Àtòjọ àwọn ẹlẹ́bùn Nobel nínú Físíksì

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Àwọn ẹlẹ́bùn[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

Ọdún Ẹlẹ́bùn[A] Orílẹ̀-èdè[B] Ìdí[C]
1901 WilhelmRöntgen.JPG Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Germany "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"[1]
1902 H A Lorentz (Nobel).jpg Hendrik Lorentz Netherlands "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"[2]
Pieter Zeeman.jpg Pieter Zeeman Netherlands
1903 Paul Nadar - Henri Becquerel.jpg Antoine Henri Becquerel France "[for] his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"[3]
PierreCurie.jpg Pierre Curie France "[for] their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"[3]
Mariecurie.jpg Marie Curie Poland
1904 John William Strutt.jpg Lord Rayleigh United Kingdom "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"[4]
1905 Phillipp Lenard in 1900.jpg Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard Germany-Hungary "for his work on cathode rays"[5]
1906 J.J Thomson.jpg Joseph John Thomson United Kingdom "[for] his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"[6]
1907 Albert Abraham Michelson2.jpg Albert Abraham Michelson United States "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"[7]
1908 G lippmann.jpg Gabriel Lippmann France "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[8]
1909 Guglielmo Marconi.jpg Guglielmo Marconi Italy "[for] their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"[9]
Ferdinand Braun.jpg Karl Ferdinand Braun Germany
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals.jpg Johannes Diderik van der Waals Netherlands "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"[10]
1911 Wilhelm Wien 1911.jpg Wilhelm Wien Germany "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"[11]
1912 Nils Gustaf Dalén.jpg Nils Gustaf Dalén Sweden "for his invention of automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses and buoys"[12]
1913 Kamerlingh portret.jpg Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes Netherlands "for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"[13]
1914 Max von Laue 1914.jpg Max von Laue Germany "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals",[14] an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy.
1915 William Henry Bragg United Kingdom "For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays",[15] an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography
Wl-bragg.jpg William Lawrence Bragg United Kingdom
1916 Not awarded
1917 Charles Glover Barkla.jpg Charles Glover Barkla United Kingdom "For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements",[16] another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy
1918 Max Planck 1933.jpg Max Planck Germany "[for] the services he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy quanta"[17]
1919 Johannes Stark.jpg Johannes Stark Germany "for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"[18]
1920 Guillaume 1920.jpg Charles Édouard Guillaume Switzerland "[for] the service he has rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel-steel alloys"[19]
1921 Einstein1921 by F Schmutzer 4.jpg Albert Einstein Germany "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"[20]
1922 Niels Bohr.jpg Niels Bohr Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of [[atom]s and of the radiation emanating from them"[21]
1923 Robert Andrews Millikan 1920s.jpg Robert Andrews Millikan United States "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"[22]
1924 1924 Karl Manne Siegbahn.jpg Manne Siegbahn Sweden "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"[23]
1925 James Franck 1925.jpg James Franck Germany "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[24]
Gustav Hertz.jpg Gustav Hertz Germany
1926 Jean Perrin 1926.jpg Jean Baptiste Perrin France "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"[25]
1927 Arthur Compton.jpg Arthur Holly Compton United States "for his discovery of the effect named after him"[26]
CTR Wilson.jpg Charles Thomson Rees Wilson United Kingdom "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"[26]
1928 Owen Richardson.jpg Owen Willans Richardson United Kingdom "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"[27]
1929 Broglie Big.jpg Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie France "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"[28]
1930 Sir CV Raman.JPG Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman India "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"[29]
1931 Not awarded
1932 Bundesarchiv Bild183-R57262, Werner Heisenberg crop.jpg Werner Heisenberg Germany "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"[30]
1933 Erwin Schrödinger (1933).jpg Erwin Schrödinger Austria "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"[31]
Paul Dirac, 1933.jpg Paul Dirac United Kingdom
1934 Not awarded
