Ruthenium

Lát'ọwọ́ Wikipedia, ìwé ìmọ̀ ọ̀fẹ́
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Ruthenium, 44Ru
Ruthenium crystals.jpg
Ruthenium
Pípè /rˈθniəm/ (roo-THEE-nee-əm)
Ìhànsójúsilvery white metallic
Ìwúwo átọ̀mù Ar, std(Ru)101.07(2)[1]
Ruthenium ní orí tábìlì àyè
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Fe

Ru

Os
technetiumrutheniumrhodium
Nọ́mbà átọ̀mù (Z)44
Ẹgbẹ́group 8
Àyèàyè 5
Àdìpọ̀Àdìpọ̀-d
Ẹ̀ka ẹ́límẹ́ntì  Transition metal
Ìtò ẹ̀lẹ́ktrọ́nù[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Iye ẹ̀lẹ́ktrọ́nù lórí ìpele kọ̀ọ̀kan2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Àwọn ohun ìní ara
Ìfarahàn at STPÀdàkọ:Infobox element/symbol-to-phase
Ìgbà ìyọ́2607 K ​(2334 °C, ​4233 °F)
Ígbà ìhó4423 K ​(4150 °C, ​7502 °F)
Kíki (near r.t.)12.45 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)10.65 g/cm3
Heat of fusion38.59 kJ/mol
Heat of 591.6 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.06 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2588 2811 3087 3424 3845 4388
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−4, −2, 0, +1,[2] +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7, +8 Àdàkọ:Infobox element/symbol-to-oxidation-state/comment
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.3
Atomic radiusempirical: 134 pm
Covalent radius146±7 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of ruthenium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurehexagonal
Hexagonal crystal structure for ruthenium
Speed of sound thin rod5970 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion6.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity117 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity71 n Ω·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[3]
Young's modulus447 GPa
Shear modulus173 GPa
Bulk modulus220 GPa
Poisson ratio0.30
Mohs hardness6.5
Brinell hardness2160 MPa
CAS Number7440-18-8
Main isotopes of ruthenium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
96Ru 5.52% 96Ru is stable with 52 neutrons
97Ru syn 2.9 d ε - 97Tc
γ 0.215, 0.324 -
98Ru 1.88% 98Ru is stable with 54 neutrons
99Ru 12.7% 99Ru is stable with 55 neutrons
100Ru 12.6% 100Ru is stable with 56 neutrons
101Ru 17.0% 101Ru is stable with 57 neutrons
102Ru 31.6% 102Ru is stable with 58 neutrons
103Ru syn 39.26 d β 0.226 103Rh
γ 0.497 -
104Ru 18.7% 104Ru is stable with 60 neutrons
106Ru syn 373.59 d β 3.54 106Rh
Àdàkọ:Category-inline
| references


Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. Meija, Juris; Coplen, Tyler B.; Berglund, Michael; Brand, Willi A.; De Bièvre, Paul; Gröning, Manfred; Holden, Norman E.; Irrgeher, Johanna et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. "Ruthenium: ruthenium(I) fluoride compound data". OpenMOPAC.net. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  4. "Ruthenium: ruthenium(I) fluoride compound data". OpenMOPAC.net. Retrieved 2007-12-10.