Nàìjíríà

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Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìnira Àpapọ̀ ilẹ̀ Nàìjíríà
Republik Nijeriya
Njíkötá Óchíchìiwù Naíjíríà (Ígbò)
Republik Federaal bu Niiseriya (Fula)
Federal Republic of Nigeria (Gẹ̀ẹ́sì)
جمهورية نيجيريا(Hausa)
Àmì ọ̀pá àṣẹ ilẹ̀ Nàìjíríà
Àsìá Àmì ọ̀pá àṣẹ
Motto"Ìṣọ̀kan àti Ìgbàgbọ́, Àláfìà àti Ìlọsìwájú"
Orin-ìyìn orílẹ̀-èdè"Dìde, ẹ̀yin ará"
Olúìlú Abùjá
ilú títóbijùlọ Èkó
Èdè oníbiṣẹ́ Gẹ̀ẹ́sì, Haúsá, Ígbò, Yorùbá
Àwọn èdè dídámọ̀ níbẹ̀ Àwọn èdè Nàìjíríà
Orúkọ aráàlú Ará Nàìjíríà
Ìjọba Ààrẹ orile-ede olómìnira onijobapo
 -  Ààrẹ Goodluck Jonathan (PDP)
 -  Igbakeji Aare Namadi Sambo (PDP)
 -  Àarẹ Ilé Alàgbà David Mark (PDP)
 -  Agbẹnusọ Ilé Aṣojú Dimeji Bankole (PDP)
 -  Olùdájọ́ Àgbà Iyorgher Aloysius Katsina-Alu
Ilominira latowo Britani 
 -  Isodokan Apaguusu ati Apaariwa Naijiria latowo Frederick Lugard 1914 
 -  Fifilole ati didamo October 1, 1960 
 -  Fifilole gege bi olominira October 1, 1963 
Ààlà
 -  Àpapọ̀ iye ààlà 923,768 km2 (32nd)
356,667 sq mi 
 -  Omi (%) 1.4
Alábùgbé
 -  Ìdíye 2009 154,729,000[1] (8th)
 -  Ìṣúpọ̀ olùgbé 167.5/km2 (71st)
433.8/sq mi
GIO (PPP) ìdíye 2011
 -  Iye lápapọ̀ $408.342 billion[2] 
 -  Ti ẹnikọ̀ọ̀kan $2,445 
GIO (onípípè) Ìdíye 2011
 -  Àpapọ̀ iye $267.779 billion[2] 
 -  Ti ẹnikọ̀ọ̀kan $1,603 
Gini (2003) 43.7 (medium
HDI (2010) 0.423[3] (low) (142nd)
Owóníná Nigerian naira (₦) (NGN)
Àkókò ilẹ̀àmùrè WAT (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) ko si (UTC+1)
Ìwakọ̀ ní ọwọ́ ọ̀tún
Àmìọ̀rọ̀ Internet .ng
Àmìọ̀rọ̀o tẹlifóònù 234
1 Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected. ² The GDP estimate is as of 2006; the total and per capita ranks, however, are based on 2005 numbers.

Nàìjíríà (pípè /naɪˈdʒɪrɪə/) tó jẹ́ mìmọ̀ fún ibiṣẹ́ gẹ́gẹ́ bíi Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìnira Àpapọ̀ ilẹ̀ Nàìjíríà (Nigeria ni èdè Gẹ̀ẹ́sì) jẹ́ orílẹ̀-èdè ìjọba àpapọ̀ olómìnira pẹ̀lú ìlànà-ìbágbépọ̀, to je pinpin si ìpínlẹ̀ mẹ́rindínlógójì àti Agbègbè Olúìlú Ìjọba Àpapọ̀. Ó bùdó sí apá ìwọ̀òrùn Afrika. Ilẹ̀ rẹ̀ ní bodè mọ́ Benin ní apá ìwọ̀òrùn, Nijẹr ní apá àríwá, Tshad àti Kamẹróòn ní apá ìlàòrùn àti Òkun Atlantiki ni apá gúúsù. Abuja ni olúìlú rẹ̀. Botilejepe ile Naijiria ni eya awon eniyan pupo, awon meta ni won tobijulo, ti won si pojulo. Awon wonyi ni Hausa, Ígbò ati Yorùbá.

