Gadolinium

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Gadolinium
64Gd
-

Gd

Cm
europiumgadoliniumterbium
Ìhànsójú
silvery white
Àwọn ìdámọ́ wíwọ́pọ̀
Orúkọ, àmì-ìdámọ́, nọ́mbà gadolinium, Gd, 64
Ìpèlóhùn /ˌɡædɵˈlɪniəm/
GAD-o-LIN-ee-əm
Ẹ̀ka ẹ́límẹ̀nti lanthanide
Ẹgbẹ́, àsìkò, àdìpò n/a6, f
Ìwúwo átọ́mù 157.25
Ìtòléra ẹ̀lẹ́ktrónì [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 7.90 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 7.4 g·cm−3
Melting point 1585 K, 1312 °C, 2394 °F
Boiling point 3546 K, 3273 °C, 5923 °F
Heat of fusion 10.05 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 301.3 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 37.03 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure (calculated)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1836 2028 2267 2573 2976 3535
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 1, 2, 3 (mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.20 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 593.4 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1170 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 1990 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 180 pm
Covalent radius 196±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Gadolinium has a hexagonal crystal structure
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic/paramagnetic
transition at 292 K[1]
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly) 1.310 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 10.6 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (100 °C) (α, poly) 9.4 µm/(m·K)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 2680 m·s−1
Young's modulus (α form) 54.8 GPa
Shear modulus (α form) 21.8 GPa
Bulk modulus (α form) 37.9 GPa
Poisson ratio (α form) 0.259
Vickers hardness 570 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-54-2
Àwọn ísótòpù dídúró jùlọ
Main article: Àwọn ísótòpù gadolinium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
152Gd 0.20% 1.08×1014 y α 2.205 148Sm
154Gd 2.18% 154Gd is stable with 90 neutrons
155Gd 14.80% 155Gd is stable with 91 neutrons
156Gd 20.47% 156Gd is stable with 92 neutrons
157Gd 15.65% 157Gd is stable with 93 neutrons
158Gd 24.84% 158Gd is stable with 94 neutrons
160Gd 21.86% >1.3×1021y ββ 1.7 160Dy
· r


Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. Charles Kittel (1996). Introduction to Solid State Physics. New York: Wiley. p. 449.