Gallium

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Gallium, 31Ga
Gallium crystals.jpg
Gallium
Pípè /ˈɡæliəm/ (GAL-ee-əm)
Ìhànsójúsilvery white
Ìwúwo átọ̀mù Ar, std(Ga)69.723(1)[1]
Gallium ní orí tábìlì àyè
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Al

Ga

In
zincgalliumgermanium
Nọ́mbà átọ̀mù (Z)31
Ẹgbẹ́group 13 (boron group)
Àyèàyè 4
Àdìpọ̀Àdìpọ̀-p
Ẹ̀ka ẹ́límẹ́ntì  Post-transition metal
Ìtò ẹ̀lẹ́ktrọ́nù[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Iye ẹ̀lẹ́ktrọ́nù lórí ìpele kọ̀ọ̀kan2, 8, 18, 3
Àwọn ohun ìní ara
Ìfarahàn at STPsolid
Ìgbà ìyọ́302.9146 K ​(29.7646 °C, ​85.5763 °F)
Ígbà ìhó2477 K ​(2204 °C, ​3999 °F)
Kíki (near r.t.)5.91 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)6.095 g/cm3
Heat of fusion5.59 kJ/mol
Heat of 254 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.86 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1310 1448 1620 1838 2125 2518
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−5, −4, −3,[2] −2, −1, +1, +2, +3[3] Àdàkọ:Infobox element/symbol-to-oxidation-state/comment
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.81
energies
Atomic radiusempirical: 135 pm
Covalent radius122±3 pm
Van der Waals radius187 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of gallium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structureorthorhombic
Orthorhombic crystal structure for gallium
Speed of sound thin rod2740 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion1.2 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity40.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity270 Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
Young's modulus9.8 GPa
Poisson ratio0.47
Mohs hardness1.5
Brinell hardness60 MPa
CAS Number7440-55-3
Main isotopes of gallium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
69Ga 60.11% 69Ga is stable with 38 neutrons
71Ga 39.89% 71Ga is stable with 40 neutrons
Àdàkọ:Category-inline
| references


Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. Meija, Juris; Coplen, Tyler B.; Berglund, Michael; Brand, Willi A.; De Bièvre, Paul; Gröning, Manfred; Holden, Norman E.; Irrgeher, Johanna et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. Ga(−3) has been observed in LaGa, see Dürr, Ines; Bauer, Britta; Röhr, Caroline (2011). "Lanthan-Triel/Tetrel-ide La(Al,Ga)x(Si,Ge)1-x. Experimentelle und theoretische Studien zur Stabilität intermetallischer 1:1-Phasen". Z. Naturforsch. 66b: 1107–1121. http://www.znaturforsch.com/s66b/s66b1107.pdf. 
  3. Hofmann, Patrick (1997) (in de). Colture. Ein Programm zur interaktiven Visualisierung von Festkörperstrukturen sowie Synthese, Struktur und Eigenschaften von binären und ternären Alkali- und Erdalkalimetallgalliden. PhD Thesis, ETH Zurich. p. 72. doi:10.3929/ethz-a-001859893. ISBN 978-3728125972. http://www.uni-kassel.de/upress/online/frei/978-3-7281-2597-2.volltext.frei.pdf.