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Brasil

Lát'ọwọ́ Wikipedia, ìwé ìmọ̀ ọ̀fẹ́
(Àtúnjúwe láti Brazil)

Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìnira Aparapọ̀ ilẹ̀ Bràsíl
Federative Republic of Brazil

República Federativa do Brasil  (Pọrtugí)
Motto: "Ordem e Progresso"
(Potogí)
(Yorùbá: "Ìtòrò àti Ìlọsíwájú")
Orin ìyìn: 
noicon

Hino Nacional Brasileiro
(Potogí)
(Orin-ìyìn Onítọmọorílẹ̀-èdè Brasil)
Èdìdì onítọmọorílẹ̀-èdè
Selo Nacional do Brasil
(Potogí)
("Èdìdì Onítọmọorílẹ̀-èdè ilẹ̀ Bràsíl")
OlùìlúBrasília
Ìlú tótóbijùlọSão Paulo
Àwọn èdè ìṣẹ́ọbaPọrtugí[1]
Àwọn ẹ̀yà ènìyàn
(2010[2])
47.73% Aláwọ̀funfun
43.13% Brown (Ẹlẹ́yàpúpọ̀)
7.61% Adúláwọ̀
1.09% Asian
0.43% Amerindian
Orúkọ aráàlúBrazilian
ÌjọbaOrílẹ̀-èdè olómìnira oníàrẹ àpapọ̀
• Ààrẹ
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Geraldo Alckmin
Arthur Lira
Rodrigo Pacheco
Luiz Fux
AṣòfinKọ́ngrésì Orílẹ̀-èdè Brasil
Ilé Alàgbà Àpapọ̀
Ilé àwọn Aṣofin
Ilómínira 
7 September 1822
29 August 1825
15 November 1889
5 October 1988
Ìtóbi
• Total
8,514,877 km2 (3,287,612 sq mi) (5th)
• Omi (%)
0.65
Alábùgbé
• 2012[4] estimate
193,946,886
• 2010 census
190,732,694[3] (5th)
• Ìdìmọ́ra
22/km2 (57.0/sq mi) (182nd)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$2.294 trillion[5] (7th)
• Per capita
$11,769[5] (75th)
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$2.493 trillion[5] (6th)
• Per capita
$12,788[5] (53rd)
Gini (2012)51.9[6]
Error: Invalid Gini value
HDI (2011)0.718[7]
Error: Invalid HDI value · 84th
OwónínáReal (R$) (BRL)
Ibi àkókòUTC−2 to −4 (BRT)
• Ìgbà oru (DST)
UTC−2 to −4 (BRST)
Irú ọjọ́ọdúndd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Ojúọ̀nà ọkọ́right
Àmì tẹlifóònù+55
ISO 3166 codeBR
Internet TLD.br

Brasil /bɹəˈzɪl/ (Pọrtugí: Brasil, IPA: [bɾaˈziw][8]), lóníbiṣẹ́ bíi Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìnira Aparapọ̀ ilẹ̀ Bràsíl (Federative Republic of Brazil[9][10] (Pọrtugí: República Federativa do Brasil, Pt-br-República Federativa do Brasil.ogg listen ), ni orílẹ̀-èdè tótóbijùlọ ní Gúúsì Amẹ́ríkà àti ní agbègbè Amẹ́ríkà Látìnì. Òkòwò rẹ̀ ni ìkaàrún tótóbijùlọ lagbaye, gegebi àlà jeografi àti bii alabugbe pelu 193 million eniyan.[11][4] Brasil ni orile-ede Eledeluso totobijulo lagbaye, ati ikan soso ni orile awon Amerika.[11]

O ni bode mo Okun Atlantiki ni ilaorun, Brasil ni etiomi to to 7,491 km (4,655 mi).[11] O ni bode ni ariwa pelu Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname ati agbegbe okere Fransi ni Guiana fransi; ni ariwaiwoorun pelu Kolombia; ni iwoorun pelu Bolivia ati Peru; ni guusuiwoorun pelu Argentina ati Paraguay ati ni guusu pelu Uruguay. Opo awon erekusu osupo wa ni ara ile Brasil, bi Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, ati Trindade and Martim Vaz.[11] O ni bode mo gbogbo awon orile-ede Guusu Amerika ayafi Ekuador ati Tsile.

