Àdàkọ:Infobox kárbọ̀nù

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Kárbọ̀nù, 6C
Diamond-and-graphite-with-scale.jpg
Graphite (left) and diamond (right), two allotropes of carbon
Kárbọ̀nù
Ìhànsójúclear (diamond) & black (graphite)
Ìwúwo átọ̀mù Ar, std(C)[12.009612.0116] conventional: 12.011
Kárbọ̀nù ní orí tábìlì àyè
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
-

C

Si
bórọ̀nùkárbọ̀nùnítrójìn
Nọ́mbà átọ̀mù (Z)6
Ẹgbẹ́group 14 (carbon group)
Àyèàyè 2
Àdìpọ̀Àdìpọ̀-p
Ẹ̀ka ẹ́límẹ́ntì  Reactive nonmetal
Ìtò ẹ̀lẹ́ktrọ́nù[He] 2s2 2p2
Iye ẹ̀lẹ́ktrọ́nù lórí ìpele kọ̀ọ̀kan2, 4
Àwọn ohun ìní ara
Ìfarahàn at STPsolid
Sublimation point3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Kíki (near r.t.)amorphous:[1] 1.8–2.1 g/cm3
diamond: 3.515 g/cm3
graphite: 2.267 g/cm3
Triple point4600 K, ​10800[2][3] kPa
Heat of fusion117 (graphite) kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity6.155 (diamond)
8.517 (graphite) J/(mol·K)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, +1,[4] +2, +3,[5] +4[6] Àdàkọ:Infobox element/symbol-to-oxidation-state/comment
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.55
energies
Covalent radius77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm
Van der Waals radius170 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of kárbọ̀nù
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structure
Diamond crystal structure for kárbọ̀nù

(diamond, clear)
Speed of sound thin rod18350 (diamond) m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion0.8 (diamond)[7] µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity900-2300 (diamond)
119-165 (graphite) W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[8]
Young's modulus1050 (diamond)[7] GPa
Shear modulus478 (diamond)[7] GPa
Bulk modulus442 (diamond)[7] GPa
Poisson ratio0.1 (diamond)[7]
Mohs hardness10 (diamond)
1-2 (graphite)
CAS Number7440-44-0
History
DiscoveryEgyptians and Sumerians[9] (3750 BC)
Recognized as an element byAntoine Lavoisier[10] (1789)
Main isotopes of kárbọ̀nù
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct

15

11C syn 20 min β+ 0.96 11B
12C 98.9% 12C is stable with 6 neutrons
13C 1.1% 13C is stable with 7 neutrons
14C trace 5730 y β 0.15 14N
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References

  1. Àdàkọ:RubberBible86th
  2. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon 14 (6): 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5. 
  3. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027. 
  4. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  5. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  6. "Carbon: Binary compounds". Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  8. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  9. "History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky". Caer.uky.edu. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  10. Senese, Fred (200-09-09). "Who discovered carbon?". Frostburg State University. Retrieved 2007-11-24.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  11. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  12. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  13. "Carbon: Binary compounds". Retrieved 2007-12-06.