Fósfórù

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Fósfórù
15P
N

P

As
sílíkọ́nùfósfórùsulfur
Ìhànsójú
colourless, waxy white, yellow, scarlet, red, violet, black

waxy white (yellow cut), red (granules centre left, chunk centre right), and violet phosphorus
Àwọn ìdámọ́ wíwọ́pọ̀
Orúkọ, àmì-ìdámọ́, nọ́mbà fósfórù, P, 15
Ìpèlóhùn /ˈfɒsfərəs/ FOS-fər-əs
Ẹ̀ka ẹ́límẹ̀nti aláìjẹ́-mẹ́tàlì
Ẹgbẹ́, àsìkò, àdìpò 153, p
Ìwúwo átọ́mù 30.973762(2)
Ìtòléra ẹ̀lẹ́ktrónì [Ne] 3s2 3p3
2, 8, 5
Electron shells of phosphorus (2, 8, 5)
Ìtàn
Ìwárí Hennig Brand (1669)
Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier[1] (1777)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) (white) 1.823, (red) ≈ 2.2 – 2.34, (violet) 2.36, (black) 2.69 g·cm−3
Melting point (white) 44.2 °C, (black) 610 °C
Sublimation point (red) ≈ 416 – 590  °C, (violet) 620 °C
Boiling point (white) 280.5 °C
Heat of fusion (white) 0.66 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vapourisation (white) 12.4 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity (white)
23.824 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapour pressure (white)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 279 307 342 388 453 549
Vapour pressure (red, bp. 431 °C)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 455 489 529 576 635 704
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2[2], 1[3], −1, −2, −3
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.19 (Pauling scale)
Ionisation energies
(more)
1st: 1011.8 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1907 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2914.1 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 107±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 180 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure triclinic
Fósfórù has a simple triclinic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering (white, red, violet, black) diamagnetic[4]
Thermal conductivity (white) 0.236, (black) 12.1 W·m−1·K−1
Bulk modulus (white) 5, (red) 11 GPa
CAS registry number 7723-14-0
Àwọn ísótòpù dídúró jùlọ
Main article: Àwọn ísótòpù fósfórù
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
31P 100% 31P is stable with 16 neutrons
32P syn 14.28 d β 1.709 32S
33P syn 25.3 d β 0.249 33S
· r

Fósfórù ni ẹ́límẹ̀ntì kẹ́míkà kan tó ní àmì-ìdámọ̀ P àti nọ́mbà átọ̀mù 15. Elimenti to je alaije-metali afagbarapupodimu to wa ninu egbe nitrojin, fosforu gegebi alumoni unwa ni ipoaye isodioksidi bo se ye, gegebi inorganic awon okuta fosfati alainiorgani. Elimenti fosforu wa ni ida meji pataki—fosforu funfun ati fosforu pupa—sugbon nitori isedarapo giga re, fosforu ko da wa bi elimenti lori Aye.

The first form of elemental phosphorus to be produced (white phosphorus, in 1669) emits a faint glow upon exposure to oxygen – hence its name given from Greek mythology, Φωσφόρος meaning "light-bearer" (Latin Lucifer), referring to the "Morning Star", the planet Venus. The term "phosphorescence", meaning glow after illumination, originally derives from this property of phosphorus, although this word has since been used for a different physical process that produces a glow. The glow of phosphorus itself originates from oxidation of the white (but not red) phosphorus— a process now termed chemiluminescence.


Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. cf. "Memoir on Combustion in General" Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences 1777, 592–600. from Henry Marshall Leicester and Herbert S. Klickstein, A Source Book in Chemistry 1400–1900 (New York: McGraw Hill, 1952)
  2. webelements
  3. Ellis, Bobby D.; MacDonald, Charles L. B. (2006). "Phosphorus(I) Iodide: A Versatile Metathesis Reagent for the Synthesis of Low Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds". Inorganic Chemistry 45 (17): 6864–74. doi:10.1021/ic060186o. PMID 16903744. 
  4. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Àdàkọ:RubberBible86th