Jẹ́rmáníọ́mù

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Germanium, 32Ge
Grayish lustrous block with uneven cleaved surface
Germanium
Pípè /ərˈmniəm/ (jər-MAY-nee-əm)
Ìhànsójúgrayish white
Ìwúwo átọ̀mù Ar, std(Ge)72.630(8)[1]
Germanium ní orí tábìlì àyè
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Si

Ge

Sn
galliumgermaniumarsenic
Nọ́mbà átọ̀mù (Z)32
Ẹgbẹ́group 14 (carbon group)
Àyèàyè 4
Àdìpọ̀Àdìpọ̀-p
Ẹ̀ka ẹ́límẹ́ntì  Metalloid
Ìtò ẹ̀lẹ́ktrọ́nù[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Iye ẹ̀lẹ́ktrọ́nù lórí ìpele kọ̀ọ̀kan2, 8, 18, 4
Àwọn ohun ìní ara
Ìfarahàn at STPsolid
Ìgbà ìyọ́1211.40 K ​(938.25 °C, ​1720.85 °F)
Ígbà ìhó3106 K ​(2833 °C, ​5131 °F)
Kíki (near r.t.)5.323 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)5.60 g/cm3
Heat of fusion36.94 kJ/mol
Heat of 334 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity23.222 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1644 1814 2023 2287 2633 3104
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−4 −3, −2, −1, 0,[2] +1, +2, +3, +4 Àdàkọ:Infobox element/symbol-to-oxidation-state/comment
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.01
Atomic radiusempirical: 122 pm
Covalent radius122 pm
Van der Waals radius211 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of germanium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structure
Diamond cubic crystal structure for germanium
Speed of sound thin rod5400 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion6.0 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity60.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity1  Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingDiamagnetic[3]
Young's modulus103[4] GPa
Shear modulus41[4] GPa
Bulk modulus75[4] GPa
Poisson ratio0.26[4]
Mohs hardness6.0
CAS Number7440-56-4
Main isotopes of germanium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
68Ge syn 270.8 d ε - 68Ga
70Ge 21.23% 70Ge is stable with 38 neutrons
71Ge syn 11.26 d ε - 71Ga
72Ge 27.66% 72Ge is stable with 40 neutrons
73Ge 7.73% 73Ge is stable with 41 neutrons
74Ge 35.94% 74Ge is stable with 42 neutrons
76Ge 7.44% 1.78×1021 y ββ - 76Se
Àdàkọ:Category-inline
| references



Itokasi[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. Meija, Juris; Coplen, Tyler B.; Berglund, Michael; Brand, Willi A.; De Bièvre, Paul; Gröning, Manfred; Holden, Norman E.; Irrgeher, Johanna et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. "New Type of Zero-Valent Tin Compound". Chemistry Europe. 27 August 2016. 
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Properties of Germanium". Ioffe Institute. http://www.ioffe.ru/SVA/NSM/Semicond/Ge.