgẹbi ninu Orin Dafidi 22, ati awọn orin Isaiah ti iranṣẹ ti n jiya. [188]

Ni Johannini "oluranlowo Christology" ifarabalẹ ti Jésù lati kàn mọ agbelebu jẹ ẹbọ ti a ṣe gẹgẹbi oluranṣe ti Ọlọhun tabi iranṣẹ Ọlọrun, fun idibajẹ igbala. [189] [190] Eyi n kọ lori akori salvific ti Ihinrere ti Johannu eyiti o bẹrẹ ni Johannu 1:29 pẹlu ikede proclamation Johannu Baptisti : "Ọdọ-agutan Ọlọrun ti o kó ẹṣẹ aiye lọ". [191] [192] A ṣe afikun imuduro ti Erongba ni Ifihan 21:14 nibi ti " ọdọ-agutan ti a pa ṣugbọn ti o duro " jẹ nikan ni o yẹ lati mu iwe yi lọ (ie iwe ti o ni awọn orukọ ti awọn ti o wa ni fipamọ. [193]

Ohun pataki kan ninu Ẹkọ-Kristi ti o wa ninu Awọn Aposteli ti Aṣẹ jẹ ifọrọwọrọ pe igbagbọ pe iku Jésù nipa kàn mọ agbelebu "ṣẹlẹ pẹlu ìmọtẹlẹ Ọlọrun, gẹgẹbi ilana ti o daju". [194] Ni eleyii, gẹgẹbi ninu Iṣe Awọn Aposteli 2:23, a ko fi agbelebu bii ẹgan, nitori pe wọn kan agbelebu Jésù "ni ọwọ awọn alaiṣedede" ni a wo bi imisi eto Ọlọrun. [194] [195]

Paulology ti Paul ni idojukọ kan pato lori iku ati ajinde Jésù. Fun Paulu, agbelebu Jésù ni o ni ibatan si ajinde rẹ ati ọrọ naa "agbelebu Kristi" ti o lo ninu Galatia 6:12 ni a le wo bi abbreviation ti ifiranṣẹ awọn ihinrere. [196] Fun Paulu, agbelebu Jésù ko ki nṣe iṣẹlẹ ti o ya sọtọ ni itan, ṣugbọn iṣẹlẹ ti o niye pẹlu awọn abajade ijabọ ti o tobi, gẹgẹbi ninu 1 Korinti 2: 8. [196] Ninu ero Pauline, Jésù, gboran titi di iku ( Filippi 2: 8 ) kú "ni akoko ti o tọ" ( Romu 4:25 ) da lori eto Ọlọrun. [196] Fun Paulu ni "agbara ti agbelebu" ko ṣe alaimọ kuro ni ajinde Jésù. [196]

Sibẹsibẹ, igbagbọ ninu isinmi irapada ti iku Jésù ṣaju awọn lẹta Pauline ti o si tun pada si awọn ọjọ akọkọ ti Kristiẹniti ati ijọsin Jerusalemu. [197] Ifọrọwọrọ laarin Musulumi ati Kristiẹni ni imọran ti Nicene ti "nitori wa nitori pe a kàn a mọ agbelebu" jẹ apẹrẹ ti iṣafihan igbagbọ yii ni ọgọrun kẹrin. [198]

John Calvin ṣe atilẹyin fun "oluranlowo ti Ọlọhun" Kristiẹniti ati jiyan pe ninu idanwo rẹ ni ẹjọ Pilatu Jésù le ti ni jiyan jiyan fun aiṣedeede rẹ, ṣugbọn dipo fi silẹ lati kàn mọ agbelebu ni igbọràn si Baba. [199] [200] Oro Akori yii tun tẹsiwaju si ọgọrun ọdun 20, mejeeji ni Ijo Iwọ- oorun ati Iwo-oorun. Ni Eastern Church Sergei Bulgakov ṣe ariyanjiyan pe agbelebu Jésù ni " lailai " ti Baba pinnu lati ṣaju ẹda aiye, lati ràpada eniyan kuro ninu itiju ti o ṣubu nipasẹ isubu Adamu. [201] Ni Oorun Iwọjọ, Karl Rahner ṣe alaye lori apẹrẹ pe ẹjẹ Ọdọ-Agutan Ọlọrun (ati omi ti o wa ni ẹgbẹ Jésù) ti o ta ni ori agbelebu ni iru-didasilẹ, bii omi omi baptisi. [202]

Etutu[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Iku ati ajinde Jésù kọ oriṣiriṣi awọn itumọ ti ẹkọ nipa ẹkọ nipa ẹkọ nipa igbala ti a funni fun eniyan. Awọn itumọ wọnyi yato si ni ọpọlọpọ awọn itumọ ti wọn ṣe lori iku Jésù bi a ṣe afiwe awọn ọrọ rẹ. [203] Gẹgẹbi irapada ti o yẹ pada, iku Jésù jẹ pataki pataki, Jésù si nfẹ fi ara rẹ rubọ gẹgẹbi iwa igbọràn pipe gẹgẹbi ẹbọ ifẹ ti o wu Ọlọrun. [204] Ni idakeji awọn ijẹrisi iwa iṣagbe ti imolara ṣe alaye siwaju sii lori akoonu iwa ti ẹkọ Jésù, o si ri ikú Jésù gẹgẹbi apaniyan. [205] Niwon igba atijọ ogoro wa ti ariyanjiyan laarin awọn wiwo meji wọnyi laarin Iwọ Kristiẹni Iwọ-oorun. Awọn Protestant Evangelical maa n mu oju-ọna ayipada ati ni pato idaduro si imọran ti imuduro igbala. Awọn Protestant Liberal maa n ko awọn apaniyan ti o ni iyipada ati idaduro si imọran ti iwa ti igbala. Mejeeji iwo ni o wa gbajumo laarin awọn Roman Catholic ijo, pẹlu awọn itelorun ẹkọ dapọ si awọn agutan ti penance. [204]

