Àwọn èdè irú Yorùbá

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Yoruboid
Ìpínká
ìyaoríilẹ̀:
Togo, Benin and south-western Nigeria
Ìyàsọ́tọ̀:Niger-Kóngò
Àwọn ìpín-abẹ́:

Yoruboid is a group of languages composed of Igala, a language spoken in central Nigeria, and the Edekiri group, the members of which are spoken in a band across Togo, Benin and southwestern Nigeria. The name Yoruboid derives from its most widely spoken member, Yoruba, which has more than 20 million speakers. Another well-known Yoruboid language is Itsekiri (Nigeria, 600,00-800,000 speakers). The Yoruboid group is a branch of Defoid, which itself is a branch of the Benue-Congo subfamily of the Niger-Congo language family.

Igala is a key Yoruboid language, spoken by 1.8 million people in the Niger-Benue confluence of central Nigeria, it is excised from the main body of Yoruboid languages to the west by Ebirra and the Edo languages. Igala is closely related to both Yoruba and Itsekiri languages.

All Yoruboid languages are tonal, with most of them having three level tones. Grammatically, they are isolating with a Subject Object Verb basic word order.

The Itsekiri's are a riverine Yoruboid people who live in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. They maintain a distinct identity separate from other Yoruboid people. Their neighbours are the Urhobos, The Ijaws, and the Mahin Ilaje, a Yoruba clan.

Proto-Yoruboid reconstructions[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

See also: List of Proto-Yoruboid reconstructions (Wiktionary)

Èdè Yorùbá and Proto-Yoruboid:[1]

