Calcium

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Calcium
20Ca
Mg

Ca

Sr
potassiumcalciumscandium
Ìhànsójú
Dull gray, silver
Àwọn ìdámọ́ wíwọ́pọ̀
Orúkọ, àmì-ìdámọ́, nọ́mbà calcium, Ca, 20
Ẹ̀ka ẹ́límẹ̀nti alkaline earth metal
Ẹgbẹ́, àsìkò, àdìpò 24, s
Ìwúwo átọ́mù 40.078(4)
Ìtòléra ẹ̀lẹ́ktrónì [Ar] 4s2
2, 8, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 1.55 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 1.378 g·cm−3
Melting point 1115 K, 842 °C, 1548 °F
Boiling point 1757 K, 1484 °C, 2703 °F
Heat of fusion 8.54 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 154.7 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 25.929 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 864 956 1071 1227 1443 1755
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 2
(strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.00 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 589.8 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1145.4 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4912.4 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 197 pm
Covalent radius 176±10 pm
Van der Waals radius 231 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
Calcium has a face-centered cubic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 33.6 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 201 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 22.3 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 3810 m·s−1
Young's modulus 20 GPa
Shear modulus 7.4 GPa
Bulk modulus 17 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.31
Mohs hardness 1.75
Brinell hardness 167 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-70-2
Àwọn ísótòpù dídúró jùlọ
Main article: Àwọn ísótòpù calcium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
40Ca 96.941% 40Ca is stable with 20 neutrons
41Ca trace 1.03×105 y ε - 41K
42Ca 0.647% 42Ca is stable with 22 neutrons
43Ca 0.135% 43Ca is stable with 23 neutrons
44Ca 2.086% 44Ca is stable with 24 neutrons
45Ca syn 162.7 d β 0.258 45Sc
46Ca 0.004% >2.8×1015 y ββ  ? 46Ti
47Ca syn 4.536 d β 0.694, 1.99 47Sc
γ 1.297 -
48Ca 0.187% >4×1019 y ββ  ? 48Ti
· r

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