Ni Ìjọ ti Jésù Krístì ti Àwọn Ènìyàn Mímọ Ọjọ Ìkẹhìn ni Agbelebu Jésù jẹ apá kan Ètùtù. "Ètùtù ti Jésù Krístì ni isẹtẹlẹ tí a yàn tẹlẹ ṣùgbọn ti ìfẹtiṣe ti Ọmọ bíbí kanṣoṣo ti Ọlọrun. O funni ni igbesi aye rẹ, pẹlu ara alaiṣẹ rẹ, ẹjẹ, ati irora ti ẹmí gẹgẹbi irapada rirọpada (1) fun ipa ti Isubu Adam lori gbogbo eniyan ati (2) fun awọn ẹṣẹ ara ẹni ti gbogbo awọn ti o ronupiwada, lati Adam si opin aye. Àwọn Ènìyàn Mímọ Ìgbà Ìkẹhìn gbà pé èyí ni ọrọ pàtàkì, ìpìlẹ pàtàkì, ẹkọ ẹkọ pàtàkì, àti ìfihàn àgbàlá ti ìfẹ Ọlọrun nínú Ètò Ìgbàlà. "< Https://eom.byu.edu/index.php/Atonement_of_Jésùs_Christ > Wolii Joseph Smith sọ pe gbogbo "awọn ohun ti iṣe ti ẹsin wa jẹ apẹrẹ nikan" si Ẹbi ti Kristi. <Ẹkọ ti Wolii Joseph Smith, p. 121)>


</br> Ninu aṣa atọwọdọwọ Roman Catholic itumọ eleyi ti igbala jẹ iwontunwonsi nipasẹ ojuse awọn Roman Katọliki lati ṣe Iṣe ti Irapada si Jésù Kristi [206] eyiti o wa ninu iwe-itumọ Miserentissimus Redemptor ti Pope Pius XI gẹgẹbi "diẹ ninu awọn iyọọda lati ṣe fun ipalara "pẹlu ọwọ awọn ijiya ti Jésù. [207] Pope John Paul II tọka si awọn Aposteli Irapada wọnyi gẹgẹbi "igbiyanju ti ko ni idaniloju lati duro lẹgbẹẹ awọn irekọja ailopin lori eyiti Ọmọ Ọlọrun tẹsiwaju lati kàn mọ agbelebu." [208]

Ninu awọn Kristiani ti Ọdọ Àjọ-Ọdọ Onigbagbọ, imọran miiran ni Kristius Victor. [209] Eyi jẹ pe Jésù rán Jésù lati ṣẹgun iku ati Satani. Nitori pipe rẹ, iku atinuwa, ati ajinde, Jésù ṣẹgun Satani ati iku, o si ṣẹgun. Nitorina, eda eniyan ko ni idẹ ninu ẹṣẹ, ṣugbọn o ni ominira lati darapọ mọ Ọlọhun nipasẹ igbagbọ ninu Jésù. [210]

Dii ti a kàn mọ agbelebu[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Docetism[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ninu Kristiẹniti, docetism jẹ ẹkọ pe ohun iyanu ti Jésù, itan-ara rẹ ati ti ara rẹ, ati ju gbogbo ẹda eniyan ti Jésù lọ, jẹ ohun ti o dara laisi otitọ otitọ. [211] [212] Bakannaa o gba bi igbagbọ pe Jésù nikan dabi ẹni pe o jẹ eniyan, ati pe awọ eniyan rẹ jẹ asan.

Islam[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ọpọlọpọ aṣa Islam, fi diẹ fun diẹ, ṣalaye gbangba pe Jésù ku iku, boya lori agbelebu tabi ọna miiran. Awọn ariyanjiyan ti a ri laarin awọn aṣa Islam tikararẹ, pẹlu awọn Hadith akọkọ ti n sọ pe awọn alamọ Muhammad ti sọ pe Jésù ti kú, nigba ti ọpọlọpọ ninu Hadith ati Tafsir ti ṣe agbekalẹ ariyanjiyan fun ifarahan nipasẹ awọn exegesis ati awọn apologisics, ti di igbasilẹ (iṣaaju ẹda).

Ojogbon ati ọmọ-iwe Mahmoud M. Ayoub ṣe apejuwe ohun ti Al-Qur'an sọ laisi awọn ariyanjiyan idaniloju:

Awọn ẹsẹ ti o wa ni isalẹ yii sọ pe Jésù ko pa tabi kàn mọ agbelebu:

Ni idakeji si ẹkọ awọn Kristiani, diẹ ninu awọn aṣa Islam jẹwọ pe Jésù lọ soke ọrun lai gbe lori agbelebu, ṣugbọn pe Olorun yi eniyan miran pada lati han bi iru rẹ ati pe ki a kàn mọ agbelebu dipo rẹ. A ro pe ero yii ni iṣiro kan nipa Irenaeus, awọn Alexandric Gnostic Basilides, ọdun keji-2nd ọdun nigbati o nfi ifọrọhan kan kọ iku naa. [213]

Diẹ ninu awọn iwe-mimọ ti a mọ bi Gnostic kọ idariji iku Jésù nipa ṣe iyatọ si ara ti Jésù ti aiye ati awọn ẹda Rẹ ati awọn ẹtan ti ko ni imọran. Gegebi Atẹle Atẹle ti Nla Nla, Yaldabaoth (Ẹlẹda ti oju aye) ati awọn Archon rẹ gbiyanju lati pa Jésù nipa kàn mọ agbelebu, ṣugbọn o pa ara wọn nikan (ti o jẹ ara). Nigba ti Jésù ti goke kuro ninu ara rẹ, Yaldabaotu ati awọn ọmọ-ẹhin rẹ gba Jésù pe o ku. [214] [215] Ninu Apocalypse ti Peteru, Peteru sọrọ pẹlu olugbala ẹniti "awọn alufa ati awọn eniyan" gbagbọ pe o ti pa. [216]