1935 Fáìlì:Chadwick.jpg James Chadwick United Kingdom "for the discovery of the neutron"[32]
1936 Hess.jpg Victor Francis Hess Austria "for his discovery of cosmic radiation"[33]
Carl David Anderson United States "for his discovery of the positron"[33]
1937 Clinton Davisson.jpg Clinton Joseph Davisson United States "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"[34]
George Paget Thomson.jpg George Paget Thomson United Kingdom
1938 Enrico Fermi 1943-49 140x190.jpg Enrico Fermi Italy "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"[35]
1939 Ernest Lawrence.jpg Ernest Lawrence United States "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"[36]
1940 Not awarded
1941 Not awarded
1942 Not awarded
1943 Otto Stern.jpg Otto Stern United States "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"[37]
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi.jpg Isidor Isaac Rabi United States "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[38]
1945 Wolfgang Pauli ETH-Bib Portr 01042.jpg Wolfgang Pauli Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[39]
1946 Bridgman.jpg Percy Williams Bridgman United States "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics"[40]
1947 Appleton.jpg Edward Victor Appleton United Kingdom "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"[41]
1948 Blackett-large.jpg Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett United Kingdom "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"[42]
1949 Yukawa.jpg Hideki Yukawa Japan "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"[43]
1950 Cecil Powell.jpg Cecil Frank Powell United Kingdom "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"[44]
1951 John Douglas Cockcroft United Kingdom "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"[45]
Ernest Walton.jpg Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton Ireland
1952 Felix Bloch, Stanford University.jpg Felix Bloch United States "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[46]
Edward Mills Purcell.jpg Edward Mills Purcell United States
1953 Zernike.jpg Frits Zernike Netherlands "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"[47]
1954 Max Born.jpg Max Born United Kingdom "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[48]
Bothe.jpg Walther Bothe West Germany "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"[48]
1955 Willis Lamb 1955.jpg Willis Eugene Lamb United States "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"[49]
Polykarp Kusch.jpg Polykarp Kusch United States "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"[49]
1956 Bardeen.jpg John Bardeen United States "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"[50]
Brattain.jpg Walter Houser Brattain United States
William Shockley, Stanford University.jpg William Bradford Shockley United States
1957 Tsung-Dao Lee China "for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"[51]
CNYang.jpg Chen Ning Yang China
1958 Cerenkov.jpg Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[52]
Ilya Frank.jpg Ilya Frank Soviet Union
Igor Tamm.jpg Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm Soviet Union
1959 Owen Chamberlain.jpg Owen Chamberlain United States "for their discovery of the antiproton"[53]
Segre.jpg Emilio Gino Segrè Italy
1960 Donald Arthur Glaser United States "for the invention of the bubble chamber"[54]
1961 Robert Hofstadter.jpg Robert Hofstadter United States "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[55]
Mossbauer.jpg Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer West Germany "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"[55]
1962 Landau.jpg Lev Davidovich Landau Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"[56]
1963 Wigner.jpg Eugene Paul Wigner Hungary – United States "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[57]
Maria Goeppert-Mayer.jpg Maria Goeppert-Mayer United States "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"[57]
Johannes Hans Daniel Jensen (1907–1973).jpg J. Hans D. Jensen West Germany
1964 Basov.jpg Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov Soviet Union "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"[58]
Aleksandr Prokhorov.jpg Alexander Prokhorov Soviet Union
Fáìlì:Charles Townes Nobel.jpg Charles Hard Townes United States
1965 Richard Phillips Feynman United States "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[59]
Schwinger.jpg Julian Schwinger United States
Tomonaga.jpg Sin-Itiro Tomonaga Japan
1966 Kastler.jpg Alfred Kastler France "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"[60]
1967 Hans Bethe.jpg Hans Albrecht Bethe United States "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"[61]
1968 LWA Picture Final.jpg Luis Walter Alvarez United States "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"[62]
1969 Murray Gell-Mann.jpg Murray Gell-Mann United States "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[63]