Brasil tele je imusin Portugal latigba ti Pedro Álvares Cabral gunle sibe ni 1500 titi di 1815, nigba to di ileoba ati Ileoba Asokan Portugal, Brasil ati awon Algafe je didasile. Ibase amusin na je gige ni 1808, nigbati oluilu ileobaluaye alamusin Portugal je gbigbe kuro ni Lisbon lo si Rio de Janeiro, leyin igba ti Napoleon gbogunlu Portugal.[12] Brasil gba ilominira ni 1822 pelu idasile Ileobaluaye ile Brasil, orile-ede abasokan pelu iru ijoba kabiyesi onilanairepo ati sistemu onileasofin. Brasil orile-ede olominira oniare ni 1889, nigba ti ifipagbajoba ologun sakede Orile-ede Olominira, botilejepe ileasofin oniyewu meji, loni to n je Kongresi, ti wa lati igba itowobowe ilanairepo akoko ni 1824.[12] Ilanairepo Brasil loni, to je dida ni 1988, pe Brasil ni Orile-ede Olominira Apapo.[13] Iparapo orile-ede na waye pelu isokan larin Agbegbe Ijoba Apapo, awon Ipinle 26, ati awon Agbegbe ibile 5,564.[13][14]

Okowo Brasil ni ikefa totobijulo lagbaye gegebi GDP oloruko ati ikeje totobijulo gegebi osuwon agbara inawo (titi de 2011).[15][16] Brazil ni ikan ninu awon okowo gbangba to unsare dagba julo lagbaye. Awon atunse okowo to waye ti fun ni idamo tuntun kariaye.[17] Brasil je omoegbe oludasile Awon Orile-ede Asokan, G20, CPLP, Isokan Latini, Agbajo awon Orile-ede Iberia Amerika, Agbajo awon Orile-ede Amerika, Mercosul ati Isokan awon Orile-ede Guusu Amerika, ati ikan ninu awon orile-ede BRIC. Bakana Brasil tun je ikan ninu awon awon orile-ede Olohun-orisirisi 17, ibe je ile fun awon orisi eran igbe, ayika adanida, opo awon alumoni adanida nibi orisi ibi abo.[11] Pelu awon eya 67 abinibi ti won da duro, Brasil ni iye awon eniyan aitibapade to pojulo lagbaye.[18]

Ìtumọ̀ orúkọ[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Oruko re bi "Brasil" wa lati oruko igi brasil, igi kan to n wu nigbakan ni janti rere leti eba omi Brasil. Ni ede Portugal, igi brasil unje pau-brasil, nibi ti brasil ti tumo si "pupa bi ojuina", lati ede Latin brasa ("ember") ati alemeyin -il (lati -iculum tabi -ilium).[19][20][21] Nitoripe igi brasil se da aro pupa, o niyi daada ni Europe lati fi kun aso, ohun si ni aje akoko to wulo lati Brasil. Kakiri igba orundun 16k, opo igi brasil je fifatu latowo awon eniya abinibi (agaga awon Tupi) leba etiomi Brasil, awon yi si ta won fun awon onibukata ara Europe (agaga awon ara Portugal, ati fun awon ara Fransi) fun pasiparo fun orisi oja amulo lati Europe.[22]

Oruko onibise ile yi, ninu awon akosile awon ara portugal, je was the "Ile Agbelebu Mimo" ("Land of the Holy Cross"; Terra da Santa Cruz), sugbon awon awako-ojuomi ati oloja ara Europe unsaba pe lasan bi "Ile Brasil" ("Land of Brazil"; Terra do Brasil) nitori bukata igi brasil. Oruko yi lo gbajumo titi do ni to fi ropo oruko onibise. Bakanna awon awako ojuomi nibere pe ibe ni "Ïle àwon Odidere" ("Land of Parrots"; Terra di Papaga).