Manichaeism, eyi ti awọn imọ Gnostic ti nfa, tẹri si imọran pe kii ṣe Jésù, ṣugbọn ẹnikan ti kàn mọ agbelebu dipo. [217] :41 Jésù ni ijiya lori agbelebu ti wa ni ipilẹ bi ipo ti awọn ohun elo imọlẹ (ẹmí) laarin ọrọ dipo. [218]

Ni ibamu si Bogomilism, agbelebu jẹ igbiyanju Lucifer lati pa Jésù run, nigba ti a pe Jésù ni ilẹ aiye bi wolii, Jésù tikararẹ jẹ ohun ti ko ni iyipada ti a ko le pa. Bakannaa, Lucifer kuna ati awọn ijiya Jésù lori agbelebu jẹ asan. [219]

Gẹgẹbi diẹ ninu awọn ẹgbẹ Kristiẹni ni ilu Japan, Jésù Kristi ko ku lori agbelebu ni Golgọta. Dipo arakunrin rẹ kekere, Isukiri, [220] gbe ipo rẹ lori agbelebu, nigbati Jésù sá lọ si Siberia si agbegbe Mutsu, ni ariwa Japan. Lọgan ni Japan, o di alagbẹ igbẹ, ti gbeyawo, o si gbe ẹbi kan pẹlu awọn ọmọbinrin mẹta sunmọ ohun ti o wa ni Shingō bayi. Lakoko ti o ti ni Japan, a sọ pe o ṣe ajo, kẹkọọ, o si ku ni ọdun 106. Ara rẹ ti farahan lori oke kan fun ọdun mẹrin. Gẹgẹbi awọn aṣa ti akoko naa, awọn egungun Jésù ni a kojọpọ, ti a fi ṣọkan, ti a si sin wọn sinu ibiti. [221] [222] Tun musọmu kan wa ni ilu Japan ti o sọ pe o ni eri ti awọn ẹtọ wọnyi. [223]

Ni Yazidism, a kà Jésù si bi "nọmba ti imọlẹ" ti a ko le kàn mọ agbelebu. Itumọ yii le gba lati Al-Qur'an tabi awọn Gnostics. [224]

Ni aworan, awọn aami ati awọn ifarahan[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Apejuwe ti oju Kristi nikan ti ku (1793), nipasẹ José Luján Pérez, Katidira Canary Islands, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.

Niwon awọn agbelebu ti Jésù, agbelebu ti di a bọtini ano ti Christian symbolism, ati awọn agbelebu si nmu ti a bọtini ano ti Christian aworan, fifun ni jinde lati kan pato ọna awọn akori bi Ecce Homo, The igbega ti awọn Cross, ayalu lati Agbelebu ati iparun ti Kristi.

Awọn agbelebu, ti a ti ri lati Cross nipasẹ Tissot gbekalẹ ni imọran kan ni opin ti ọdun 19th, ninu eyiti a ti ṣe apejuwe agbelebu ni oju ti Jésù. [225] [226]

Awọn aami ti agbelebu ti o jẹ loni ọkan ninu awọn aami Kristiẹni ti a gbajumo julọ ni a lo lati igba akọkọ Kristiani ati Justin Martyr ti o kú ni 165 ṣe apejuwe rẹ ni ọna ti o ti tẹlẹ tumọ si lilo rẹ gẹgẹbi aami, biotilejepe agbelebu han nigbamii. [227] [228] Awọn oluko bii Caravaggio, Rubens ati Titian ti ṣe afihan ipo Agbelebu ninu iṣẹ wọn.

Devotions ti o da lori ilana ti a kàn mọ agbelebu, ati awọn ijiya ti Jésù tẹle awọn Onigbagbọ pupọ. Awọn Stations ti Agbelebu tẹle awọn ipo diẹ ti o da lori awọn ipele ti o waye ninu agbelebu Jésù, lakoko ti o ti lo Rosary ti awọn Ẹmi Mimọ lati ṣe àṣàrò lori ọgbẹ Jésù gẹgẹbi apakan ti agbelebu.

Wiwa ti Wundia Màríà labẹ igi agbelebu [ Jn. 19: 26-27 ] ti ara rẹ jẹ koko-ọrọ ti aworan Marian, ati aami apẹrẹ Catholic ti a mọ daradara gẹgẹbi Iyanu Alayanu ati Pope John Paul II ti o ni Ipa Awọn Arms ti o gbe Marian Cross. Ati nọmba kan ti awọn Marian devotions tun mudani niwaju Virgin Virgin Mary ni Calvary, fun apẹẹrẹ, Pope John Paul II sọ pe "Maria wa ni ara mọ Jésù lori Agbelebu". [229] [230] Awọn iṣẹ ti a mọye ti iṣe ti Kristiani nipasẹ awọn alakoso bii Raphael (fun apẹẹrẹ, World Crucifixion ), ati Caravaggio (fun apẹẹrẹ, Idawọle Rẹ) fi han Virgin Wundia gẹgẹbi apakan ti ibi ti a kàn mọ agbelebu.

Àdàkọ:Portal box

  • Dismas ati Gestas, awọn olè meji ti a kàn mọ agbelebu pẹlu Jésù
  • Awọn apejuwe Kristiani ni ibẹrẹ ti agbelebu ipaniyan
  • Odi ibojì
  • Akara ti Agbelebu
  • Àjọdún Ọkàn Mímọ
  • Aye ti Jésù ninu Majẹmu Titun
  • Màríà Mìíràn meje
  • Agbero ti o wa