1970 YoungAlfven.jpg Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén Sweden "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"[64]
Louis Neel 1970.jpg Louis Néel France "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"[64]

Fáìlì:Dennis Gabor.jpg

Dennis Gabor Hungary – United Kingdom "for his invention and development of the holographic method"[65]
1972 Bardeen.jpg John Bardeen United States "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"[66]
Nobel Laureate Leon Cooper in 2007.jpg Leon Neil Cooper United States
John Robert Schrieffer.jpg John Robert Schrieffer United States
1973 Fáìlì:Leo Esaki 1973.jpg Leo Esaki Japan "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"[67]
Ivar Giaever.jpg Ivar Giaever United States
Fáìlì:Brian David Josephson.jpg Brian David Josephson United Kingdom "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[67]
1974 Martin Ryle United Kingdom "for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"[68]
Antony Hewish United Kingdom
1975 Aage Bohr.jpg Aage Bohr Denmark "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[69]
Mottelson,Ben 1963 Kopenhagen.jpg Ben Roy Mottelson Denmark
Leo James Rainwater United States
1976 Burton Richter - charm quark.jpg Burton Richter United States "for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[70]
Samuel ting 10-19-10.jpg Samuel Chao Chung Ting United States
1977 Andersonphoto.jpg Philip Warren Anderson United States "for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"[71]
Fáìlì:Sir Nevill Francis Mott.jpg Nevill Francis Mott United Kingdom
JH van Vleck 1974.jpg John Hasbrouck Van Vleck United States
1978 Pyotr L Kapitsa Russian physicist 1964.jpg Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa Soviet Union "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"[72]
Arno Penzias.jpg Arno Allan Penzias United States "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"[72]
Wilson penzias200.jpg Robert Woodrow Wilson United States
1979 Sheldon Glashow at Harvard cropped.jpg Sheldon Lee Glashow United States "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[73]
Fáìlì:Abdus salam.gif Abdus Salam Pakistan
Steven weinberg 2010.jpg Steven Weinberg United States
1980 James-cronin.jpg James Watson Cronin United States "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"[74]
Val Logsdon Fitch United States
1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen 1981.jpg Nicolaas Bloembergen United States "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"[75]
Artur Schawlow, Stanford University.jpg Arthur Leonard Schawlow United States
Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn 2.jpg Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn Sweden "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"[75]
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson United States "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"[76]
1983 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar India
United States
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"[77]
William Alfred Fowler United States "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"[77]
1984 Carlo Rubbia W and Z bosons.jpg Carlo Rubbia Italy "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"[78]
Simon van der Meer Netherlands
1985 Klaus von Klitzing 2015.jpg Klaus von Klitzing West Germany "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"[79]
1986 Ernst Ruska West Germany "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"[80]
Gerd Binnig sw.jpg Gerd Binnig West Germany "for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"[80]
Rohrer.jpg Heinrich Rohrer Switzerland
1987 Georg Bednorz speaking at the groundbreaking of the new IBM and ETH Zurich Nanotech Exploratory Technology Lab.jpg Johannes Georg Bednorz West Germany "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"[81]
Karl Alexander Mueller.jpg Karl Alexander Müller Switzerland
1988 Leon M. Lederman.jpg Leon Max Lederman United States "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[82]
Melvin Schwartz United States
Jack-Steinberger-2008.JPG Jack Steinberger United States
1989 Norman Foster Ramsey United States "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"[83]
Hans Georg Dehmelt United States "for the development of the ion trap technique"[83]
Wolfgang Paul West Germany
1990 Jerome I. Friedman United States "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[84]
Henry Kendall by Tom Frost crop.jpg Henry Way Kendall United States
Richard E. Taylor Canada
1991 Pierre-Gilles crop.jpg Pierre-Gilles de Gennes France "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"[85]
1992 CHARPAK Georges-24x50-2005 cropped.JPG Georges Charpak France "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[86]
1993 Russell Alan Hulse United States "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"[87]
2008JosephTaylor.jpg Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. United States