No. Èdè Gẹ̀ẹ́sì (English) Èdè Yorùbá PYIG (Proto-Yoruba-Igala) PYIS (Proto-Yoruba-Isekiri) PYOR (Proto-Yoruba)
1 abuse v., insult v. *bú
3 arid, up gbígbẹ *rò
4 all gbogbo *dVdV
9 arrive, meet dé, pàdé *dé
10 ashes èrúń *e-rĩ́rṹ
11 ask (question) béèrè *bi
12 axe àké *ɛ-dʊ̃̀
13 axe àké *-ké
14 back ẹ̀yìn *à-ɲì̃
15 bag àpò *à-kpò
16 bald, be párí *kpá (?)
19 beans ẹ̀wà *ɛ̀-gwà
20 beans ẹ̀wà *e-rèé
21 beat (person, drum) *lù
22 bedbug ìdun *ɪ̀-dʊ̃
23 bee, honey oyin *o-ɲĩ
25 big, great ńlá *-la
26 bird ẹyẹ *ɛ-wɛ
27 block, be *-dṹ
28 block (of hole, ear) *dĩ
30 blood ẹ̀jẹ̀ *ɛ̀-byɛ̀
31 blow (of wind, with mouth) fẹ́ *fɛ́
32 blow (of wind) fẹ́ *jù
33 body ara *V-ra
36 bone egungun *V-k'ĩk'ũ
39 bow n. tẹríba *ɔ-ɗʊ̃
40 break (pot, calabash etc.) fọ́ *fɔ́
42 break (nut) fọ́ *kpa
43 breast ọyọ̀n *ɛ-ɲã̀
44 breast ọyọ̀n *ɔ-mʊ̃́
45 breathe *ŋmĩ́
46 buffalo (bushcow) ẹfọ̀n *ɛ-fã̀
47 build (with bricks) kọ́ *kɔ́
49 burn (trans.) *jó
50 bury (object) sin *ɗì
51 bury (corpse) sin *sĩ
52 buttocks, button ìdí *ù-dí (ì-)
54 buy *rà
55 calabash igbá *ʊ-gbá
56 call, summon *kpè
57 carry load (on the head) *ɗù
58 carry load (with hands) gbé *gbé
59 carve (of wood) igbẹ *gbɛ̃́
62 chest àyà *à-yà
64 chew, masticate, crush jẹ *rʊ̃́
65 chew-stick, timber logs pákọ́ *o-rĩ́
66 chicken, fowl adìyẹ *a-dɪ̀wɛ
67 child(ren) ọmọ *ɔ-mã
68 chin, jaw àgbọ̀n *à-gbã̀
69 choose yàn *ɲã̀
71 clear (bush) ṣá oko *cã́
72 climb, mount gùn *gũ̀
74 cock àkùkọ *à-kɪ̀kɔ
76 come *ɓá
77 cook, boil *sì
78 corpse òkú *ò-kú
79 count *kà
80 cover, put on (head, pot) *dé
81 cover up, protect dáàbò *bò
82 cowry, niece (of something), seed idẹ, irugbin *ɛ-yɔ
83 crab akàn *a-kɪ̃ã̀rã́
84 crocodile ọ̀nì *ɔ̀-nɪ
85 crow ẹyẹ kanna kánná *kɔ
89 cut (with knife, axe), hack, peck gé, ṣá *cá
90 cut (with hand), sever *já
92 dance v. *jí
93 defecate ṣu *cũ
94 demolish (?) *gwí
96 destroy, exterminate parun *rũ
97 dew ìrì *è-rì
98 die *kú
100 dig gbẹ́ *gwà
101 dig, bore into (something) gbẹ́ *gwɔ̀
102 disease, illness àìsàn *à-wʊ̃̀
103 divide, share pín *kpɪ̃́
106 dog ajá *a-byá
107 drag wọ́ *gwɔ́
108 dream v. lí àlá *lá
109 dream n. àlá *V̀-lá
110 drink mímu *ŋmʊ̃
111 drive (vehicle), paddle *gwà
112 dry, become (of voter, cloth, etc.) gbẹ *gbɛ
113 duiker, antelope ẹtu *a-tu
115 ear etí *e-tĩ́
117 eat jẹun *jɛ
118 egg ẹyin *ɛ-g'ɪ
119 eight ẹ́jọ *ɛ́-jɔ
120 elephant erin *e-rĩ
122 end V., be finished parí *kpaVɗí
123 end v., be finished (intr.) parí *tã́
124 end of (something) òpin *òkpĩ
125 enter (a place) wọ̀ *wɔ̀
126 evening ìrọ̀lẹ́ *a-lɛ́
127 evidence ẹ̀rí *à-rí
131 eye ojú *e-jú
132 fads (of materials colour) ṣá *cá
133 faeces, excrement ìgbẹ́ *i-wĩ́
134 fall (of rain) rọ̀ *rɔ̀
135 farm n. oko *o-ko
136 farmer àgbẹ̀ *à-gbɛ̃̀