Àwọn ará Nàìjíríà ní ìtàn fífẹ̀, bẹ́ẹ̀ sì ni ẹ̀rí ìmọ̀-aíyejọ́un fihàn pé àwọn ìgbé ènìyàn ní agbègbè ibẹ̀ lọ sẹ́yìn dé kéré pátápátá ọdún 9000 kJ.[4] Agbegbe Benue-Cross River je riro gege bi ile akoko awon Bantu arokere ti won fan ka kiri opo arin ati apaguusu Afrika bi iru omi ni arin egberundun akoko kJ ati egberundun keji.

Oruko Naijiria wa lati Odò Ọya, to tun je mimo gege bi Odo Naija, eyi to san gba Nigeria koja. Flora Shaw, ti yio je iyawo lojo waju fun Baron Lugard ara Britani to je olumojuto amusin, lo seda oruko yi ni opin orundun 19sa.

Naijiria ni orile-ede to ni onibugbe pupojulo ni Afrika, ikejo ni agbaye[1], be si ni o je orile-ede to ni awon eniyan alawodudu julo laye. O je kikojo mo ara awon orile-ede ti a n pe "Next Eleven" ni to ri okowo won, o si tun je ikan ninu Ajoni awon Ibinibi. Okowo ile naijiria je ikan ninu eyi to n dagba kiakiajulo laye, pelu IMF to ngbero idagba 9% fun 2008 ati 8.3% fun 2009.[5][6][7][8] Ni ibere awon odun 2000, ogunlogo awon onibugbe gbe pelu iye to din ju US$ 1.25 (PPP) lojumo.[9] Naijiria ni ekeji ti okowo re tobijulo ni Afrika, ati alagbara ni agbegbe Iwoorun Afrika.

Ìtàn

Ìtàn Isenbaye

Ere Nok ni Museomu Louvre, Paris.

Awon ara Nok ni arin Naijiria seso ere gbigbe alamo ti awon onimo ayejoun ti wari.[10] Ere Nok to wa ni Minneapolis Institute of Arts, juwe eni pataki kan to mu "opa idaran" dani ni owo otun ati igi ni owo osi. Iwonyi ni ami-idamo alase to je bibasepo mo awon farao ile Egypti ayeijoun ati orisa, Osiris, eyi lo n so pe iru awujo, idimule, boya ati esin ile Egypti ayeijoun wa ni agbegbe ibi ti Naijiria wa loni ni igba awon Farao.[11]

Ni apa ariwa, Kano ati Katsina ni itan akosile ti ojo won deyin to bi odun 999 kJ. Awon ilu-oba Hausa ati Ile-oba Kanem-Bornu gbooro gege bi ibudo aje larin Ariwa ati Iwoorun Afrika. Ni ibere orundun 19sa labe Usman dan Fodio awon ara Fulani di awon olori Ile-oba Fulani lojukan eyi to duro bayi titi di 1903 nigbati awon je pinpin larin awon olumusin ara Europe. Larin 1750 ati 1900, ida kan si ida meji ninu meta awon onibugbe awon ilu Fulani je eru nitori ogun.[12]

Ere lati Bini je eso ile Naijiria to gbajumo ati didamo julo

Awon Yoruba se ojo ti won ti wa ni agbegbe Naijiria, Benin ati Togo ayeodeoni seyin de bi odun 8500 kJ. Awon ilu-oba Ife ati Oyo ni apa iwoorun Naijiria gbale ni 700-900 ati 1400 nitelera won. Sibesibe, itan ariso Yoruba gbagbo pe Ile-Ife ni orisun eda eniyan pe be si ni o siwaju asa-olaju miran. Ife seso ere alamo ati onitanganran, Ilu-oba Oyo si fe de ibi ti Togo wa loni. Ilu-oba miran to tun gbale ni guusu apaiwoorun Naijiria ni Ilu-oba Benin lati orundun 15ru ati 19sa. Ijoba won de Ilu Eko ki awon ara Portugal o to wa so ibe di "Lagos."[13]