Siwaju kika[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  • Brox, Norbert (1984). 'Doketismus' – eine Problemanzeige. Kohlhammer Verlag. 
  • Cousar, Charles B. (1990). A Theology of the Cross: The Death of Jesus in the Pauline Letters. Fortress Press.  Cousar, Charles B. (1990). A Theology of the Cross: The Death of Jesus in the Pauline Letters. Fortress Press.  Cousar, Charles B. (1990). A Theology of the Cross: The Death of Jesus in the Pauline Letters. Fortress Press. 
  • Dennis, John (2006). Jesus' Death in John's Gospel: A Survey of Research from Bultmann to the Present with Special Reference to the Johannine Hyper-Texts. 
  • Dilasser, Maurice (1999). The Symbols of the Church.  Dilasser, Maurice (1999). The Symbols of the Church.  Dilasser, Maurice (1999). The Symbols of the Church. 
  • Green, Joel B. (1988). The Death of Jesus: Tradition and Interpretation in the Passion Narrative. Mohr Siebeck.  Green, Joel B. (1988). The Death of Jesus: Tradition and Interpretation in the Passion Narrative. Mohr Siebeck.  Green, Joel B. (1988). The Death of Jesus: Tradition and Interpretation in the Passion Narrative. Mohr Siebeck. 
  • Humphreys, Colin J.. Dating the Crucifixion. 
  • Rosenblatt, Samuel. The Crucifixion of Jesus from the Standpoint of Pharisaic Law. The Society of Biblical Literature. 
  • McRay, John (1991). Archaeology and the New Testament. Baker Books.  McRay, John (1991). Archaeology and the New Testament. Baker Books.  McRay, John (1991). Archaeology and the New Testament. Baker Books. 
  • Samuelsson, Gunnar. (2011). Crucifixion in Antiquity. Mohr Siebeck.  Samuelsson, Gunnar. (2011). Crucifixion in Antiquity. Mohr Siebeck.  Samuelsson, Gunnar. (2011). Crucifixion in Antiquity. Mohr Siebeck. 
  • Schneemelcher, Wilhelm (1994). New Testament Apocrypha: Gospels and related writings. Westminster John Knox Press.  Schneemelcher, Wilhelm (1994). New Testament Apocrypha: Gospels and related writings. Westminster John Knox Press.  Schneemelcher, Wilhelm (1994). New Testament Apocrypha: Gospels and related writings. Westminster John Knox Press. 
  • Sloyan, Gerard S. (1995). The Crucifixion of Jesus. Fortress Press.  Sloyan, Gerard S. (1995). The Crucifixion of Jesus. Fortress Press.  Sloyan, Gerard S. (1995). The Crucifixion of Jesus. Fortress Press. 
  • Eddy, Paul Rhodes and Gregory A. Boyd (2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition. Baker Academic. p. 172. ISBN 0801031141. "...if there is any fact of Jesus' life that has been established by a broad consensus, it is the fact of Jesus' crucifixion." 
  • Christopher M. Tuckett in The Cambridge companion to Jesus edited by Markus N. A. Bockmuehl 2001 Cambridge Univ Press ISBN 978-0-521-79678-1 pages 123–124
  • Funk (1998). The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. Harper. ISBN 978-0060629786. 
  • 4.0 4.1 Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey by Craig L. Blomberg 2009 ISBN 0-8054-4482-3 pages 211–214
  • 5.0 5.1 5.2 Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research edited by Bruce Chilton, Craig A. Evans 1998 ISBN 90-04-11142-5 pages 455–457
  • 6.0 6.1 The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 page 104–108
  • 7.0 7.1 Evans, Craig A. (2001). Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies ISBN 0-391-04118-5 page 316
  • 8.0 8.1 Wansbrough, Henry (2004). Jesus and the Oral Gospel Tradition ISBN 0-567-04090-9 page 185
  • 9.0 9.1 Jesus Remembered by James D. G. Dunn 2003 ISBN 0-8028-3931-2 page 339
  • Jesus of Nazareth by Paul Verhoeven (April 6, 2010) ISBN 1-58322-905-1 page 39
  • A Brief Introduction to the New Testament by Bart D. Ehrman 2008 ISBN 0-19-536934-3 page 136
  • Crossan, John Dominic (1995). Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography. HarperOne. p. 145. ISBN 0-06-061662-8. "That he was crucified is as sure as anything historical can ever be, since both Josephus and Tacitus ... agree with the Christian accounts on at least that basic fact." 
  • 13.0 13.1 Eddy, Paul; Boyd, Gregory (2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition Baker Academic, ISBN 0-8010-3114-1 page 127
  • The Cambridge Companion to Jesus by Markus N. A. Bockmuehl 2001 ISBN 0-521-79678-4 page 136
  • 15.0 15.1 A Century of Theological and Religious Studies in Britain, 1902–2007 by Ernest Nicholson 2004 ISBN 0-19-726305-4 pages 125–126 Link 126
  • John P. Meier "How do we decide what comes from Jesus" in The Historical Jesus in Recent Research by James D. G. Dunn and Scot McKnight 2006 ISBN 1-57506-100-7 pages 126–128
  • John P. Meier "How do we decide what comes from Jesus" in The Historical Jesus in Recent Research by James D. G. Dunn and Scot McKnight 2006 ISBN 1-57506-100-7 pages 132–136
  • David Freedman, 2000, Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, ISBN 978-0-8028-2400-4, page 299.
  • Empty citation (help) 
  • Abala lori agbelebu Jesu
  • St Mark's Gospel and the Christian faith by Michael Keene 2002 ISBN 0-7487-6775-4 pages 24–25
  • . 
  • Powell, Mark A. Introducing the New Testament. Baker Academic, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8010-2868-7