137 fastens lock, close *tĩ̀
138 fasten, lock, dam *sé
139 fat sanra (?) *V̀-rá
140 fear n. ẹ̀rù *à-rũ̀
141 feather ìyẹ́ *ɪ̀-wɛ́
142 feed (somebody) bọ́ *bɔ́
143 female alábìnrin *o-bí
144 female alábìnrin *a-bo
146 fight v. *jà
149 fire iná *ʊ-nɪ̃ã́
151 fish ẹja *ɛ-ja
152 fishhook ìwọ̀ *ʊ̀-wɔ̀
153 five áàrún *à-rʊ̃ã́
154 flow (as water, river) ṣàn *cã̀
155 fly, jump *fò
156 foam, rage, boil over *Có
158 foot, leg ẹsẹ̀ *ɔ-sɛ̃̀
159 forget gbàgbé *-gbé-
160 four ẹ́ẹ̀rin *ɛ̀-rɪ̃
162 friend ọ̀rẹ́ *o-lùkũ
163 friend ọ̀rẹ́ *ɔ̀-rɛ́
164 fruit èso *è-so
165 fruit-bat àdán *à-dɪ̃ã́
166 fry (in oil) dín *dɪ̃́
167 full, be kún *kʊ̃́
170 give birth *bí
171 glitter, shine ràn *dã́
172 go lọ *lɔ
173 goat, he òbúkọ *ɔ̀-bʊ́kɔ
174 goat, she ewúrẹ́ *e-ɓí
176 gown, robe ẹ̀wù *à-wù
178 grease ìpara *ʊ̀-jà (ɪ̀-)
180 greet, salute *gwa
181 greet, salute *kĩ́
182 grey hair ewú *i-ɓṹ
183 grind lọ̀ *lɔ̀
184 grinding stone ọlọ *V-lɔ
185 ground, earth ilẹ̀ *V-lɛ̀
187 grumble, murmur kanra *kʊ̃̀
188 guinea fowl awó *a-wí
189 guts, intestine ìfun *ìfũ (?)
191 hair irun *ʊ-rʊ̃
192 hand ọwọ́ *ɔ-ɓɔ́
193 hard, be, be difficult le *nĩ
195 hasten, quicken *yá
196 have, possess *nɪ̃́
197 he, she òun *ò-ŋũ
198 head orí *o-ɗí
199 hear gbọ́ *gbɔ́
200 heart (as a seat of emotion), chest ọkàn *ɛ̀-dʊ̃̀
201 heart (as an organ), conscience ọkàn *ɔ-kɪã̀
202 heavy, be wúwo *-ɓo
204 hips, waist ìbàdí *à-gí
205 hoe v., weed v. ṣáko *ro
206 hoe n. ọkọ́ *ɔ-kɔ́
208 hole ihò *u-Cò (i-)
210 horn (of animal) ìwo *ù-ɣo
211 hot, be (as pepper) ta *ta
212 house ilé *u-lí
213 housefly eṣinṣin *V-cĩcĩ
214 hunger ebi *e-bi
216 hunter ọdẹ *ɔ-dɛ
217 husband, (male) ọkọ *ɔ-kɔ
218 I èmi *ò-mĩ
220 inside of inu *ɪ-nʊ̃́
223 iron (metal) irin *ʊ-rɪ̃ (ɪ-)
226 journey àjò *à-jò
228 kill pa *kpa
229 knee orókún *-kṹ
230 knife ọ̀bẹ *ɔ̀-bɛ
231 know mọ̀ *mã̀
232 ladle (wooden) ṣíbí *ʊ̀-kpã (ɪ̀-)
233 language èdè *è-dè
234 laugh rẹ̀rín *rĩ́
235 laughter ẹ̀rín *à-rĩ́
236 leaf ewé *e-wé (i-)
237 lean against fẹ̀hìn tì *rɔ̀
238 learn, each kọ́ *kɔ́
239 left (hand, side) òsì *ò-sì
241 lick *lá
243 live in, dwell in gbé *gbé
244 liver ẹ̀dọ̀ *V̀-dɔ̀
245 load ẹrù *a-ɗũ̀
247 look at *g'ò
248 lose (something), get lost pàdánù *-nɔ̃̀
249 lost, be (intr.) sọnù *-nɔ̃̀
251 louse iná *ʊ-nɪ̃ã́
252 maggot ìdin *ɪ̀-dɪ̃
253 make, do ṣe *ce
255 make ridges kíkọ èbè *kɔ
258 man, male alákùnrin *ɔ-kʊ̃rɪ̃
259 many, be ọ̀pọ *wéwe
260 market place ọjà *a-jà
262 mat ẹní *a-nĩ́
264 measure ìwọ̀n *ŋwã̀
265 meat, animal ẹranko *ɛ-rɪ̃ã
266 medicine ògùn *o-gũ̀
268 millipede ọ̀kùn *ɔ̀-kʊ̃̀
269 money owó *e-ɣí
270 month oṣù *o-cũ̀
271 moon òṣùpá *ɔ̀-cʊ̃̀kpá
272 mosquito ẹ̀fọn *i-mṹ
273 mould (pottery), build (with clay) mọ̀ *mã
274 mouldy, become, become rotten kẹ̀ *bu