Ni apa guusuilaorun Naijiria, Ilu-oba Nri ti awon Igbo gbooro larin odunrun 10wa titi de 1911. Eze Nri ni o joba Ilu-oba Nri. Ilu Nri je gbigba gege bi ipilese asa igbo. Nri ati Aguleri, nibi ti itan ariso ida Igbo ti bere, wa ni agbegbe iran Umueri, awon ti won so pe iran awon de ile oba Eri fun ra re.[14]

Ìgbà Àmúsìn

Benin city in the 17th century with the Oba of Benin in procession. This image was pictured in a European book, Traduite du Flamand, in 1668.[15]

Awon oluwakiri ara Portugal ni awon ara Europe akoko to bere isowo ni Naijiria ti won si so ebute ni Eko di Lagos fun oruko ilu Lagos ni Algarve. Oruko yi le mo ibe bi awon ara Europe miran na se n se owo nibe. Awon ara Europe sowo pelu awon eya abinibi ni eba odo, won si bere owo eru nibe, eyi to pa opo awon eya abinibi Naijiria lara. Leyin ti awon ogun Napoleon bere, awon ara Britani fẹ isowo de inu arin Naijiria.

Ni 1885 igbesele Iwoorun Afrika latowo awon ara Britani gba idamo kariaye, nigba to si di odun to tele ile-ise Royal Niger Company je hihaya labe ayeolori Sir George Taubman Goldie. Ni 1900 awon ile ti ile-ise yi ni di ti ijoba Britani. Ni January 1, 1901 Naijiria di ile alaabo ti Britani, ikan ninu Ile-oba Britani to je alagbara julo nigba na.

Ni 1814, agbegbe na je sisodokan gege bi Imusin ati alaabo ile Naijiria (Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria). Fun amojuto, Naijiria je pinpin si igberiko apaariwa ati apaguusu ati imusin Eko. Eko Iwoorun ati okowo ayeodeoni tesiwaju ni kikankikan ni guusu ju ni ariwa lo, ipa eyi n han ninu aye oloselu Naijiria de oni. Ni odun 1936 ni oko eru sese di fifofin lu.[16]

Leyin Ogun Agbaye Eleekeji gege bi esi fun idagba isonibinibi Naijiria ati ibere fun ominira, awon ilana-ibagbepo to ropo ara won ti won je sisodofin latowo Ijoba Britani mu Naijiria sunmo ijoba-araeni to duro lori asoju ati apapo. Nigba to fi di arin orundun 20ji iru nla fun ominira ja ka kiri Afrika.

Leyin ominira

Ni October 1, 1960 Naijiria gba idani lowo orile-ede Sisodokan Ilu-oba. Ile olominira tuntun yi mu opo awon eniyan ti won n fe ki ibinibi ti won o je eyi to lagbara julo. Ijoba aladani Naijiria tuntun je isowopo awon egbe amojeoyipada: Nigerian People's Congress egbe to je didari lowo awon ara Ariwa ati awon elesin musulumi ti Ahmadu Bello ati Abubakar Tafawa Balewa to di Alakoso Agba akoko leyin ominira, je olori, ati eyi ti awon Igbo ati elesin Kristi je didari National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) ti Nnamdi Azikiwe, to di Gomina-Agba ainibi akoko ni 1960, se olori. Ni ipo alatako ni egbe ilosiwaju Action Group (AG) ti o je didari lowo awon Yoruba ti Obafemi Awolowo se olori.[17]

Ipinu odun 1961 fun Apaguusu Kameroon lati darapo mo orile-ede Kameroon nigbati Apaariwa Kameroon duro si Naijiria fa aidogba nitori pe apa ariwa wa je titobi ju apaguusu lo gidigidi. Naijiria pinya lodo Britani ni 1963 nipa siso ara re di ile Apapo Olominira, pelu Azikiwe gege bi Aare akoko. Rogbodiyan sele ni Agbegbe Apaiwoorun leyin idiboyan 1965 nigbati Nigerian National Democratic Party gba ijoba ibe lowo AG.

