Ruthenium

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Ruthenium
44Ru
Fe

Ru

Os
technetiumrutheniumrhodium
Ìhànsójú
silvery white metallic
Àwọn ìdámọ́ wíwọ́pọ̀
Orúkọ, àmì-ìdámọ́, nọ́mbà ruthenium, Ru, 44
Ìpèlóhùn /ruːˈθiːniəm/
roo-THEE-nee-əm
Ẹ̀ka ẹ́límẹ̀nti transition metal
Ẹgbẹ́, àsìkò, àdìpò 85, d
Ìwúwo átọ́mù 101.07
Ìtòléra ẹ̀lẹ́ktrónì [Kr] 4d7 5s1
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Physical properties
Density (near r.t.) 12.45 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 10.65 g·cm−3
Melting point 2607 K, 2334 °C, 4233 °F
Boiling point 4423 K, 4150 °C, 7502 °F
Heat of fusion 38.59 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 591.6 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 24.06 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2588 2811 3087 3424 3845 4388
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 8, 7, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1,[1], -2
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.3 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 710.2 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1620 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2747 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 134 pm
Covalent radius 146±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Ruthenium has a hexagonal crystal structure
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[2]
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) 71 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 117 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 6.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 5970 m·s−1
Young's modulus 447 GPa
Shear modulus 173 GPa
Bulk modulus 220 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.30
Mohs hardness 6.5
Brinell hardness 2160 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-18-8
Àwọn ísótòpù dídúró jùlọ
Main article: Àwọn ísótòpù ruthenium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
96Ru 5.52% 96Ru is stable with 52 neutrons
97Ru syn 2.9 d ε - 97Tc
γ 0.215, 0.324 -
98Ru 1.88% 98Ru is stable with 54 neutrons
99Ru 12.7% 99Ru is stable with 55 neutrons
100Ru 12.6% 100Ru is stable with 56 neutrons
101Ru 17.0% 101Ru is stable with 57 neutrons
102Ru 31.6% 102Ru is stable with 58 neutrons
103Ru syn 39.26 d β 0.226 103Rh
γ 0.497 -
104Ru 18.7% 104Ru is stable with 60 neutrons
106Ru syn 373.59 d β 3.54 106Rh
· r


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