Hafnium

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Hafnium
72Hf
Zr

Hf

Rf
lutetiumhafniumtantalum
Ìhànsójú
steel grey
Àwọn ìdámọ́ wíwọ́pọ̀
Orúkọ, àmì-ìdámọ́, nọ́mbà hafnium, Hf, 72
Ìpèlóhùn /ˈhæfniəm/, HAF-nee-əm
Ẹ̀ka ẹ́límẹ̀nti transition metal
Ẹgbẹ́, àsìkò, àdìpò 46, d
Ìwúwo átọ́mù 178.49
Ìtòléra ẹ̀lẹ́ktrónì [Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 13.31 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 12 g·cm−3
Melting point 2506 K, 2233 °C, 4051 °F
Boiling point 4876 K, 4603 °C, 8317 °F
Heat of fusion 27.2 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 571 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 25.73 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2689 2954 3277 3679 4194 4876
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2 (amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.3 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 658.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1440 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2250 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 159 pm
Covalent radius 175±10 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Hafnium has a hexagonal crystal structure
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[1]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 331 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 23.0 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 5.9 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 3010 m·s−1
Young's modulus 78 GPa
Shear modulus 30 GPa
Bulk modulus 110 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.37
Mohs hardness 5.5
Vickers hardness 1760 MPa
Brinell hardness 1700 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-58-6
Àwọn ísótòpù dídúró jùlọ
Main article: Àwọn ísótòpù hafnium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
172Hf syn 1.87 y ε 0.350 172Lu
174Hf 0.162% 2×1015 y α 2.495 170Yb
176Hf 5.206% 176Hf is stable with 104 neutrons
177Hf 18.606% 177Hf is stable with 105 neutrons
178Hf 27.297% 178Hf is stable with 106 neutrons
178m2Hf syn 31 y IT 2.446 178Hf
179Hf 13.629% 179Hf is stable with 107 neutrons
180Hf 35.1% 180Hf is stable with 108 neutrons
182Hf syn 9×106 y β 0.373 182Ta
· r


Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.