Ni ede Guarani, ti se ede onibise kan ni Paraguay, Brasil unje pipe ni "Pindorama". Oruko yi ni awon eniyan abinibi fun agbegbe yi, itumo re ni "ile awon igi ọ̀pẹ" ("land of the palm trees").

Ìtàn[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ìsọdibiàmúsìn Pọ́rtúgàl[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ìsìn Krístíánì àkọ́kọ́ ní Brasil, 1500

Ori ile ti a mo loni bi Brasil je gbigbesele latowo Portugal ni April 1500, nigba ti oko-ojuomi lati Portugal ti Pedro Álvares Cabral dari gunle.[23] Awon wonyi pade awon are ibe ti ede opo won je ti Tupi–Guarani. Botilejepe ilu abudo akoko je didasile ni 1532, imusin ko bere titi to fi di 1534, nigbati Oba Dom João 3k ile Portugal pin ibe si ile basorun ajogun mejila.[24][25]

Ìgúnlẹ̀ Pedro Álvares CabralPorto Seguro1500. Àwòrán tí Oscar Pereira da Silva yà (1904).

Eto yi ko ni yori i rere rara, bosi ti di odun 1549 oba yan Gomina Agba kan lati samojuto gbogbo ibe.[25][26] Awon eya abinibi bi melo kan je fifamora,[27] awon miran je kikoleru tabi piparun ninu ogun tabi pelu awon arun ti awon ara Europe ko ran won ti ara won ko ni ajesara si.[28][29] Nigba ti yio fi di arin orundun 16k, suga ti di oja okere pataki fun Brasil[30][31] nitori awon ara Portugal yi ko opo eru wa lati Afrika[32][33] lati fi won sise fun ibere oja suga to unpo si kariaye.[28][34]

Nipa gbigbogun ti awon ara Fransi, awon ara Portugal diedie fe ile won de guusuilaorun, won si gbesele ilu Rio de Janeiro ni 1567, ati de ariwaiwoorun, nibi ti won ti gbesele ilu São Luís ni 1615.[35] Won ran awon ologun losi igbo-aginju Amasoni won si bori awon ajagun Britani ati Holandi to wa nibe,[36] ki won o to bere sini da abule ati ile ologun sibe lati 1669.[37] Ni 1680 won de guusu nibi ti won da Sacramento sile si ni eba Rio de la Plata, ni agbegbe Etiomi Apailaorun region.[38]

Ni opin orundun 17k, oja suga ni okere bere si ni re sile[39] sugbon lati ibere awon odun 1690, iwari wura latowo awon oluwakiri ni agbegbe na to unje pipe ni Minas Gerais ni Mato Grosso ati Goiás loni, gba ibi amusin na la lowo iparun.[40] Kakiri lati Brasil, ati lati Portugal, egbeegberun eniyan tu wa si koto alumoni lati wa sise.[41] Awon ara Spein gbira lati dena awon ara Portugal lati fe ile won de ori ile to je ti won gegebi Adehun Tordesillas 1494, won si yori lati gbesele Etiomi apailaorun ni 1777. Sibesibe, asan ni eyi jasi gegebi Adehun San Ildefonso, ti won fowosi lodun kanna yi, sedaju ase Portugal lori gbogbo awon ile ti won ba gbesele, ati igba yi ni opo gbogbo bode Brasil loni ti wa.[42]

Ni 1808, ebi ile-oba Portugal ati opo awon ijoye Portugal, lati bo lowo awon ajagun Napoleon I lati Fransi ti won ungbogun ti Portugal ati gbogbo Arin Gbongan Europe, ko ara won lo si ilu Rio de Janeiro, to fi be di ibujoko gbogbo Ileobaluaye Portugal.[43] Ni 1815 Dom João 6k, gege bi aruobaje dipo iya re, gbe Brasil soke lati ibi amusin di alase Kingdom united with Portugal|Ileoba Asokan ile Portugal, Brasil ati awon Algarfe.[43] Ni 1809 awon ara Portugal na tun gbogun ti Guiana Fransi (ti won da pada fun Fransi ni 1817)[44] be sini ni 1816 won yi orunko Etiomi Apailaorun si Cisplatina.[45]

Ìlómìnira àti ilẹ̀ọba[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ìkéde ilómìnira Brasil látọwọ́ Ọba Dom Pedro 1k ní 7 September 1822.
Brazilian forces (in blue uniform) engage the Paraguayan army (some in red uniform and other shirtless) during the Paraguayan War.