276 mouth ẹnu *a-rʊ̃ã
278 nail v. kàn *kã̀
279 nail (finger, toe) èékáná *ɛ̀-kɪ́kɪ̃ã́nã́
280 name n. orúkọ *o-ɗú
281 navel, umbilical cord ìdodo *u-do (i-)
282 neck ọrùn *ɔ-rʊ̃̀
283 new, be tuntun *-tʊ̃
284 night òru *ò-ɗũ
285 nine ẹ́ẹ̀sán *ɛ̀-ɛɪ̃ã́
286 noon ọ̀sán *ɔ̀-sɔ̃́
287 nose imú *ɪ-ŋmʊ̃́
288 nothing, emptiness òfo *-fo
290 oil, palm oil epo *e-kpo
291 old, be (of person, material) gbó *gbí
292 one oókàn *ɪ-nɛ̃́
293 ooze (as water from rock) tú jade *sʊ̃
294 open ṣí *cí
295 open, make way, separate *bì
298 pare (nails) *ré
299 pay (for something) san *sɪ̃ã
301 peel (with knife), slice *bɛ
303 pepper ata *a-ta
304 perch (as bird), descend *bà
305 perish parun *gbé
306 person ènìyàn *ɔ-nɪ̃
308 pierce, prick, stab gún ní ǹkan *gṹ
309 pierce, bore a hole lu *lu
310 plait (hair, rope), weave *bã
311 plait (hair, rope), tie *dĩ̀
312 plant v. (tubers) so *gbɛ̃̀
314 pound (in mortar) gún *gṹ
315 pour *dà
316 praise v. yìn *ɲɪ̃̀
318 pregnant, become lóyún *ɲʊ̃́
322 profit, gain pa *V̀-rè
324 pull *fà
325 push *tĩ̀
328 rabbit, hare ehoro *a-Coro
329 race n. eré *V-ré
331 rain, stream odò *a-ji
332 rain òjò *ò-jò
333 ram àgbò *à-gbò
334 razor abẹ *a-bɛ
335 receive, accept, obtain tẹ́wọ́gbà *gbà
336 recount, tell, say, gossip wí; sọ *kà
337 red, be pupa *-kpa
338 refuse v. kọ̀ *kɔ̀
339 rejoice yọ̀ *yɔ̀
340 relative-in-law àna *à-nɪ̃ã
341 reply n., answer n. dáhùn *V̀-sì
342 ribs ìhà *ʊ̀-ɣà
343 ridges ebè *V-bV̀
344 right (band, side) ọ̀tún *ɔ̀-tʊ̃́
345 ripe, become pọ́n *kpã́
346 roar, cry aloud *bú
347 roast (in fire) sun *sʊ̃
350 rope (general) okùn *V-kũ̀
351 rotten, become kẹ̀ *kɛ̀
352 rotten, become kẹ̀ *rà
354 rub pa *kpa
355 run (a race) *sá
356 rush out sáré jàde *rí
357 saliva itọ́ *ɪ-tɔ̃́
358 salt iyọ̀ *o-ɓũ
359 salt iyọ̀ *ɪ-yɔ̀
361 say sọ *gwĩ́
363 scrape off (with knife, razor) *fá
364 scratch, itch họ́ *Cʊ̃́
366 sea òkun *ò-kũ
367 see *rí
368 seed, grain èso *u-rú
371 sell *tà
372 send (someone to do something) rán *rã́
374 set trap, hunt dẹ *dɛ
375 seven éèje *è-bye
377 sew (with thread) rán *rã́
378 shade, swing ibojì *mĩ̀
379 shake off, peel off gbọ̀n *ŋwã́
383 shoot (gun) yìn *ɲi
384 shoot (arrow, catapult) ta *ta
385 show, appear ṣàfihàn, hàn *ŋɪ̃ã̀
386 side (of house, road) ẹ̀gbẹ́ *V̀-bá
387 side (of body) ẹ̀gbẹ́ *ɛ̀-gbɛ́
388 six ẹ́ẹ́fà *ɛ̀-fà
389 skin (by hand) yíya *bí
390 skin off, scratch yún *ɣa
391 skin, hide awọ *a-g'ɔ̃
392 slave ẹrú *a-ɗú
393 sleep v. sùn *sũ̀
394 sleep n. orun *o-rũ
395 slice, chop bẹ́, gé *rɛ́
397 smell, stink òórùn *rũ̀
398 snail ìgbín *ʊ̀-gbɪ̃́ (ɪ̀-)
399 snake ejò *e-jò
400 snap, break (stick), fold kán, ká *cɛ́
401 snatch, catch *ŋã́
402 snore họrun *ŋwõ̀
403 soft, be, be tender rírọ̀ *rɔ̀
404 soft, be (become excessively ripe) rọ̀ *dɛ̃̀
