Olóṣèlú

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Olóṣèlú
Kissinger Nixon Ford Haig.jpg
Politicians (Kissinger, Nixon, Ford, Haig) in the Oval Office discussing Representative Ford's nomination as the Vice President
Occupation
NamesCongressman, chancellor, MP, mayor, premier, President, Prime minister, senator, governor, secretary, minister, Dictator
Occupation type
Politician
Activity sectors
Law, law enforcement, business, journalism, public relations, diplomacy, management, military
Description
CompetenciesCritical thinking
Law
Legal research
Legal ethics
Public speaking
Budgeting
Decision making
Communications
Education required
Only a fair and proper election to office is necessary, although formal education is highly recommended.
Fields of
employment
Courts, government, legal aid, military
Related jobs
Judge, Attorney, Business, Journalist, Spokesperson, Manager

Olóṣèlú jẹ ènìyàn tí n ṣiṣẹ́ nínú iṣelu ẹgbẹ́ olóṣèlú, tàbí ènìyàn tí ó ní tàbí tí ó n wá ipò nínú ijọba. Awọn oloselu gbero, ṣe atilẹyin ati ṣẹda awọn ofin tabi awọn ilana imulo ti o ṣe akoso ilẹ ati, nipa itẹsiwaju, awọn eniyan rẹ. Ni fifọ, “oloselu” le jẹ ẹnikẹni ti o nwa lati ṣe aṣeyọri agbara iṣelu ni ile-iṣẹ iṣejọba eyikeyi.

Aworan ti ọrundun-ọdun sẹhin nipasẹ Philipp Foltz ti o ṣalaye oloselu Athenian Pericles n ṣafihan ọrọ isinku olokiki rẹ ni iwaju Apejọ .

Awọn oloselu jẹ awọn eniyan ti n ṣiṣẹ ni iṣelu, pataki ni iṣelu ẹgbẹ. Awọn ipo wa lati awọn ọfiisi agbegbe si adari, isofin, ati awọn ọfiisi idajọ ti awọn ijọba ilu ati ti orilẹ-ede. Diẹ ninu awọn oṣiṣẹ aṣofin ti a yan, gẹgẹ bi awọn Sheriff, ni a ka si oloselu. [1] [2]

Awọn oloselu mọ fun aroye wọn, gẹgẹbi ninu awọn ọrọ tabi awọn ipolowo ipolowo. Wọn jẹ olokiki paapaa fun lilo awọn akori ti o wọpọ ti o gba wọn laaye lati ṣe idagbasoke awọn ipo oloselu wọn ni awọn ofin ti o mọ si awọn oludibo. [3] Awọn oloselu ti iwulo di awọn olumulo iwé ti media. [4] Awọn oloselu ni ọrundun kẹrindilogun ṣe lilo lile ti awọn iwe iroyin, awọn iwe iroyin, ati iwe kekere, ati awọn iwe ifiweranṣẹ. [5] Ni ọdun 20, wọn ṣe idapọ sinu redio ati tẹlifisiọnu, ni ṣiṣe awọn ikede awọn tẹlifisiọnu jẹ apakan ti o gbowolori julọ ti ipolongo idibo kan. [6] Ni ọrundun 21st, wọn ti ni ilowosi pọ pẹlu awọn media awujọ ti o da lori Intanẹẹti ati awọn fonutologbolori. [7]

Agbasọ ọrọ nigbagbogbo ṣe ipa pataki ninu iṣelu, pẹlu awọn agbasọ ọrọ odi nipa alatako kan ni aṣeyọri diẹ sii ju awọn agbasọ ọrọ rere nipa ẹgbẹ tirẹ. [8]

Bureaucracy ati ikogun[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ni kete ti o dibo, oloselu naa di oṣiṣẹ ijọba kan ati pe o ni lati ṣe pẹlu ilana ibẹwẹ titilai ti awọn ti kii ṣe oloselu. Itan-akọọlẹ, rogbodiyan arekereke ti wa laarin awọn ibi-afẹde gigun ti ẹgbẹ kọọkan. [9] Ni awọn ọna ṣiṣe ti patronage, gẹgẹ bi Amẹrika ati Ilu Kanada ni ọrundun kẹrindilogun, awọn oloselu ti o bori gba rọpo iṣẹ iṣe pẹlu awọn oloselu agbegbe ti o ṣe ipilẹ atilẹyin wọn, “ eto ikogun ”. Atunṣe atunṣe iṣẹ ilu ni ipilẹṣẹ lati yọkuro ibajẹ ti awọn iṣẹ ijọba ti o kopa. [10] Sibẹsibẹ, ni ọpọlọpọ awọn orilẹ-ede ti ko ni idagbasoke, eto ikogun wa ni iṣẹ ni kikun loni. [11]

Awọn iṣẹ[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Mattozzi ati Merlo jiyan pe awọn ipa ọna akọkọ meji lo wa eyiti eyiti igbagbogbo tẹle nipasẹ awọn oloselu ni ijọba ilu tiwantiwa. Akọkọ, wa awọn oloselu iṣẹ. Wọn jẹ awọn oloselu ti n ṣiṣẹ ni eka iṣelu titi ti ifẹhinti lẹnu iṣẹ. Keji, ni awọn “oloselu ti iṣelu”. Iwọnyi ni awọn oloselu ti o jèrè orukọ fun expertrìr in ni ṣiṣakoso awọn bureaucracies kan, lẹhinna fi iṣelu silẹ fun iṣẹ oore ti o san daradara ni agbegbe aladani lilo awọn olubasọrọ oselu wọn. [12]