  • Reza Aslan, Zealot: The Life and Times of Jesus of Nazareth, Random House, 2014. ISBN 0812981480.
  • Mark 15:25
  • Mark 15:34–37
  • Ehrman, Bart D.. Jesus, Interrupted, HarperCollins, 2009. ISBN 0-06-117393-2
  • Matthew 27:33 – "place called Golgotha (which means Place of a Skull)"; Mark 15:22 (same as Matthew); Luke 23:32–33 – "place that is called The Skull"; John 19:17 – "place called The Place of a Skull, which in Aramaic is called Golgotha"
  • Matthew 27:38; Mark 15:27–28; Luke 23:33; John 19:18
  • Matthew 27:37 – "This is Jesus, the King of the Jews."; Mark 15:26 – "The King of the Jews."; Luke 23:38 – "This is the King of the Jews." Some manuscripts add in letters of Greek and Latin and Hebrew; John 19:19–22 – "Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews." "... it was written in Aramaic, in Latin, and in Greek."
  • Matthew 27:35–36; Mark 15:24; Luke 23:34; John 19:23–24
  • Matthew 27:50; Mark 15:37; Luke 23:46; John 19:30
  • Matthew 27:57–58; Mark 15:42–43; Luke 23:50–52; John 19:38
  • Matthew 27:59–60; Mark 15:46; Luke 23:53; John 19:41–42
  • Matthew 27:31–32; Mark 15:20–21; Luke 23:26
  • Matthew 27:39–43; Mark 15:29–32; Luke 23:35–37
  • Matthew 27:44; Mark 15:32; Luke 23:39
  • Matthew 27:45; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44–45
  • Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45
  • Matthew 27:54; Mark 15:39; Luke 23:47
  • Matthew 27:55–56; Mark 15:40–41; Luke 23:49
  • Matthew 27:61; Mark 15:47; Luke 23:54–55
  • Matthew 27:34; Àdàkọ:Bibleref2-nb; Mark 15:23; Àdàkọ:Bibleref2-nb; John 19:29–30
  • Mark 15:45; John 19:38
  • Matthew 27:51; Àdàkọ:Bibleref2-nb
  • Mark 15:25; Àdàkọ:Bibleref2-nb
  • Luke 23:27–32; Àdàkọ:Bibleref2-nb; Àdàkọ:Bibleref2-nb; Àdàkọ:Bibleref2-nb
  • John 19:31–37; Àdàkọ:Bibleref2-nb
  • John 19:30–31; Mark 16:1; Mark 16:6
  • Geza Vermes, Ajinde, (Penguin, 2008) oju iwe 148.
  • EP Sanders, Itan Iwọn ti Jesu, (Penguin, 1993), oju-iwe 276.
  • Donald Guthrie, Majẹmu Titun Iṣaaju, (Intervarsity, 1990) oju-iwe 125, 366.
  • 53.0 53.1 53.2 53.3 Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "Mark," p. 51–161 ISBN 978-0060629786
  • 54.0 54.1 Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "Matthew," p. 129–270 ISBN 978-0060629786
  • 55.0 55.1 Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "Luke," p. 267–364 ISBN 978-0060629786
  • Ehrman, Bart D.. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 978-0-06-073817-4
  • Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "John" pp. 365–440 ISBN 978-0060629786
  • 58.0 58.1 58.2 Evidence of Greek Philosophical Concepts in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian by Ute Possekel 1999 ISBN 90-429-0759-2 pages 29–30
  • 59.0 59.1 The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 page 110
  • 60.0 60.1 Jesus outside the New Testament: an introduction to the ancient evidence by Robert E. Van Voorst 2000 ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pages 53–55
  • Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies by Craig A. Evans 2001 ISBN 978-0-391-04118-9 page 41
  • 62.0 62.1 Theissen 1998, pp.   81-83
  • Dunn, James (2003). Jesus remembered ISBN 0-8028-3931-2 page 141
  • 64.0 64.1 Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence Eerdmans Publishing ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pages 39–42
  • Backgrounds of early Christianity by Everett Ferguson 2003 ISBN 0-8028-2221-5 page 116
  • The Gospel of Luke : new international commentary on the New Testament. https://books.google.com/?id=koYlW6IoOjMC&pg=PR85&dq=Joel+B.+Green,+The+Gospel+of+Luke,+(Eerdmans,+1997),+page+168. 
  • Jesus as a figure in history: how modern historians view the man from Galilee by Mark Allan Powell 1998 ISBN 0-664-25703-8 page 33
  • Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies by Craig A. Evans 2001 ISBN 0-391-04118-5 page 42
  • Ancient Rome by William E. Dunstan 2010 ISBN 0-7425-6833-4 page 293
  • Tacitus' characterization of "Christian abominations" may have been based on the rumors in Rome that during the Eucharist rituals Christians ate the body and drank the blood of their God, interpreting the symbolic ritual as cannibalism by Christians. References: Ancient Rome by William E. Dunstan 2010 ISBN 0-7425-6833-4 page 293 and An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity by Delbert Royce Burkett 2002 ISBN 0-521-00720-8 page 485
  • Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation by Helen K. Bond 2004 ISBN 0-521-61620-4 page xi
  • Jesus in the Talmud by Peter Schäfer (August 24, 2009) ISBN 0-691-14318-8 page 141 and 9
  • Van Voorst, Robert E. (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pages 177–118
  • 74.0 74.1 George W. Braswell Jr., What You Need to Know about Islam and Muslims, page 127 (B & H Publishing Group, 2000). ISBN 978-0-8054-1829-3
  • Fair play: diversity and conflicts in early Christianity : essays in honour of Heikki Räisänen. https://books.google.com/books?id=cSVNH95ckNUC. 
  • The Gnostic gospels. 
