Bórọ̀nù

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(Àtúnjúwe láti Boron)
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Bórọ̀nù, 5B
Boron mNACTEC.jpg
boron (β-rhombohedral)[1]
Bórọ̀nù
Pípè /ˈbɔːrɒn/ (BOR-on)
Ìhànsójúblack-brown
Ìwúwo átọ̀mù Ar, std(B)[10.80610.821] conventional: 10.81
Bórọ̀nù ní orí tábìlì àyè
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
-

B

Al
bẹ́rílíọ̀mùbórọ̀nùcarbon
Nọ́mbà átọ̀mù (Z)5
Ẹgbẹ́group 13 (boron group)
Àyèàyè 2
Àdìpọ̀Àdìpọ̀-p
Ẹ̀ka ẹ́límẹ́ntì  Metalloid
Ìtò ẹ̀lẹ́ktrọ́nù[He] 2s2 2p1
Iye ẹ̀lẹ́ktrọ́nù lórí ìpele kọ̀ọ̀kan2, 3
Àwọn ohun ìní ara
Ìfarahàn at STPaláralíle
Ìgbà ìyọ́2349 K ​(2076 °C, ​3769 °F)
Ígbà ìhó4200 K ​(3927 °C, ​7101 °F)
Kíki when liquid (at m.p.)2.08 g/cm3
Heat of fusion50.2 kJ/mol
Heat of 480 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity11.087 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2348 2562 2822 3141 3545 4072
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−5, −1, 0,[2] +1, +2, +3[3][4] Àdàkọ:Infobox element/symbol-to-oxidation-state/comment
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.04
energies
Atomic radiusempirical: 90 pm
Covalent radius84±3 pm
Van der Waals radius192 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of bórọ̀nù
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurerhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for bórọ̀nù
Speed of sound thin rod16,200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion(β form) 5–7[5] µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity27.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity~106  Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[6]
Mohs hardness~9.5
CAS Number7440-42-8
History
DiscoveryJoseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard[7] (30 June 1808)
First isolationHumphry Davy[8] (9 July 1808)
Main isotopes of bórọ̀nù
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
10B 19.9(7)%* 10B is stable with 5 neutrons[9]
11B 80.1(7)%* 11B is stable with 6 neutrons[9]
  • Boron-10 content may be as low as 19.1% and as
    high as 20.3% in natural samples. Boron-11 is
    the remainder in such cases.
    [10]
Àdàkọ:Category-inline
| references

Bórọ̀nù ni ẹ́límẹ̀ntì kẹ́míkà kan tó ní àmì-ìdámọ̀ B àti nọ́mbà átọ̀mù 5. Nítorípé bórọ̀nù jẹ́ dídá pátápátá pẹ̀lu ìtúká ìrànká kọ́smíkì tí kò sì jẹ́ pẹ̀lù núkléùkíkódájọpọ̀ oníràwọ̀,[12] kò fi bẹ́ẹ̀ pọ̀ ní inú sístẹ́mù òrùn àti nínú ìgbẹ́lẹ̀ Ayé. Bórọ̀nù wọ́jọ ní Ayé pẹ̀lu ìtúsómi àwọn àdàpọ̀ rẹ̀ tí wọ́n wọ́pọ̀, èyun ùn àwọn àlùmọ́nì bóràtì. Àwọn wọ̀nyí únjẹ́ wíwà láti inú ilẹ̀ ní ilé-iṣẹ́ gẹ́gẹ́bí ìṣágbẹ, bíi bóráksì àti kẹ́rnítì.

Bórọ̀nú, tó jẹ́ títòpọ̀ mọ́ ẹgbẹ́ mẹ́tálọ́ìdì, tí kò darapọ̀ bíi kẹ́míkà kò sí ní Ilé-Ayé. Ní ilé-iṣẹ́, ó ṣòro látí dá bórọ̀nù ògidì nítorípé oúndá èròjà míràn tí wọ́n ní kárbọ́nù tàbí àwọn ẹ́límẹ̀ntí míràn díẹ̀ nínú. Orísi àwọn àllótrópù bórọ̀nù lówà: bórọ̀nù amorphous boron is a brown powder and crystalline boron is black, extremely hard (about 9.5 on the Mohs scale), and a poor conductor at room temperature. Elemental boron is used as a dopant in the semiconductor industry.

Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. Van Setten et al. 2007, pp. 2460–1
  2. Braunschweig, H.; Dewhurst, R. D.; Hammond, K.; Mies, J.; Radacki, K.; Vargas, A. (2012). "Ambient-Temperature Isolation of a Compound with a Boron-Boron Triple Bond". Science 336 (6087): 1420–2. Bibcode 2012Sci...336.1420B. doi:10.1126/science.1221138. PMID 22700924. 
  3. Zhang, K.Q.; Guo, B.; Braun, V.; Dulick, M.; Bernath, P.F. (1995). "Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of BF and AIF". J. Molecular Spectroscopy 170 (1): 82. Bibcode 1995JMoSp.170...82Z. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1995.1058. http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/125.pdf. 
  4. Melanie Schroeder. "Eigenschaften von borreichen Boriden und Scandium-Aluminium-Oxid-Carbiden" (in de). p. 139. https://www.deutsche-digitale-bibliothek.de/binary/KKUKEQ5AXZBNJVU7NJCHZB4UXT2HAGJE/full/1.pdf. 
  5. Holcombe Jr., C. E.; Smith, D. D.; Lorc, J. D.; Duerlesen, W. K.; Carpenter; D. A. (October 1973). "Physical-Chemical Properties of beta-Rhombohedral Boron". High Temp. Sci. 5 (5): 349–57. 
  6. Lide, David R. (ed.) (2000). Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. CRC press. ISBN 0849304814. http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  7. Gay Lussac, J.L. and Thenard, L.J. (1808) "Sur la décomposition et la recomposition de l'acide boracique," Annales de chimie [later: Annales de chemie et de physique], vol. 68, pp. 169–174.
  8. Davy H (1809). "An account of some new analytical researches on the nature of certain bodies, particularly the alkalies, phosphorus, sulphur, carbonaceous matter, and the acids hitherto undecomposed: with some general observations on chemical theory". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 99: 33–104. http://books.google.com/books?id=gpwEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA140#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 2008-09-21. 
  10. Szegedi, S.; Váradi, M.; Buczkó, Cs. M.; Várnagy, M.; Sztaricskai, T. (1990). "Determination of boron in glass by neutron transmission method". Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Letters 146 (3): 177. doi:10.1007/BF02165219. 
  11. Zhang, K.Q.; Guo, B.; Braun, V.; Dulick, M.; Bernath, P.F. (1995). "Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of BF and AIF". J. Molecular Spectroscopy 170: 82. Bibcode 1995JMoSp.170...82Z. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1995.1058. http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/125.pdf. 
  12. "Q & A: Where does the element Boron come from?". physics.illinois.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-04.