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Germanium
32Ge
Si

Ge

Sn
galliumgermaniumarsenic
Ìhànsójú
grayish white
Grayish lustrous block with uneven cleaved surface
Àwọn ìdámọ́ wíwọ́pọ̀
Orúkọ, àmì-ìdámọ́, nọ́mbà germanium, Ge, 32
Ẹ̀ka ẹ́límẹ̀nti metalloid
Ẹgbẹ́, àsìkò, àdìpò 144, p
Ìwúwo átọ́mù 72.64
Ìtòléra ẹ̀lẹ́ktrónì [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
2, 8, 18, 4
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 5.323 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 5.60 g·cm−3
Melting point 1211.40 K, 938.25 °C, 1720.85 °F
Boiling point 3106 K, 2833 °C, 5131 °F
Heat of fusion 36.94 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 334 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 23.222 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1644 1814 2023 2287 2633 3104
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 2.01 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 762 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1537.5 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3302.1 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 122 pm
Covalent radius 122 pm
Van der Waals radius 211 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure diamond cubic
Germanium has a Diamond cubic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering Diamagnetic[1]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 1 Ω·m
Thermal conductivity 60.2 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion 6.0 µm/(m·K)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 5400 m·s−1
Young's modulus 103[2] GPa
Shear modulus 41[2] GPa
Bulk modulus 75[2] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.26[2]
Mohs hardness 6.0
CAS registry number 7440-56-4
Àwọn ísótòpù dídúró jùlọ
Main article: Àwọn ísótòpù germanium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
68Ge syn 270.8 d ε - 68Ga
70Ge 21.23% 70Ge is stable with 38 neutrons
71Ge syn 11.26 d ε - 71Ga
72Ge 27.66% 72Ge is stable with 40 neutrons
73Ge 7.73% 73Ge is stable with 41 neutrons
74Ge 35.94% 74Ge is stable with 42 neutrons
76Ge 7.44% 1.78×1021 y ββ - 76Se
· r



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