  • William Barclay, Great Themes of the New Testament. Westminster John Knox Press. 2001. ISBN 978-0-664-22385-4. p. 41.
  • Empty citation (help) 
  • Pilate et le gouvernement de la Judée: textes et monuments, Études bibliques. 
  • Paul L. Maier "The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus" in Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies by Jerry Vardaman, Edwin M. Yamauchi 1989 ISBN 0-931464-50-1 pages 113–129
  • The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 page 114
  • Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times by Paul Barnett 2002 ISBN 0-8308-2699-8 pages 19–21
  • Rainer Riesner, Akoko akoko Paulu: Chronology, Strategy Strategy, Theology (Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1998), oju-iwe 58.
  • Sejanus, Pilate, and the Date of the Crucifixion. 
  • The evidence of astronomy and technical chronology for the date of the crucifixion. 
  • "Tractate Sanhedrin 10b", Babylonian Talmud 
  • "Tractate Sanhedrin 11b", Babylonian Talmud 
  • 88.0 88.1 88.2 Empty citation (help) 
  • The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 pages 142–143
  • Cyclopaedia of Biblical, theological, ati awọn iwe-mimọ ti Kristi: Iwọn didun 7 John McClintock, James Strong - 1894 "...   o dubulẹ ni isà-okú lori 15th (eyi ti o jẹ "ọjọ giga" tabi ọjọ isimi meji, nitoripe isimi ọsẹ ni ibamu   ... "
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  • The Gospel of Mark, Volume 2 by John R. Donahue, Daniel J. Harrington 2002 ISBN 0-8146-5965-9 page 442
  • 93.0 93.1 93.2 Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 323–323
  • Death of the Messiah, Volume 2 by Raymond E. Brown 1999 ISBN 0-385-49449-1 pages 959–960
  • Colin Humphreys, The Mystery of the Last Supper Cambridge University Press 2011 ISBN 978-0-521-73200-0, pages 188–190
  • New Testament History by Richard L. Niswonger 1992 ISBN 0-310-31201-9 pages 173–174
  • Matthew 27:32, Mark 15:21, Luke 23:26
  • Luke 23:46 and Àdàkọ:Bibleverse-nb
  • Lavinia Cohn-Sherbok, Ta ni ẹniti o jẹ Kristiẹniti, (Routledge 1998), oju-iwe 303.
  • Awọn akọsilẹ ati Awọn ibeere, Iwọn didun Keje 6-Oṣù Kejìlá 1852, London, oju iwe 252
  • Iwe akosile ti Archaeological (UK), Iwọn didun 7, 1850 oju iwe 413
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  • Alban Butler, 2000 Lives of the Saints ISBN 0-86012-256-5 page 84
  • Onomasticon (Concerning the Place Names in Sacred Scripture). http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/eusebius_onomasticon_02_trans.htm#G_THE_GOSPELS. 
  • Matthew 27:33; Mark 15:22; Luke 23:33; John 19:17
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  • Matthew 27:41; cf. Mark 15:31, Luke 23:35
  • Mark 15:27; Matthew 27:38
  • Luke 23:39–43
  • Luke 23:36
  • Matthew 27:54; cf. Mark 15:39
  • Mark 15:29; Matthew 27:39
  • Mark 15:35; Matthew 27:45; cf. Luke 23:35
  • Luke 23:48
  • Luke 23:49
  • John 19:23–24, Àdàkọ:Bibleverse-nb
  • John 19:26–27
  • Mark 16:43–46, Matthew 27:57-50, Luke 23:50–53, John 19:38
  • John 19:39
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  • Fun ifọkansi ti ọjọ iṣẹ naa, wo Alaye lori Epistle ti Barnaba ati Andrew C. Clark, "Ijo Aposteli: Ẹri lati Majẹmu Titun ati awọn Iwe Onigbagbẹnigbagbọ," Evangelical Review of Theology, 1989, Vol. 13, p. 380
  • John Dominic Crossan, The Cross that Spoke (ISBN 978-0-06-254843-6), p. 121
  • Epistle of Barnabas, 9: 7-8
  • "Ẹmi sọ si ọkàn Mose, pe ki o ṣe iru agbelebu ati ti ẹniti o ni lati jiya, pe ayafi ti o ba sọ, wọn yoo gbe ireti wọn si i, ao gbe ogun ja si wọn lailai. Nitorina Mose gbe ọwọ kan si ara ẹni ni arin ikunrin, o duro ni ibi giga ju gbogbo awọn ti o nà ọwọ rẹ jade, Israeli si tun ṣẹgun "(Epistle of Barnabas, 12: 2-3).
  • Empty citation (help) 
  • Irenaeus, Adiresi Haereses, II, xxiv, 4
  • The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1988 ISBN 0-8028-3785-9 page 826
  • 130.0 130.1 Encyclopedia of Biblical Literature, Part 2 by John Kitto 2003 ISBN 0-7661-5980-9 page 591
  • 131.0 131.1 131.2 Renaissance art: a topical dictionary by Irene Earls 1987 ISBN 0-313-24658-0 page 64
  • The visual arts: a history by Hugh Honour, John Fleming 1995 ISBN 0-8109-3928-2 page 526
  • The Crucifixion and Death of a Man Called Jesus by David A Ball 2010 ISBN 1-61507-128-8 pages 82–84
  • 134.0 134.1 The Chronological Life of Christ by Mark E. Moore 2007 ISBN 0-89900-955-7 page 639–643
  • Holman Concise Bible Dictionary Holman, 2011 ISBN 0-8054-9548-7 page 148
  • Agbelebu ati Ikun Ikolu ti Jesu Kristi nipasẹ Geoffrey L Phelan MD, 2009 ISBN ojúewé   106-111
  • Thomas W. Walker, Luku, (Westminster John Knox Press, 2013) oju-iwe 84.
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  • http://aramaicnt.org/2015/03/31/my-god-my-god-why-have-you-forsaken-me/
  • Geza Vermes, The Passion (Penguin, 2005) oju-iwe 75.
  • Geza Vermes, The Passion (Penguin, 2005) oju ewe 114.
  • Geza Vermes, The Passion (Penguin, 2005) oju ewe 122.
  • Raymond Brown, Iku ti Messiah Mimọ II (Doubleday, 1994) oju ewe 1051