1994 Bertram Brockhouse.jpg Bertram Brockhouse Canada "for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[88]
Clifford Glenwood Shull United States "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[88]
1995 Martin Perl - tau.jpg Martin Lewis Perl United States "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[89]
Frederick Reines.jpg Frederick Reines United States "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[89]
1996 Nobel Laureate David Morris Lee in 2007.jpg David Morris Lee United States "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[90]
Douglas Osheroff NSF.jpg Douglas D. Osheroff United States
Robert Coleman Richardson.jpg Robert Coleman Richardson United States
1997 Steven Chu official portrait headshot.jpg Steven Chu United States "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light."[91]
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji.JPG Claude Cohen-Tannoudji France
William Phillips-physicist photo.jpg William Daniel Phillips United States
1998 Robert Laughlin, Stanford University.jpg Robert B. Laughlin United States "for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"[92]
Horst Störmer cropped.jpg Horst Ludwig Störmer Germany
Daniel Chee Tsui United States
1999 GerardtHooft.jpg Gerard 't Hooft Netherlands "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"[93]
Martinus Veltman.jpg Martinus J. G. Veltman Netherlands
2000 Zhores Alferov.jpg Zhores Ivanovich Alferov Russia "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[94]
Herbert Kroemer Germany
Jack St. Clair Kilby United States "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"[94]
2001 Eric Allin Cornell United States "for the achievement of Bose–Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"[95]
Carl Edwin Wieman United States
Ketterle.jpg Wolfgang Ketterle Germany
2002 Raymond Davis, Jr 2001.jpg Raymond Davis, Jr. United States "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"[96]
Masatoshi Koshiba Japan
RiccardoGiacconi.jpg Riccardo Giacconi Italy "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"[96]
2003 AA Abrikosov ANL1.jpg Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov Russia "for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"[97]
Ginzburg in MSU opaque.jpg Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg Russia
Nobel Laureate Sir Anthony James Leggett in 2007.jpg Anthony James Leggett United Kingdom
United States
2004 David Gross LANL.jpg David J. Gross United States "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"[98]
Hugh David Politzer United States
Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek 2007.jpg Frank Wilczek United States
2005 Roy Glauber Dec 10 2005.jpg Roy J. Glauber United States "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[99]
John L. Hall.jpg John L. Hall United States "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"[99]
Theodor W Haensch.jpg Theodor W. Hänsch Germany
2006 John-C-Mather5.jpg John C. Mather United States "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"[100]
George Smoot crop.jpg George F. Smoot United States
2007 Albert Fert 0109.jpg Albert Fert France "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"[101]
Peter Gruenberg 01.jpg Peter Grünberg Germany
2008 Mkobayashi.jpg Makoto Kobayashi Japan "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"[102]
Masukawa.jpg Toshihide Maskawa Japan
YoichiroNambu.jpg Yoichiro Nambu United States "for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"[102]
2009 Charles K. Kao cropped 2.jpg Charles K. Kao Hong Kong
United Kingdom
United States
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"[103]
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-23.jpg Willard S. Boyle Canada
United States
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor"[103]
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-27.jpg George E. Smith United States
2010 Geim.jpg Andre Geim Russia
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"[104]
Konstantin Novoselov at MIPT.jpg Konstantin Novoselov Russia
United Kingdom
2011 Saul Perlmutter.jpg Saul Perlmutter United States "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"[105]
Brian P Schmidt.jpg Brian P. Schmidt Australia
United States
Adam Riess.jpg Adam G. Riess United States
2012 Serge Haroche - Théâtre de la Commune d'Aubervilliers - 4 mai 2009.jpg Serge Haroche France
"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems."[106]
David Wineland 2008crop.jpg David J. Wineland United States

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^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel Laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel Laureate at nobelprize.org.

^ B. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of physics for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel Laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.