Ijoba ologun akoko

Aidogba yi ati ibaje eto idiboyan ati oloselu fa ni 1966 de awon ifipagbajoba ologun lera lera. Akoko sele ni January ti awon odo oloselu alapaosi labe Major Emmanuel Ifeajuna ati Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. O ku die ko yori si rere - awon olufipagbajoba pa Alakoso Agba, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Asolori Agbegbe Apaariwa Naijiria, Sir Ahmadu Bello, ati Asolori Agbegbe Apaiwoorun ile Naijiria, Sir Ladoke Akintola. Botileje bayi, sibesibe awon olufipagbajoba na ko le gbe ijoba kale nitori isoro bi won yio ti se, nitori eyi Nwafor Orizu, adelede Aare je mimu dandan lati gbe ijoba fun Ile-ise Ologun Adigun Naijiria labe Apase Ogagun JTY Aguyi-Ironsi.


In Concert: National Arts Theatre Ticket Price: February 2, 2011 7:30 PM

Ijoba ati iselu

Ofin

Sistemu ofin otooto merin lo wa ni Naijiria.

  • Ofin Ilegeesi, to wa lati igba amusin lowo Britani.
  • Ofin towopo, to je didagbasoke leyin amusin.
  • Ofin ibile, to wa lati inu awon asa ati ise kakiri ile naijiria.
  • Ofin Sharia

Naijiria ni eka idajo ti Ile-ejo Gigajulo ile Naijiria je eyi to lagbarajulo.

Ibasepo Okere

Ise Ologun

Ojuse awon ise ologun Olominira Apapo ile Naijiria ni lati daabo bo ile Naijiria, igbesoke ijelogun abo Naijiria ati itileyin itiraka igbero alafia agaga ni Iwoorun Afrika.

Ise ologun Naijiria ni Ile-ise Ologun Akogun, Ile-ise Ologun Ojuomi, ati Ile-ise Ologun Ojuafefe.

Lopolopo igba Ile-ise Ologun Naijiria ti ko ipa ninu igbero alafia ni Afrika. Ile-ise Ologun Naijiria gege bi ikan ninu ECOMOG ti ko ipa gege bi olugbero alafia ni Liberia ni 1990, Sierra Leone ni 1995, Ivory Coast ati Sudan.

Jeografi

Fáìlì:Lagbeach.jpg
Lagos famous Alpha Beach

Naijiria budo si apaiwoorun Afrika ni Ikun-omi Guinea, o si ni iye apapo ifesi 923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi) eyi so di orile-ede 32ji titobijulo lagbaye leyin Tanzania. Bode re pelu Benin to 773 km, pelu Niger to 1497 km, pelu Tsad to 87 km ati pelu Kameroon to 1690 km; bakanna ala eti-odo re to 853 km. Ibi gigajulo ni Naijiria ni Chappal Waddi ni 2419 m (7936 ft). Awon odo gbangba ibe ni Odo Oya ati Odo Benue ti won japo ni Lokoja lati ibi ti won ti san lo si nu Okun Atlantiki lati Delta Naija.

Bakanna, Naijiria je gbongan pataki fun orisirisielemin pataki. Agbegbe to ni awon orisirisi labalaba julo laye ni agbegbe Calabar ni Ipinle Cross River. Awon obo agbele wa ni igbe ni Guusuilaorun Naijiria ati Kameroon nikan.

Ojuile Naijiria je orisirisi. Ni Guusu lookan ojuojo je ti ojoinuigbo amuooru nibi ti ojo odoodun to 60-80 inches (1,524 to 2,032 mm) lodun. Ni apa guusuilaorun ni Awon Iwule Obudu wa.

Awon ipinle

Naijiria je pipin si ipinle 36 ati Agbegbe Oluilu Apapo kan; awon wonyi na je pipin si agbegbe ijoba ibile 774.

Ilu mefa ni Naijiria ni awon onibugbe to to egbegberun kan tabi pupo julo: Eko, Kano, Ibadan, Kaduna, Port Harcourt ati Ilu Benin.

States of Nigeria, there are a total of 36 states in Nigeria and then Abuja, the federal capital territory.