Jẹ́ọ́gráfì[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ìjọba àti ìṣèlú[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Awon ipinle ati ibile[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Òkòwò[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Irúọmọilú[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Àṣà[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]




Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. "Demographics". Brazilian Government. 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-08.  (Gẹ̀ẹ́sì)
  2. "Caracteristicas da População e dos Domicílios do Censo Demográfico 2010 — Cor ou raça" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-04-07. 
  3. IBGE. Censo 2010: população do Brasil é de 190.732.694 pessoas.
  4. 4.0 4.1 IBGE. 2011 Population Projection
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Brazil". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2012-04-17. 
  6. Country Comparison to the World: Gini Index – Brazil Archived 2009-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. The World Factbook. Retrieved on 2012-04-03.
  7. UNDP Human Development Report 2011. "Table 1: Human development index 2011 and its components" (PDF). UNDP. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  8. The European Portuguese pronunciation is IPA: [bɾɐˈziɫ]
  9. As on for example the national website.
  10. Mugnier, Clifford (January 2009). Grids & Datums – Federative Republic of Brazil. Archived from the original on 2009-06-21. https://web.archive.org/web/20090621192851/http://www.asprs.org/resources/grids/01-2009-brazil.pdf. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 "Geography of Brazil". Central Intelligence Agency. 2008. Archived from the original on 2020-12-29. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Introduction of Brazil". Central Intelligence Agency. 2008. Archived from the original on 2020-12-29. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Brazilian Federal Constitution" (in Portuguese). Presidency of the Republic. 1988. Retrieved 2008-06-03.  "Brazilian Federal Constitution". v-brazil.com. 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-03. Unofficial translate 
  14. "Territorial units of the municipality level" (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  15. "World Development Indicators database" (PDF file), World Bank, 7 October 2009.
  16. "CIA – The World Factbook – Country Comparisons – GDP (purchasing power parity)". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2011. 
  17. Clendenning, Alan (2008-04-17). "Booming Brazil could be world power soon". USA Today – The Associated Press. p. 2. http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2008-04-17-310212789_x.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-12. 
  18. "Brazil sees traces of more isolated Amazon tribes", Reuters
  19. CNRTL – Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales Àdàkọ:Fr
  20. Michaelis – Moderno Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa (Potogí)
  21. iDicionário Aulete Archived 2012-02-29 at the Wayback Machine. (Potogí)
  22. (Potogí) Eduardo Bueno, Brasil: uma História (São Paulo: Ática, 2003; ISBN 85-08-08213-4), p.36.
  23. Boxer, p. 98.
  24. Boxer, pp. 100–101.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Skidmore, p. 27.
  26. Boxer, p. 101.
  27. Boxer, p. 108
  28. 28.0 28.1 Boxer, p. 102.
  29. Skidmore, pp. 30, 32.
  30. Àṣìṣe ìtọ́kasí: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Boxer, p. 100
  31. Skidmore, p. 36.
  32. Boxer, p. 110
  33. Skidmore, p. 34.
  34. Skidmore, pp. 32–33.
  35. Bueno, pp. 80–81.
  36. Facsimiles of multiple original documents relating about the events in Brazil in the 17th century that led to a Dutch influence and their final defeat
  37. Calmon, p. 294.
  38. Bueno, p. 86.
  39. Boxer, p. 164.
  40. Boxer, pp. 168, 170.
  41. Boxer, p. 169.
  42. Boxer, p. 207.
  43. 43.0 43.1 Boxer, p. 213.
  44. Bueno, p. 145.
  45. Calmon (2002), p. 191.