  • John Haralson Hayes, Exegesis ti Bibeli: Atilẹkọ Ọlọhun kan (Westminster John Knox Press, 1987) oju-iwe 104-5. Onkowe naa ni imọran pe o ṣeeṣe yii lati ṣe idaraya awọn ijiya ti Jesu ati ki o paarọ ẹkún ti ibanujẹ pẹlu ọkan ninu ireti ati igboiya, ni ibamu pẹlu ifiranṣẹ Ihinrere ti Jesu ti ni igboya pe yoo jẹ alaiṣẹ bi ojise olododo Ọlọrun.
  • David Anderson-Berry, 1871 Awọn ọrọ meje ti Kristi lori Cross, Glasgow: Pickering & Inglis Publishers
  • Rev. John Edmunds, 1855 Awọn ọrọ meje ti Kristi lori agbelebu Thomas Hatchford Publishers, London, oju-iwe 26
  • Arthur Pink, 2005 The Seven Sayings of the Saviour on the Cross Baker Books ISBN 0-8010-6573-9
  • Simon Peter Long, 1966 Ọrọ ti o ni ipalara: Aaro diẹ lori awọn ọrọ meje ti Kristi lori agbelebu Baker Books
  • John Ross Macduff, 1857 Awọn ọrọ ti Jesu New York: Thomas Stanford Awọn onkowe, oju-iwe 76
  • Alexander Watson, 1847 Awọn ọrọ meje lori Agbelebu John Masters Publishers, London, oju-iwe 5. Iyatọ laarin awọn akọsilẹ ti James Dunn sọ ni idiyemeji lati ṣe iyemeji itanwọn wọn. James GD Dunn, iwe iranti Jesu, (Eerdmans, 2003)   779-781.
  • Scott's Monthly Magazine. JJ Toon; 1868. Iyanu ti o Kan pẹlu Ikọja, nipasẹ HPB p. 86-89.
  • Richard Watson. An Apology for the Bible: In a Series of Letters Addressed to Thomas Paine. Cambridge University Press; March 29, 2012. ISBN 978-1-107-60004-1. p. 81–.
  • Harris, Stephen L., Iyeyeye Bibeli. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. "John" p.   302-310
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  • Donaldson. The ante-Nicene fathers. https://books.google.com/books?id=P5gsAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA136. 
  • "In the same hour, too, the light of day was withdrawn, when the sun at the very time was in his meridian blaze. Those who were not aware that this had been predicted about Christ, no doubt thought it an eclipse. You yourselves have the account of the world-portent still in your archives."Empty citation (help) 
  • Colin J. Humphreys ati WG Waddington, Ọjọ ti Agbekọja Agbeleburo ti Ikẹkọ Ọgbọn ti Amẹrika 37 (Oṣu Kẹta 1985) [1]
  • Colin Humphreys, The Mystery of the Last Supper Cambridge University Press 2011 ISBN 978-0-521-73200-0, p. 193 (However note that Humphreys places the Last Supper on a Wednesday)
  • Historical evidence and argument. 
  • Schaefer, BE (Oṣù 1990). Iboju ti aala ati agbelebu. Royal Astronomical Society Quarterly Journal, 31 (1), 53-67
  • Schaefer, BE (Keje 1991). Glare ati oju ọrun. Awọn iwe-aṣẹ ti Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 103, 645-660.
  • Burton L. Mack, Ẹtan ti Imọlẹ: Marku ati Ẹkọ Onigbagbọ (Igbẹhin Itaja, 1988) oju ewe 296; George Bradford Caird, ede ati awọn aworan ti Bibeli (Westminster Press, 1980), oju ewe 186; Joseph Fitzmyer, Ihinrere Gegebi Luku, X-XXIV (Doubleday, 1985) oju-iwe 1513; William David Davies, Dale Allison, Matteu: Iwọn didun 3 (Ilọsiwaju, 1997) iwe 623.
  • David E. Garland, kika Matteu: Iwe irohin ati iwe-ẹkọ ti Ihinrere lori Ibẹrẹ Ihinrere (Smyth & Helwys Publishing, 1999) iwe 264.
  • Géza Vermes, The Passion (Penguin, 2005) ojúewé 108-109.
  • John Yueh-Han Yieh, Olukọni Kan: Ikọja Jesu ni Iṣẹ Iroyin Ihinrere (Walter de Gruyter, 2005) oju ewe 65; Robert Walter Funk, Awọn iṣe ti Jesu: wiwa awọn iṣẹ rere ti Jesu (Harper San Francisco, 1998) awọn oju ewe 129-270.
  • Jefferson Williams, Markus Schwab ati A. Brauer (2012). Ni ìṣẹlẹ ibẹrẹ akọkọ ni ọdun kini akọkọ ni Okun Òkú. Atilẹwo Ẹkọ Kariaye Kariaye. kikun article
  • Awọn ẹkọ iwosan lori idi ikú ni agbelebu JR Soc Med April 2006 vol. 99 ko si. 4 185-188. [2]
  • William Stroud, 1847, Ṣe itọju lori Iku ti Jesu Kristi ni London: Hamilton ati Adams.
  • William Seymour, 2003, The Cross in Tradition, History and Art ISBN 0-7661-4527-1
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  • The Physical Death Of Jesus Christ, Study by The Mayo Clinic Error in webarchive template: Check |url= value. Empty. citing studies by Bucklin R (The legal and medical aspects of the trial and death of Christ. Sci Law 1970; 10:14–26), Mikulicz-Radeeki FV (The chest wound in the crucified Christ. Med News 1966; 14:30–40), Davis CT (The Crucifixion of Jesus: The passion of Christ from a medical point of view. Ariz Med 1965; 22:183–187), and Barbet P (A Doctor at Calvary: The Passion of Out Lord Jesus Christ as Described by a Surgeon, Earl of Wicklow (trans) Garden City, NY, Doubleday Image Books 1953, pp 12–18, 37–147, 159–175, 187–208).
  • Edwards, William D .; Gabel, Wesley J .; Hosmer, Floyd E; Lori Iku ti Jesu, JAMA March 21, 1986, Vol 255, No. 11, pp 1455-1463 [3]
  • Frederick Zugibe, 2005, The Crucifixion of Jesus: A Forensic Inquiry Evans Publishing, ISBN 1-59077-070-6
  • JW Hewitt, Awọn lilo ti Nails ni agbelebu Harvard Theological Review, 1932
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  • Onimọṣẹ tuntun Oṣu Kẹwa 12, 1978, oju-iwe 96
  • Barbet, Pierre. Dokita ni Kalfari, New York: Awọn aworan Pipa, 1963.
  • Keith Maxwell MD on the Crucifixion of Christ Error in webarchive template: Check |url= value. Empty.
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  • . 