Awon Ipinle:

  1. Abuja
  2. Anambra
  3. Enugu
  4. Akwa Ibom
  5. Adamawa
  6. Abia
  7. Bauchi
  8. Bayelsa
  9. Benue
  10. Borno
  11. Cross River
  12. Delta
  13. Ebonyi
  1. Edo
  2. Ekiti
  3. Gombe
  4. Imo
  5. Jigawa
  6. Kaduna
  7. Kano
  8. Katsina
  9. Kebbi
  10. Kogi
  11. Kwara
  12. Lagos
  13. Nasarawa
  1. Niger
  2. Ogun
  3. Ondo
  4. Osun
  5. Oyo
  6. Plateau
  7. Rivers
  8. Sokoto
  9. Taraba
  10. Yobe
  11. Zamfara

Agbegbe Oluilu Ijoba Apapo: Abuja


Okowo

Naijiria je ikan larin awon oja to n gberasoke nitori awon alumoni pupo to ni, inawo, ibanisoro, ofin ati irinna ati pasiparo ipinwo (Ilepasiparo Ipinwo Naijiria) to je ekeji titobijulo ni Afrika. Naijiria ni 2007 je 37je laye ni Gbogbo Ipawo Orile-ede. Gege bi Economic Intelligence Unit ati Ileifowopamo Agbaye se so Gbogbo Ipawo Orile-ede ti Naijiria fun ipin agbara iraja ti je ilopomeji lati $170.7 legegegberunkeji ni 2005 de $292.6 legbegberunkeji ni 2007. Gbogbo Ipawo Orile-ede fun enikookan ti fo lati $692 fun enikookan ni 2006 de $1,754 fun enikookan ni 2007.[18]

Nigba opo epo awon odun 1970, Nigeria seigbajo gbese okere totobi gidi lati seinawo idimule aje, sugbon leyin ti iye owo epo din ni awon odun 1980, o soro gidi fun Naijiria lati san awon gbese re pada, eyi fa lati fi owo to ya sile laisan ko le ba ko ju si bi yio se san ele lori owo to ya nikan.

Leyin ijiroro ijoba Naijiria, ni October 2005 Naijiria ati awon alawin Paris Club fi enu ko pe Naijiria le ra gbese re pada pelu idinwo to to 60%. Naijiria lo ere to je ninu epo lati san gbese 40% to seku, eyi je ki $1.15 legbegberunkeji o le sile lodun lati se eto idin itosi/aini. Naijiria di orile-ede Afrika akoko ti o san gbogbo gbese (ti idiye re je $30 legbegberunkeji) to je Paris Club pada ni April 2006.

Apa okowo

Naijiria je orile-ede 8jo to n ta petroleomu laye, be sini ohun ni ikewa to ni ipamo petroleomu. Naijiria je omo egbe OPEC. Epo petroleomu ko ipa pataki ninu okowo Naijiria to siro fun 40% Gbogbo Ipawo Orile-ede (GIO) ati 80% iye owo ti ijoba n pa.

Naijiria ni ikan ninu oja fun ibanisorolookan ton dagbasoke kiakia laye, awon ile-ise ibanisorolookan bi MTN, Etisalat, Zain ati Globacom ni ibujoko totobijulo ati tolerejulo won ni Naijiria.[19]

Naijiria ni apa okowo isefunni oninawo didagba gidi, pelu adalu awon ile-ifowopamo abele ati kariaye, awon ile-ise imojuto ohun ini, ile-ise adiyelofo, awon ile-ise brokerage, awon ajo aladani equity ati awon ile-ifowopamo inawole.[20]

Bakanna Naijiria tun ni opolopo alumoni aintimulo bi efuufu aladanida, edu, bauxite, tantalite, wura, tanganran, irin inule, okutadidan, niobiomu, oje, ati sinki[21]. Botilejepe awon alumoni inule wonyi po daada, awon ile-ise akoalumoni ti yio mu won jade ko si.

Ise-agbe je eyi to n mu owo okere wole fun Naijiria teletele[22]. Nigbakan, Naijiria lo n ta epa, koko ati epo ope to pojulo si oke okun ati olupese pataki agbon, eso osan, agbado, oka baba, ege, isu ati ireke. Bi 60% awon ara Naijiria ni won sise ninu ise-agbe, be sini ile to se dako si sugbon ti won ko je be po gidi[23].

Naijiria ni awon ile-ise agbese bi awo ati iwun aso ni Kano, Abeokuta, Onitsha ati Eko. Ile-ise ajopo oko bi Peugeot lati Fransi ati Bedford lati Britani to je ikan ninu apa ile-ise oko lati orile-ede Amerika, General Motors nisin, awon ewu t-shirt, ike ati onje alagolo.