Awọn abuda[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ọpọlọpọ awọn ọjọgbọn ti ṣe iwadi awọn abuda ti awọn oloselu, ṣe afiwe awọn ti o wa ni awọn ipele agbegbe ati ti orilẹ-ede, ati ifiwera awọn ti o ni ilara diẹ sii tabi awọn ti o ni itọju diẹ sii, ati ṣe afiwe aṣeyọri diẹ ati aṣeyọri diẹ ninu awọn ofin ti awọn idibo. [13] Ni awọn ọdun aipẹ, akiyesi pataki ti dojukọ lori ọna iṣẹ iyasọtọ ti awọn oloselu obinrin. [14] Fun apẹẹrẹ, awọn ẹkọ-ẹrọ wa ti awoṣe “Supermadre” ninu iṣelu Latin America. [15]

Ọpọlọpọ awọn oloselu ni apopọ lati ranti awọn ẹgbẹẹgbẹrun awọn orukọ ati awọn oju ati ranti awọn aiṣedeede ti ara ẹni nipa awọn oludari wọn-o jẹ anfani ninu iṣẹ, dipo bii gigun ẹsẹ meje fun bọọlu inu agbọn. Awọn Alakoso Amẹrika George W. Bush ati Bill Clinton ni olokiki fun iranti wọn. [16] [17]

Ibawi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ọpọlọpọ awọn ti o ṣofintoto kọlu awọn oloselu nitori pe wọn ko ni ifọwọkan pẹlu ita. Awọn agbegbe ti ija laarin ọna ti eyiti awọn oloselu sọrọ, eyiti o ti ṣe apejuwe bi o ti jẹ aṣeju ati ti o kun fun ọpọlọpọ awọn ọrọ ikigbe ati afiwe ọrọ afiyesi ti a wọpọ si bii igbiyanju lati “ṣe aibikita, ṣiṣan, ati adaru”. [18]

Ni aworan olokiki, awọn oloselu ni a ro bi alailoye, amotaraenọ, alainiṣẹ ati ibajẹ, mu owo ni paṣipaarọ fun awọn ẹru tabi awọn iṣẹ, dipo ki o ṣiṣẹ fun rere gbogbogbo. [19] Awọn oloselu ni ọpọlọpọ awọn orilẹ-ede ni a gba bi “awọn akosemose ti o korira julọ”. [20]

Wo eyi naa[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Awọn itọkasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. Criminal Justice in Action. Wadsworth Publishing. 
  2. The Way It Was in the South: The Black Experience in Georgia. University of Georgia Press. 
  3. Jonathan Charteris-Black, Politicians and rhetoric: The persuasive power of metaphor (Palgrave-MacMillan, 2005)
  4. Ofer Feldman, Beyond public speech and symbols: Explorations in the rhetoric of politicians and the media (2000).
  5. Robert J. Dinkin, Campaigning in America: A History of Election Practices (1989) online
  6. Kathleen Hall Jamieson and Keith Spillette, The Press Effect: Politicians, Journalists, and the Stories that Shape the Political World (2014)
  7. Nathaniel G. Pearlman, Margin of Victory: How Technologists Help Politicians Win Elections (2012) online
  8. David Coast and Jo Fox, "Rumour and Politics" History Compass (2015), 13#5 pp. 222–234.
  9. Joel D. Aberbach, Robert D. Putnam, and Bert A. Rockman, eds., Bureaucrats and politicians in western democracies (Harvard University Press, 1981)
  10. David A. Schultz, and Robert Maranto, eds., The politics of civil service reform (1998).
  11. Morris Szeftel, "Political graft and the spoils system in Zambia—the state as a resource in itself." Review of African Political Economy 9.24 (1982): 4–21.
  12. Andrea Mattozzi and Antonio Merlo, "Political careers or career politicians?." Journal of Public Economics 92#3 (2008): 597–608.
  13. Timothy S. Prinz, "The career paths of elected politicians: a review and prospectus." in Shirley Williams and Edward L. Lascher, eds. Ambition and beyond: career paths of American politicians (1993) pp: 11-63.
  14. Elina Haavio-Mannila and Torild Skard, eds. Unfinished Democracy: women in Nordic politics (2013)
  15. Elsa M. Chaney, Supermadre: Women in Politics in Latin America (University of Texas Press, 2014).
  16. Iwan W. Morgan (2010). Assessing George W. Bush's Legacy: The Right Man?. p. 45. ISBN 9780230114333. https://books.google.com/books?id=8WfFAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA45. 
  17. James E. Mueller (2008). Tag Teaming the Press: How Bill and Hillary Clinton Work Together to Handle the Media. p. 32. ISBN 9780742563926. https://books.google.com/books?id=dw8SBZ6KRqYC&pg=PA32. 
  18. Invitation to Critical Thinking - Page 319, Vincent E. Barry - 2007
  19. Arnold J. Heidenheimer and Michael Johnston, eds. Political corruption: Concepts and contexts (2011).
  20. Arnold J. Heidenheimer and Michael Johnston, eds. Political corruption: Concepts and contexts (2011).

Siwaju kika[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Awọn ọna asopọ ita[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]