  • Paul II, Pope John (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Urbi Et Orbi Communications. p. 376.  Online: https://books.google.com/books?id=tVJXcOVY2UgC
  • Schwarz, Hans (1996). True Faith in the True God: An Introduction to Luther's Life and Thought. Augsburg Fortress.  Online: https://books.google.com/books?id=l3rDtUQRdKAC
  • Benedict XVI, Pope (1987). Principles of Catholic Theology: Building Stones for a Fundamental Theology. Ignatius Press. 
  • Calvin, Jean (1921). Institutes of the Christian Religion. Presbyterian Board of Publication and Sabbath-School Work.  Online: https://books.google.com/books?id=UU9Ygc_c5woC
  • Kempis, Thomas (2005). The Inner Life. Penguin Books.  Online: https://books.google.com/books?id=13QRjJjhEqkC “In the Cross is salvation; in the Cross is life; in the Cross is protection against our enemies; in the Cross is infusion of heavenly sweetness; in the Cross is strength of mind; in the Cross is joy of spirit; in the Cross is excellence of virtue; in the Cross is perfection of holiness. There is no salvation of soul, nor hope of eternal life, save in the Cross.”
  • Who do you say that I am? Essays on Christology by Mark Allan Powell and David R. Bauer 1999 ISBN 0-664-25752-6 page 106
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  • The Christology of the New Testament by Oscar Cullmann 1959 ISBN 0-664-24351-7 page 79
  • The Johannine exegesis of God by Daniel Rathnakara Sadananda 2005 ISBN 3-11-018248-3 page 281
  • Johannine Christology and the Early Church by T. E. Pollard 2005 ISBN 0-521-01868-4 page 21
  • Studies in Early Christology by Martin Hengel 2004 ISBN 0-567-04280-4 page 371
  • Studies in Revelation by Martin Ralph DeHaan, 1998 ISBN 0-8254-2485-2 page 103
  • 194.0 194.1 New Testament christology by Frank J. Matera 1999 ISBN 0-664-25694-5 page 67
  • The speeches in Acts: their content, context, and concerns by Marion L. Soards 1994 ISBN 0-664-25221-4 page 34
  • 196.0 196.1 196.2 196.3 Christology by Hans Schwarz 1998 ISBN 0-8028-4463-4 pages 132–134
  • Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity by Larry W. Hurtado (September 14, 2005) ISBN 0-8028-3167-2 pages 130–133
  • Christian Theology by J. Glyndwr Harris (Mar 2002) ISBN 1-902210-22-0 pages 12–15
  • Calvin's Christology by Stephen Edmondson 2004 ISBN 0-521-54154-9 page 91
  • The Reading and Preaching of the Scriptures by Hughes Oliphant Old 2002 ISBN 0-8028-4775-7 page 125
  • The Lamb of God by Sergei Bulgakov 2008 ISBN 0-8028-2779-9 page 129
  • Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0-86012-006-6 page 74
  • For example, see Matthew 6:14–15. See also Sermon on the Mount
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  • A. J. Wallace, R. D. Rusk Moral Transformation: The Original Christian Paradigm of Salvation, (New Zealand: Bridgehead, 2011) ISBN 978-1-4563-8980-2
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  • Wo Idagbasoke ti Christus Victor wo lẹhin Aulén
  • Johnson, Alan F. (1993). What Christians Believe: A Biblical and Historical Summary. Zondervan. 
  • Brox 1984, p. 306.
  • Schneemelcher & Maurer 1994, p. 220.
  • "Nitorina oun ko tikararẹ jiya iku, ṣugbọn Simoni, ọkunrin kan ti ara Kirene, ti o ni idiwọ, o gbe agbelebu ni ipò rẹ, ki eyi ki o le yi pada nipasẹ rẹ, ki a le pe oun ni Jesu, a kàn mọ agbelebu, nipasẹ aimokan ati aṣiṣe, nigba ti Jesu tikararẹ gba apẹrẹ Simoni, ati, duro lẹgbẹẹ, rẹrin wọn Nitoripe nitoripe o jẹ agbara ti ko ni agbara, ati ọkàn ti baba ti a ko bi, o yi ara rẹ pada bi o ti wù, ati bayi o gòke lọ sọdọ ẹniti o fi ranṣẹ si, ti nfi wọn ṣe ẹlẹya, niwọnwọn ti a ko le di i mu, ati pe gbogbo eniyan ko ni ipamọ "( Irenaeus, Against Heresies, iwe I, ch. 24, 4 ).
  • John Douglas Turner, Anne Marie McGuire The Nag Hammadi Library After Fifty Years: Proceedings of the 1995 Society of Biblical Literature Commemoration [in Philadelphia]BRILL 1997 ISBN 9789004108240 p.54
  • Tuomas Rasimus Paradise ti o ni atunyẹwo ni Gnostic Idaniloju: Rethinking Sethianism ni imọlẹ ti Ophite Evidence BRILL, 31 Oṣu Kẹwa 2009 9789047426707 p. 13
  • John Douglas Turner, Anne Marie McGuire The Nag Hammadi Library After Fifty Years: Proceedings of the 1995 Society of Biblical Literature Commemoration [in Philadelphia]BRILL 1997 ISBN 9789004108240 p.55
  • Gil, Moshe. Israel Oriental Studies. 
  • Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 page 596
  • Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 page 751
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  • Bartlett, Duncan. "Programmes | From Our Own Correspondent | The Japanese Jesus trail". BBC News. 
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  • Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft. Oṣu Kẹwa 1997 diagonal-Verlag Ursula Spuler-Stegemann Der Engel Pfau zum Selbstvertändnis der Yezidi p. 14 (olorin)
  • James Tissot: the Life of Christ by Judith F. Dolkart 2009 ISBN 1-85894-496-1 page 201
  • Rookmaaker, H. R. (1970). Modern Art and the Death of a Culture. Crossway Books. p. 73. 
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