405 song orin *e-rĩ
406 sour, become kan *kã
407 smear sán *ɔ̀-kɪɔ̀
408 split, divide pín *dá
409 split *là
410 sprout, grow, germinate dàgbà *Cù
413 steal *jí
415 stomach ikùn *u-kũ̀
416 stomach (internal) inú *ɪ-nʊ̃́
417 stone òkúta *ɔ̀-kʊ́ta
418 storage barn abà ibi ìpamọ́ *á-ká
419 storage barn abà ibi ìpamọ́ *a-bà
421 stretch, extend *nã̀
422 string (beads, cowries etc.) okùn *sé
424 sun òrù *o-rũ̀
425 swallow *m'ĩ̀
426 sweep gbá *gbá
427 swell *ɓú
428 swing *Cì
430 tail (of animal) ìrù *ù-rũ̀
431 take (one thing), catch, seize, hold *mṹ
432 take (part of) *bù
433 take portion out (with a ladle, shovel etc.) *kɔ
434 take off (clothes) bọ́ *bʊɔ́
435 taste tọ́ *tɔ́-
436 taste, test, tempt dánwò *dã́(ɣò)
438 tear ya *ya
439 tears omijé *a-kʊ̃ã́
442 ten ẹ́ẹ̀wá *ɛ̀-gwá
446 they, them àwọn *à-ɓã
447 thief olè *o-lè
448 thigh itan *ʊ-tɪ̃ã (ɪ-)
449 think ronú *rò
450 thirty ọgbọ̀n *ɔ-gbã̀
451 thorn, prickle ẹ́gún *à-gṹ
452 three ẹ̀ta *à-ta
453 throat ọ́fun *à-ta
454 throw sọ *sɔ
455 throw *jù
456 tie (rope, animal etc.) so *so
458 timber, trunk (of a tree) gẹdú *ì-tì
460 tongue ahọ́n *ʊ-ɓã́
461 tooth eyín *e-ɲĩ́
462 tortoise ìjàpà *a-ŋʊ̃
463 touch, make contact with fọwọ́kàn *bà
464 touch, make contact with fọwọ́kàn *tɔ́
465 tree, firewood igi *e-gĩ (i-)
468 turn, roll *yí
469 twenty ogún *o-gṹ
470 twist (rope, material) lọ́ *lɔ́
471 twist (limb) lílọ́ ọwọ́ *rɔ́
472 two éjì *è-jì
473 umbilical cord ibi ọmọ *ʊ̀-ɣɔ́
475 untie *tú
476 urinate tọ̀ *tɔ̀
477 urine ìtọ̀ *ɪ̀-tɔ̀
478 vagina òbò *ò-bò
479 voice ohùn *o-ɓũ̀
480 vomit èébì *bì
481 vomit, precipitate *sɛ̃̀
483 walk v. rìn *rɪ̃̀
484 walk n. ìrìn *ʊ̀-rɪ̃̀
485 wall ògiri *ɔ̀-ɗɔ̀
486 wall ògiri *ò-giri
487 want (desire), like fẹ́ *fɛ́
488 war ogun *o-gũ
489 wash (clothes, plates, etc.) fọ̀ *fɔ̀
490 wash (body), bathe wẹ̀ *gwɛ̀
491 water omi *o-mĩ
492 wear, put on (clothes) wọ̀ *wɔ̀
493 wear, put on (clothes) wọ̀ *nĩ́
494 weave *ŋʊ̃
496 we àwa *à-ɓa
498 weep, cry sun ẹkún *sʊ̃
499 wet, be, be cold tutù *-tũ̀
500 white, be funfun *-fũ
501 wind afẹ́fẹ́ *V̀-fù
502 wine, beer (general word) ọtí *ɔ-tɪ̃́
503 wither (of leaves, flowers, plants etc.) gbẹ *rɔ
504 woman, female obìnrin *ɔ-bɪ̃̀rɪ̃
505 word, matter ọ̀rọ̀ *ɔ̀-rɔ̀
506 word, matter, trouble ọ̀rọ̀ *ɔ̀-rã̀
507 work n. iṣẹ́ *ʊ-cɛ́
508 wrap *ɓé
509 wring (clothes), squeeze rún *fʊ̃́
510 wring, squeeze, press (for demand) fún pọ́ *Cí
511 yam iṣu *u-cũ (i-)
512 yawn yán *ɲã́
513 year ọdún *ɔ-dʊ̃́
514 you sg. ìwọ *ʊ̀-ɓV
515 you pl. ẹ̀yin *ɛ̀-ɓɪ̃

Ìtọ́kasí[àtúnṣe | àtúnṣe àmìọ̀rọ̀]

  1. Akinkugbe, Olufẹmi Odutayo. 1978. A comparative phonology of Yoruba dialects, Iṣẹkiri and Igala. Doctoral dissertation, University of Ibadan. 916pp.

Àdàkọ:Yoruba topics