Dimografiki

Isupo iye awon eniyan

Naijiria ni orile-ede ti awon eniyan posijulo ni Afrika botilejepe iye gangan ko i je mimo. Agbajo Sisokan awon Orile-ede diye pe iye awon eniyan ni 2009 je 154,729,000, ti 51.7% inu won gbe loko ati 48.3% n gbe ni ilu ati iye eniyan 167.5 ni agbegbe ilopomeji kilomita kan.

Naijiria ni orile-ede kejo ti o ni awon eniyan topojulo laye. Idiye ni 2006 so pe iye eniyan ti ojo-ori won wa larin odun 0-14 je 42.3%, larin omo odun 15-65 je 54.6%. Osuwon ibimo po gidi ju osuwon iku lo, won je 40.4 ati 16.9 ninu 1000 eniyan ni telentele.

Naijiria ni bi 250 eya eniyan pelu orisirisi ede pelu asa ati ise orisirisi. Awon eya eniyan totobijulo ni Hausa/Fulani, Yoruba ati Igbo ti apapo won je 68% nigbati Edo, Ijaw, Kanuri, Ibibio, Ebira, Nupe ati Tiv je 27%, awon yioku je 7%. Arin ibadi Naijiria je mimo pe o ni opolopo eya eniyan bi Pyem, Goemai, ati Kofyar.









Itokasi

  1. 1.0 1.1 Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Nigeria". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=694&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=59&pr.y=2. Retrieved 2011-05-06. 
  3. "Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G". The United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-31. 
  4. McIntosh, Susan Keech, Current directions in west African prehistory. Palo Alto, California: Annual Reviews Inc., 1981. 215–258 p.: ill.
  5. "IMF Survey: Nigeria Needs Sustained Reforms to Build on Success". Imf.org. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2008/CAR021508A.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  6. Aminu, Ayodele. "allAfrica.com: Africa: IMF Forecasts 9 Percent Growth for Nigeria (Page 1 of 1)". Allafrica.com. http://allafrica.com/stories/200804140655.html. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  7. Godwin, Atser. "The Punch: IMF predicts 9% GDP growth rate for Nigeria". Punchng.com. http://www.punchng.com/Articl.aspx?theartic=Art20080229153046. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  8. ": Welcome to Independent Newspapers Limited - A voice of your own". Independentngonline.com. http://www.independentngonline.com/news/head/article08. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  9. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDI_2008_EN_Tables.pdf
  10. Shaw, Thurstan, Nigeria: Its Archaeology and early history. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
  11. "artsmia.org : viewer". Artsmia.org. http://www.artsmia.org/viewer/detail.php?id=5368&i=20&v=12&dept=8&op=1449. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  12. Slavery. Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History.
  13. The Slave Trade. Source: U.S. Library of Congress.
  14. Uzukwu, E. Elochukwu (1997). Worship as Body Language. Liturgical Press. p. 93. ISBN 0814661513. http://books.google.com/books?id=9hhmzVrYPHAC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA93,M1. 
  15. Traduite du Flamand (Amsterdam,1686; 1st ed., 1668), between pp. 320 and 321. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-30841).
  16. The end of slavery, BBC World Service | The Story of Africa.
  17. Udofia, Nigerian Political Parties: Their Role in Modernizing the political System, 1920-1966, Journal of Black Studies, June 1981. Retrieved February 22, 2007, pp. 437–447.
  18. Economist.com | Country Briefings: Nigeria at www.economist.com.
  19. DeRouen, Karl R.; Paul Bellamy (2008). International Security and the United States: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 546. ISBN 0-275-99253-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=tSLeN4U_C6kC&pg=PA546. Retrieved 2008-12-26. 
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  22. Ake, Claude (1996). Democracy and Development in Africa. Brookings Institution Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-815-70220-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=bs5rTH7GClgC&pg=PA48. Retrieved 2008-12-26. 
  23. Levy, Patricia (2004). Nigeria. Marshall Cavendish. p. 14. ISBN 0-761-41703-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=Q_lCFcabj0MC&pg=PA14. Retrieved 2008-12-26.