Thulium

Lát'ọwọ́ Wikipedia, ìwé ìmọ̀ ọ̀fẹ́
Lọ sí: atọ́ka, àwárí
Thulium
69Tm
-

Tm

Md
erbiumthuliumytterbium
Ìhànsójú
silvery gray
Àwọn ìdámọ́ wíwọ́pọ̀
Orúkọ, àmì-ìdámọ́, nọ́mbà thulium, Tm, 69
Ẹ̀ka ẹ́límẹ̀nti lanthanide
Ẹgbẹ́, àsìkò, àdìpò n/a6, f
Ìwúwo átọ́mù 168.93421
Ìtòléra ẹ̀lẹ́ktrónì [Xe] 4f13 6s2
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 9.32 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 8.56 g·cm−3
Melting point 1818 K, 1545 °C, 2813 °F
Boiling point 2223 K, 1950 °C, 3542 °F
Heat of fusion 16.84 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 247 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 27.03 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1117 1235 1381 1570 (1821) (2217)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 2, 3, 4 (basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.25 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 596.7 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1160 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2285 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 176 pm
Covalent radius 190±10 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Thulium has a hexagonal crystal structure
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic at 300 K
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (poly) 676 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 16.9 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (poly)
13.3 µm/(m·K)
Young's modulus 74.0 GPa
Shear modulus 30.5 GPa
Bulk modulus 44.5 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.213
Vickers hardness 520 MPa
Brinell hardness 471 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-30-4
Àwọn ísótòpù dídúró jùlọ
Main article: Àwọn ísótòpù thulium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
167Tm syn 9.25 d ε 0.748 167Er
168Tm syn 93.1 d ε 1.679 168Er
169Tm 100% 169Tm is stable with 100 neutrons
170Tm syn 128.6 d β 0.968 170Yb
171Tm syn 1.92 y β 0.096 171Yb
· r


Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]